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1.  Rheumatic Diseases and Obesity: Adipocytokines as Potential Comorbidity Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Diseases 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:808125.
Inflammation has been recognized as a common trait in the pathogenesis of multifactorial diseases including obesity, where a low-grade inflammation has been established and may be responsible for the cardiovascular risk related to the disease. Obesity has also been associated with the increased incidence and a worse outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). RA is characterized by systemic inflammation, which is thought to play a key role in accelerated atherosclerosis and in the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, an important comorbidity in patients with RA. The inflammatory process underlying the cardiovascular risk both in obesity and RA may be mediated by adipocytokines, a heterogeneous group of soluble proteins mainly secreted by the adipocytes. Many adipocytokines are mainly produced by white adipose tissue. Adipocytokines may also be involved in the pathogenesis of OA since a positive association with obesity has been found for weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing joints, suggesting that, in addition to local overload, systemic factors may contribute to joint damage. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on experimental models and clinical studies in which adipocytokines were examined in obesity, RA, and OA and discuss the potential of adipocytokines as comorbidity biomarkers for cardiovascular risk.
doi:10.1155/2013/808125
PMCID: PMC3860141  PMID: 24376307
2.  Synovial fibroblasts spread rheumatoid arthritis to unaffected joints 
Nature medicine  2009;15(12):1414-1420.
Active rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by originating from few but affecting subsequently the majority of joints. Thus far, the pathways of the progression of the disease are largely unknown. As rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) are key players in joint destruction and migrate in vitro, the current study evaluated the potential of RASFs to spread the disease in vivo. To simulate the primary joint of origin, healthy human cartilage was co-implanted subcutaneously into SCID mice together with RASFs. At the contralateral flank, healthy cartilage was implanted without cells. RASFs showed an active movement to the naïve cartilage via the vasculature independent of the site of application of RASFs into the SCID mouse, leading to a strong destruction of the target cartilage. These findings support the hypothesis that the characteristic clinical phenomenon of destructive arthritis spreading between joints is mediated, at least in part, by the transmigration of activated RASFs.
doi:10.1038/nm.2050
PMCID: PMC3678354  PMID: 19898488
3.  Low-field magnetic resonance imaging study on carpal arthritis in systemic sclerosis - low-grade erosive arthritis of carpal bones is an unexpected and frequent disease manifestation 
Introduction
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of subclinical arthritis of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).
Methods
Low-field (0.2 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in consecutive patients with SSc attending our center between January 2010 and March 2011. Results were assessed in a standardized manner using the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) and standardized assessments of all hand joints. Patients with arthritis due to overlap syndromes were excluded.
Results
Of 38 inpatients and eight outpatients who were screened for inclusion, 30 patients participated in the study and 26 patients could be evaluated. Erosions, bone marrow edema, synovitis, and joint effusions were found in 87%, 37%, 68%, and 58%, respectively, and 24% of patients had additional tenovaginitis. Arthritis affected only a low number of joints per analyzed hand. All bones and joints could be affected, but synovitis and bone marrow edema occurred predominantly in the proximal row of carpal bones, most frequently affecting the lunate bone. The extent of inflammatory changes measured with the RAMRIS correlated significantly with the functional status assessed with the validated German functional score questionnaire Funktionsfragebogen Hannover.
Conclusion
Low-grade arthritic changes on low-field MRI are frequent in patients with pure SSc. The features of arthritis in SSc differ from rheumatoid arthritis. The distribution, the MRI pattern and the predilection for the lunate bone raise the hypothesis that arthritis in SSc may be caused not only by immunological inflammation but also by ischemic mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/ar4128
PMCID: PMC3672762  PMID: 23289906
4.  Capillaroscopic pattern in inflammatory arthritis 
Microvascular Research  2012;83(3):318-322.
Background
There are limited data about the role of nailfold capillaroscopy in inflammatory arthritis.
Objectives
To study the role of capillaroscopy in inflammatory arthritis — rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and early arthritis.
Methods
Patients from the following groups were included in the study: 62 patients with RA; 34 patients with PsA with involvement of the joints of the hands; 9 women with early arthritis. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed with videocapillaroscope.
