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2.  Pegloticase immunogenicity: the relationship between efficacy and antibody development in patients treated for refractory chronic gout 
Introduction
The efficacy of pegloticase, a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated mammalian recombinant uricase, approved for chronic refractory gout, can be limited by the development of antibodies (Ab). Analyses from 2 replicate, 6-month, randomized controlled trials were performed to characterize Ab responses to pegloticase.
Methods
Anti-pegloticase, anti-PEG, and anti-uricase Ab were determined by validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ab titers were analyzed for possible relationships with serum pegloticase concentrations, serum uric acid (sUA) lowering, and risk of infusion reactions (IRs).
Results
Sixty-nine (41%) of 169 patients receiving pegloticase developed high titer anti-pegloticase Ab (> 1:2430) and 40% (67/169) developed anti-PEG Ab; 1 patient receiving placebo developed high titer anti-pegloticase Ab. Only 14% (24/169) of patients developed anti-uricase Ab, usually at low titer. In responders, patients showing sustained UA lowering, mean anti-pegloticase titers at week 25 (1:837 ± 1687 with biweekly and 1:2025 ± 4506 with monthly dosing) were markedly lower than in nonresponders (1:34,528 ± 42,228 and 1:89,658 ± 297,797, respectively). Nonresponder status was associated with reduced serum pegloticase concentrations. Baseline anti-pegloticase Ab, evident in 15% (31/212) of patients, did not predict subsequent loss of urate-lowering response. Loss of sUA response preceded IRs in 44 of 56 (79%) pegloticase-treated patients.
Conclusions
Loss of responsiveness to pegloticase is associated with the development of high titer anti-pegloticase Ab that increase clearance of pegloticase and are associated with a loss of the sUA lowering effect and increased IR risk. Pre-infusion sUA can be used as a surrogate for the presence of deleterious anti-pegloticase Ab.
Trial registration