Results
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was found in 30.6% (19/62) of RA patients, in 32.4% (11/34) of PsA patients and 44.4%, (4/9) of cases with early arthritis. The most frequent found capillaroscopic changes in RA patients were presence of elongated capillaries in 58% of cases (36/62) and prominent subpapillary plexus in 69% (43/62). Dilated capillaries were found in 78.9% (15/19) of patients with secondary RP and in 62.8% (27/43) of those without RP. “Scleroderma-like” capillaroscopic pattern was observed with low frequency in RA patients (14.5%/9/62). “Scleroderma-like” capillaroscopic pattern was also found in 11.1% (1/9) in the group of patients with early arthritis. The low frequency of the last type of capillaroscopic pattern in RA requires patients with such changes to be observed during regular follow-up for the development of systemic rheumatic disease different from inflammatory arthritis. In patients with PsA capillaries with specific morphology (tight terminal convolutions) were found in 58.8% (20/34) of cases.
Conclusions
Results from the present study confirm the necessity for inclusion of the nailfold capillaroscopy in the diagnostic algorithm in patients with inflammatory arthritis.
Highlights
► Until now, nailfold capillaroscopy is still insufficiently applied in inflammatory arthritis. ► Interestingly, capillaroscopic examination reveals characteristic changes in patients with RA both with and without RP. ► Nailfold capillaroscopy revealed also characteristic changes in PsA patients with involvement of hand joints. ► In patients with early arthritis, the capillaroscopic examination may facilitate differential diagnosis. ► Results from the study confirm the potential of nailfold capillaroscopy in the diagnostic algorithm of inflammatory arthritis.
doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2012.03.002
PMCID: PMC3332153  PMID: 22426123
5.  Frequency of disease-associated and other nuclear autoantibodies in patients of the German network for systemic scleroderma: correlation with characteristic clinical features 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(5):R172.
Introduction
In the present study, we analysed in detail nuclear autoantibodies and their associations in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients included in the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma Registry.
Methods
Sera of 863 patients were analysed according to a standardised protocol including immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, line immunoassay and immunodiffusion.
Results
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were detected in 94.2% of patients. In 81.6%, at least one of the autoantibodies highly associated with SSc or with overlap syndromes with scleroderma features was detected, that is, anti-centromere (35.9%) or anti-topoisomerase I (30.1%), followed in markedly lower frequency by antibodies to PM-Scl (4.9%), U1-ribonucleoprotein (U1-RNP) (4.8%), RNA polymerases (RNAPs) (3.8%), fibrillarin (1.4%), Ku (1.2%), aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases (0.5%), To (0.2%) and U11-RNP (0.1%). We found that the simultaneous presence of SSc-associated autoantibodies was rare (1.6%). Furthermore, additional autoantibodies were detected in 55.4% of the patients with SSc, of which anti-Ro/anti-La, anti-mitochondrial and anti-p25/p23 antibodies were most frequent. The coexistence of SSc-associated and other autoantibodies was common (43% of patients). SSc-associated autoantibodies disclosed characteristic associations with clinical features of patients, some of which were previously not acknowledged.
Conclusions
This study shows that five autoantigens (that is, centromere, topoisomerase I, PM-Scl, U1-RNP and RNAP) detected more than 95% of the known SSc-associated antibody responses in ANA-positive SSc patients and characterise around 79% of all SSc patients in a central European cohort. These data confirm and extend previous data underlining the central role of the determination of ANAs in defining the diagnosis, subset allocation and prognosis of SSc patients.
doi:10.1186/ar3495
PMCID: PMC3308107  PMID: 22018289
systemic sclerosis; scleroderma; autoantibodies; antinuclear antibodies
6.  Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e Initiative 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2012;51(8):1416-1425.
Objective. To develop evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA).
Methods. A total of 453 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 2010 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative. Using a formal voting process, 89 rheumatologists representing all 17 countries selected 10 clinical questions regarding the use of pain medications in IA. Bibliographic fellows undertook a systematic literature review for each question, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and 2008–09 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR abstracts. Relevant studies were retrieved for data extraction and quality assessment. Rheumatologists from each country used this evidence to develop a set of national recommendations. Multinational recommendations were then formulated and assessed for agreement and the potential impact on clinical practice.
Results. A total of 49 242 references were identified, from which 167 studies were included in the systematic reviews. One clinical question regarding different comorbidities was divided into two separate reviews, resulting in 11 recommendations in total. Oxford levels of evidence were applied to each recommendation. The recommendations related to the efficacy and safety of various analgesic medications, pain measurement scales and pain management in the pre-conception period, pregnancy and lactation. Finally, an algorithm for the pharmacological management of pain in IA was developed. Twenty per cent of rheumatologists reported that the algorithm would change their practice, and 75% felt the algorithm was in accordance with their current practice.
Conclusions. Eleven evidence-based recommendations on the management of pain by pharmacotherapy in IA were developed. They are supported by a large panel of rheumatologists from 17 countries, thus enhancing their utility in clinical practice.
doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kes032
PMCID: PMC3397467  PMID: 22447886
arthritis; evidence-based medicine; analgesics
8.  Retreatment with rituximab based on a treatment-to-target approach provides better disease control than treatment as needed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective pooled analysis 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2011;50(12):2223-2232.
Objective. To assess the efficacy and safety profiles of two different rituximab retreatment regimens in patients with RA.
Methods. Four hundred and ninety-three RA patients with an inadequate response to MTX recruited into rituximab Phase II/III studies received further courses of open-label rituximab based on two approaches: (i) treatment to target (TT): patients assessed 24 weeks after each course and retreated if not in remission [DAS in 28 joints based on ESR (DAS-28-ESR) ≥ 2.6]; (ii) treatment as needed (PRN): patients retreated at the physician’s discretion ≥24 weeks following the first course and ≥16 weeks following further courses, if both swollen and tender joint counts were ≥8. All courses consisted of i.v. rituximab 2 × 1000 mg 2 weeks apart plus MTX. Observed data were analysed according to treatment strategy.
Results. Multiple courses of rituximab maintained or improved responses irrespective of regimen. TT provided tighter control of disease activity with significantly greater improvements in DAS-28-ESR and lower HAQ-disability index scores vs PRN. TT resulted in significantly more patients achieving major clinical response. PRN resulted in recurrence of disease symptoms between courses, with TT significantly reducing the incidence of RA flares. Despite more frequent retreatment with TT compared with PRN, the rates of serious adverse events and serious infections were comparable between regimens.
Conclusions. Retreatment with rituximab based on 24-week evaluations and to a target of DAS-28-ESR remission leads to improved efficacy and tighter control of disease activity compared with PRN without a compromised safety profile. TT may be the preferable rituximab treatment regimen for patients with RA.
doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker253
PMCID: PMC3222846  PMID: 21926153
Methotrexate-inadequate responder; Treatment to target; Treatment as needed; Retreatment; Rituximab; Treatment strategy
10.  Genome-Wide Scan Identifies TNIP1, PSORS1C1, and RHOB as Novel Risk Loci for Systemic Sclerosis 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(7):e1002091.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan, complex, inflammatory disease affecting the immune system and connective tissue. SSc stands out as a severely incapacitating and life-threatening inflammatory rheumatic disease, with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We have designed a two-stage genome-wide association study of SSc using case-control samples from France, Italy, Germany, and Northern Europe. The initial genome-wide scan was conducted in a French post quality-control sample of 564 cases and 1,776 controls, using almost 500 K SNPs. Two SNPs from the MHC region, together with the 6 loci outside MHC having at least one SNP with a P<10−5 were selected for follow-up analysis. These markers were genotyped in a post-QC replication sample of 1,682 SSc cases and 3,926 controls. The three top SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium and located on 6p21, in the HLA-DQB1 gene: rs9275224, P = 9.18×10−8, OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.60–0.79]; rs6457617, P = 1.14×10−7 and rs9275245, P = 1.39×10−7. Within the MHC region, the next most associated SNP (rs3130573, P = 1.86×10−5, OR = 1.36 [1.18–1.56]) is located in the PSORS1C1 gene. Outside the MHC region, our GWAS analysis revealed 7 top SNPs (P<10−5) that spanned 6 independent genomic regions. Follow-up of the 17 top SNPs in an independent sample of 1,682 SSc and 3,926 controls showed associations at PSORS1C1 (overall P = 5.70×10−10, OR:1.25), TNIP1 (P = 4.68×10−9, OR:1.31), and RHOB loci (P = 3.17×10−6, OR:1.21). Because of its biological relevance, and previous reports of genetic association at this locus with connective tissue disorders, we investigated TNIP1 expression. A markedly reduced expression of the TNIP1 gene and also its protein product were observed both in lesional skin tissue and in cultured dermal fibroblasts from SSc patients. Furthermore, TNIP1 showed in vitro inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokine-induced collagen production. The genetic signal of association with TNIP1 variants, together with tissular and cellular investigations, suggests that this pathway has a critical role in regulating autoimmunity and SSc pathogenesis.
Author Summary
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by generalized microangiopathy, severe immunologic alterations, and massive deposits of matrix components in the connective tissue. Epidemiological investigations indicate that SSc follows a pattern of multifactorial inheritance; however, only a few loci have been replicated in multiple studies. We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of SSc involving over 8,800 individuals of European ancestry. Combined analyses showed independent association at the known HLA-DQB1 region and revealed associations at PSORS1C1, TNIP1, and RHOB loci, in agreement with a strong immune genetic component. Because of its biological relevance, and previous reports of genetic association at this locus with other connective tissue disorders, we investigated TNIP1 expression. We observed a markedly reduced expression of the gene and its protein product in SSc, as well as its potential implication in control of extra-cellular matrix synthesis, providing a new clue for a link between inflammation/immunity and fibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002091
PMCID: PMC3131285  PMID: 21750679
11.  Safety and clinical outcomes of rituximab therapy in patients with different autoimmune diseases: experience from a national registry (GRAID) 
Introduction
Evidence from a number of open-label, uncontrolled studies has suggested that rituximab may benefit patients with autoimmune diseases who are refractory to standard-of-care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of rituximab in several standard-of-care-refractory autoimmune diseases (within rheumatology, nephrology, dermatology and neurology) other than rheumatoid arthritis or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a real-life clinical setting.
Methods
Patients who received rituximab having shown an inadequate response to standard-of-care had their safety and clinical outcomes data retrospectively analysed as part of the German Registry of Autoimmune Diseases. The main outcome measures were safety and clinical response, as judged at the discretion of the investigators.
Results
A total of 370 patients (299 patient-years) with various autoimmune diseases (23.0% with systemic lupus erythematosus, 15.7% antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated granulomatous vasculitides, 15.1% multiple sclerosis and 10.0% pemphigus) from 42 centres received a mean dose of 2,440 mg of rituximab over a median (range) of 194 (180 to 1,407) days. The overall rate of serious infections was 5.3 per 100 patient-years during rituximab therapy. Opportunistic infections were infrequent across the whole study population, and mostly occurred in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. There were 11 deaths (3.0% of patients) after rituximab treatment (mean 11.6 months after first infusion, range 0.8 to 31.3 months), with most of the deaths caused by infections. Overall (n = 293), 13.3% of patients showed no response, 45.1% showed a partial response and 41.6% showed a complete response. Responses were also reflected by reduced use of glucocorticoids and various immunosuppressives during rituximab therapy and follow-up compared with before rituximab. Rituximab generally had a positive effect on patient well-being (physician's visual analogue scale; mean improvement from baseline of 12.1 mm).
Conclusions
Data from this registry indicate that rituximab is a commonly employed, well-tolerated therapy with potential beneficial effects in standard of care-refractory autoimmune diseases, and support the results from other open-label, uncontrolled studies.
doi:10.1186/ar3337
PMCID: PMC3218885  PMID: 21569519
12.  Treatment of active lupus nephritis with the novel immunosuppressant 15-deoxyspergualin: an open-label dose escalation study 
Introduction
As the immunosuppressive potency of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) has been shown in the therapy of renal transplant rejection and Wegener's granulomatosis, the intention of this study was to evaluate the safety of DSG in the therapy of lupus nephritis (LN).
Methods
Patients with histologically proven active LN after prior treatment with at least one immunosuppressant were treated with 0.5 mg/kg normal body weight/day DSG, injected subcutaneously for 14 days, followed by a break of one week. These cycles were repeated to a maximum of nine times. Doses of oral corticosteroids were gradually reduced to 7.5 mg/day or lower by cycle 4. Response was measured according to a predefined decision pattern. The dose of DSG was adjusted depending on the efficacy and side effects.
Results
A total of 21 patients were included in this phase-I/II study. After the first DSG injection, one patient was excluded from the study due to renal failure. Five patients dropped out due to adverse events or serious adverse events including fever, leukopenia, oral candidiasis, herpes zoster or pneumonia. Eleven out of 20 patients achieved partial (4) or complete responses (7), 8 were judged as treatment failures and 1 patient was not assessable. Twelve patients completed all nine cycles; in those patients, proteinuria decreased from 5.88 g/day to 3.37 g/day (P = 0.028), Selena-SLEDAI (Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus - National Assessment - systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index) decreased from 17.6 to 11.7. In 13 out of 20 patients, proteinuria decreased by at least 50%; in 7 patients to less than 1 g/day.
Conclusions
Although the number of patients was small, we could demonstrate that DSG provides a tolerably safe treatment for LN. The improvement in proteinuria encourages larger controlled trials.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00709722
doi:10.1186/ar3268
PMCID: PMC3132014  PMID: 21356124
13.  Rationale of using different biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis 
Due to ongoing developments of novel agents in the field of biological pharmacotherapy, there are now more arrows available in clinicians' quivers for the treatment of rheumatic conditions. As a consequence, however, clear treatment strategies have to be defined in order to guarantee a qualitatively high and individually stage-adapted, state-of-the-art regimen for affected patients. This review summarizes recent evidence regarding the rationale of using different biological therapies to treat rheumatoid arthritis, the most common inflammatory joint disorder after activated osteoarthritis, and draws an actual picture of a possible standardized therapeutic algorithm without claiming exclusive appropriateness.
doi:10.1186/ar3102
PMCID: PMC2945050  PMID: 20735862
14.  Cell culture and passaging alters gene expression pattern and proliferation rate in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts 
Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) are key players in synovial pathophysiology and are therefore examined extensively in various experimental approaches. We evaluated, whether passaging during culture and freezing has effects on gene expression and cell proliferation.
Methods
RASF were passaged for up to 8 passages. RNA was isolated after each passage and cDNA arrays were performed to evaluate the RNA expression pattern during passaging. In addition, doubling time of the cells was also measured.
Results
From passages 2-4, mRNA expression did not change significantly. Gene expression in RASF started to change in passages 5-6 with 7-10% differentially expressed genes. After passages 7-8, more than 10% of the genes were differentially expressed. The doubling rate was constant for up to 5 passages and decreased after passages 6-8. After freezing, gene expression of the second passage is comparable to gene expression prior to freezing.
Conclusions
The results of this study show, that experiments, which examine gene expression of RASF and shall reflect or imitate an in vivo situation, should be limited to early culture passages to avoid cell culture effects. It is not necessary to stop culturing SF after a few passages, but to keep the problems of cell culture in mind to avoid false positive results. Especially, when large-scale screening methods on mRNA level are used. Of note, freezing does not affect gene expression substantially.
doi:10.1186/ar3010
PMCID: PMC2911867  PMID: 20462438
15.  Cardiovascular risk management in patients with inflammatory arthritis: what is good for the joint is good for the heart and vice versa! 
Owing to the prominent long-term systemic inflammatory reaction in patients with arthritides and a growing body of data illustrating that this inflammatory reaction imposes a considerable risk for the development or aggravation of cardiovascular (CV) disease or overall CV risk, numerous researchers and clinicians have put enormous effort into the analysis of the effects of risk factors on the course of CV disease in these patients and the therapeutic options to antagonize progressive atherosclerosis. To achieve this challenging goal, investigators have shown that all treatment strategies must include the ‘non-rheumatic’ approaches, such as lowering blood pressure, stopping smoking, and improving metabolic status, in tight association with lowering the overall disease activity of the underlying rheumatic entity using antiphlogistic drugs and conventional as well as biologic disease-modifying drugs.
doi:10.3410/M2-27
PMCID: PMC2948399  PMID: 20948858
16.  Tolerability and Patient/Physician Satisfaction with Subcutaneously Administered Methotrexate Provided in Two Formulations of Different Drug Concentrations in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Objectives:
To determine preference, satisfaction, usability and local tolerability by patients, physicians and study nurses of two subcutaneously administered methotrexate (MTX) formulations of different concentrations.
Methods:
This was an open-label, comparative, within-patient controlled, multicentre study of 132 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTX treatment consisted of 20 mg/week administered as a medium-concentration formulation (MC) (2.0 ml of 10 mg/ml solution in prefilled syringe; separate needle) compared to a novel high-concentration formulation (HC) (0.4 ml of 50 mg/ml in prefilled syringe; pre-attached needle). Each treatment was given for three weeks. Questionnaires and visual analogue scales were used to measure outcomes.
Results:
At the end of the study, 93% of the patients preferred HC over MC as further treatment. Overall assessment of HC was “good” or “very good” in 90.6% vs 34.4% in MC-treated patients. Physician’s and patients global assessment of syringe usability showed highly statistically significant differences (P < 0.0001) in favour of HC. Overall assessment by study nurses’ and investigators’ was “good” (18.8%) or “very good” (81.2%) for HC and “good” in 31.3% or “very good” in 12.5% for MC, and no preference in 50%. Local tolerability improved slightly also with HC.
Conclusions:
The total smaller volume of administered drug and the improved usability of a pre-attached needle in combination with a smaller prefilled syringe resulted in preference of the patients of HC over MC. The slightly improved local tolerability may also have added to this preference. This assessment was confirmed by similar assessments made by healthcare professionals.
Eudra-CT number: 2007-003591-19.
doi:10.2174/1874312901004010015
PMCID: PMC2866241  PMID: 20461222
Methotrexate; subcutaneous injection; prefilled syringe; rheumatoid arthritis.
17.  Clinically relevant advances in rheumatoid arthritis therapy 
Owing to the success of biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several novel drugs have been introduced in the therapeutic armamentarium, although not all of them have been approved in all countries worldwide. Among the drugs are tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors such as certolizumab pegol and golimumab (the latter of which was the first TNF blocker shown to be effective in patients who had been unsuccessfully treated with other TNF blockers and which can be applied only once a month), and the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, which not only opens up a completely new field of anti-inflammatory modulation of RA pathophysiology, but also highlights the challenge of novel potential side effects. Moreover, aside from clinical studies showing efficacy in the inhibition of osteoclast activation by the anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) antibody denosumab, an improved form of steroid application known as slow-release ‘tempus tablet’ for treatment of RA and several developments in the small-molecule area have been addressed by clinical trials.
doi:10.3410/M1-68
PMCID: PMC2948302  PMID: 20948712
18.  High frequency of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy in patients with systemic sclerosis despite limited evidence for efficacy 
Introduction
In systemic sclerosis (SSc) little evidence for the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy exists. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which SSc patients are treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents.
Methods
Data on duration and dosage of corticosteroids and on the type of immunosuppressive agent were analyzed from 1,729 patients who were registered in the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma (DNSS).
Results
A total 41.3% of all registered SSc patients was treated with corticosteroids. Corticosteroid use was reported in 49.1% of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and 31.3% of patients with limited cutaneous SSc (P < 0.0001). Among patients with overlap disease characteristics, 63.5% received corticosteroids (P < 0.0001 vs. limited cutaneous SSc). A total 16.1% of the patients received corticosteroids with a daily dose ≥ 15 mg prednisone equivalent. Immunosuppressive therapy was prescribed in 35.8% of patients. Again, among those patients with overlap symptoms, a much higher proportion (64.1%) was treated with immunosuppressive agents, compared with 46.4% of those with diffuse cutaneous SSc sclerosis and 22.2% of those with limited cutaneous SSc (P < 0.0001). The most commonly prescribed drugs were methotrexate (30.5%), cyclophosphamide (22.2%), azathioprine (21.8%) and (hydroxy)chloroquine (7.2%). The use of these compounds varied significantly between medical subspecialties.
Conclusions
Despite limited evidence for the effectiveness of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents in SSc, these potentially harmful drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with all forms of SSc. Therefore, this study indicates the need to develop and communicate adequate treatment recommendations.
doi:10.1186/ar2634
PMCID: PMC2688174  PMID: 19261182
19.  Identification of differentially expressed genes in ileal Peyer's Patch of scrapie-infected sheep using RNA arbitrarily primed PCR 
Backgound
In scrapie and prion diseases, the knowledge concerning genes involved in host response during the early infection period in the lymphoid tissues, still remains limited. In the present study, we have examined differential gene expression in ileal Peyer's patches and in laser microdissected follicles of sheep infected with scrapie.
Methods
Ileal Peyer's patches and laser microdissected follicles were of scrapie and control lambs with susceptible genotypes for classical scrapie. Potential regulated genes were found using RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and fingerprinting. The differentially expressed genes were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR.
Results
The expression of three genes (MAPRE3, LOC729073 and DNAJC3), were found to be significantly altered in scrapie infected lambs (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
The three genes have not previously been associated with prion diseases and are interesting as they may reflect biological processes involved in the molecular pathogenesis of prion diseases.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-4-12
PMCID: PMC2322967  PMID: 18373840
20.  Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblasts 
For some time synovial fibroblasts have been regarded simply as innocent synovial cells, mainly responsible for synovial homeostasis. During the past decade, however, a body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) are active drivers of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Details regarding the intracellular signalling cascades that result in long-term activation and synthesis of proinflammatory molecules and matrix-degrading enzymes by RASFs have been analyzed. Molecular, cellular and animal studies have identified various interactions with other synovial and inflammatory cells. This expanded knowledge of the distinct role played by RASFs in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis has moved these fascinating cells to the fore, and work to identify targeted therapies to inhibit their joint destructive potential is underway.
doi:10.1186/ar2337
PMCID: PMC2246247  PMID: 18177509
21.  Developments in the synovial biology field 2006 
Synovial pathophysiology is a complex and synergistic interplay of different cell populations with tissue components, mediated by a variety of signaling mechanisms. All of these mechanisms drive the affected joint into inflammation and drive the subsequent destruction of cartilage and bone. Each cell type contributes significantly to the initiation and perpetuation of this deleterious concert, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and macrophages, both cell types with pivotal roles in inflammation and destruction, but also T cells and B cells are crucial for complex network in the inflamed synovium. An even more complex cellular crosstalk between these key players maintains a process of chronic inflammation. As outlined in the present review, in the past year substantial progress has been made to elucidate further details of the rich pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, which may also facilitate the identification of novel targets for future therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1186/ar2140
PMCID: PMC1906804  PMID: 17442097
22.  Fibroblast activation protein is expressed by rheumatoid myofibroblast-like synoviocytes 
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), as described so far, is a type II cell surface serine protease expressed by fibroblastic cells in areas of active tissue remodelling such as tumour stroma or healing wounds. We investigated the expression of FAP by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and compared the synovial expression pattern in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Synovial tissue from diseased joints of 20 patients, 10 patients with refractory RA and 10 patients with end-stage OA, was collected during routine surgery. As a result, FLSs from intensively inflamed synovial tissues of refractory RA expressed FAP at high density. Moreover, FAP expression was co-localised with matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-13) and CD44 splice variants v3 and v7/8 known to play a major role in the concert of extracellular matrix degradation. The pattern of signals appeared to constitute a characteristic feature of FLSs involved in rheumatoid arthritic joint-destructive processes. These FAP-expressing FLSs with a phenotype of smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts were located in the lining layer of the synovium and differ distinctly from Thy-1-expressing and non-proliferating fibroblasts of the articular matrix. The intensity of FAP-specific staining in synovial tissue from patients with RA was found to be different when compared with end-stage OA. Because expression of FAP by RA FLSs has not been described before, the findings of this study highlight a novel element in cartilage and bone destruction of arthritic joints. Moreover, the specific expression pattern qualifies FAP as a therapeutic target for inhibiting the destructive potential of fibroblast-like synovial cells.
doi:10.1186/ar2080
PMCID: PMC1794515  PMID: 17105646
23.  Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in systemic sclerosis: increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are a feature of the earliest disease stages and are associated with the absence of fingertip ulcers 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(6):R11.
To examine whether the lack of sufficient neoangiogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is caused by a decrease in angiogenic factors and/or an increase in angiostatic factors, the potent proangiogenic molecules vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor, and the angiostatic factor endostatin were determined in patients with SSc and in healthy controls. Forty-three patients with established SSc and nine patients with pre-SSc were included in the study. Serum levels of VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor and endostatin were measured by ELISA. Age-matched and sex-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. Highly significant differences were found in serum levels of VEGF between SSc patients and healthy controls, whereas no differences could be detected for endostatin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Significantly higher levels of VEGF were detected in patients with Scl-70 autoantibodies and in patients with diffuse SSc. Patients with pre-SSc and short disease duration showed significant higher levels of VEGF than healthy controls, indicating that elevated serum levels of VEGF are a feature of the earliest disease stages. Patients without fingertip ulcers were found to have higher levels of VEGF than patients with fingertip ulcers. Levels of endostatin were associated with the presence of giant capillaries in nailfold capillaroscopy, but not with any other clinical parameter. The results show that the concentration of VEGF is already increased in the serum of SSc patients at the earliest stages of the disease. VEGF appears to be protective against ischemic manifestations when concentrations of VEGF exceed a certain threshold level.
PMCID: PMC153841  PMID: 12453314
basic fibroblast growth factor; endostatin; fingertip ulcers; systemic sclerosis; vascular endothelial growth factor
24.  Molecular profile of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis depends on the stage of proliferation 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(5):R8.
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular profile of proliferating rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RA-SF). Total RNA was extracted from two cultures of RA-SF (low-density [LD] proliferating cells and high-density [HD] nonproliferating cells) and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to compare differential gene expression of these two cultures. Subtracted cDNA was subcloned, and nucleotide sequences were analyzed to identify each clone. Differential expression of distinct clones was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The expression of certain genes in synovial tissues was examined by in situ hybridization. In both LD and HD cells, 44 clones were upregulated. Of the 88 total clones, 46 were identical to sequences that have previously been characterized. Twenty-nine clones were identical to cDNAs that have been identified, but with unknown functions so far, and 13 clones did not show any significant homology to sequences in GenBank (NCBI). Differential expression of distinct clones was confirmed by RT-PCR. In situ hybridization showed that certain genes, such as S100A4, NFAT5, unr and Fbx3, were also expressed predominantly in synovial tissues from patients with RA but not from normal individuals. The expression of distinct genes in proliferating RA-SF could also be found in RA synovium, suggesting that these molecules are involved in synovial activation in RA. Most importantly, the data indicate that the expression of certain genes in RA-SF depends on the stage of proliferation; therefore, the stage needs to be considered in any analysis of differential gene expression in SF.
doi:10.1186/ar427
PMCID: PMC125298  PMID: 12223111
differential gene expression; molecular profile; proliferation; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial fibroblasts
25.  Ex vivo gene transfer in the years to come 
Arthritis Research  2001;4(1):10-12.
Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) have become a major target for ex vivo gene transfer in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but efficient transduction of RA-SFs still is a major problem. The low proliferation rate and heterogeneity of RA-SFs, together with their lack of highly specific surface receptors, have hampered a more extensive application of this technique. Improving transduction protocols with conventional viral vectors, therefore, as well as developing novel strategies, such as alternative target cells, and novel delivery systems constitute a major challenge. Recent progress in this field will lead to the achievement of high transgene expression, and will facilitate the use of gene transfer in human trials.
doi:10.1186/ar377
PMCID: PMC128912  PMID: 11879532
ex vivo approach; gene therapy; rheumatoid arthritis; viral vector

Results 1-25 (32)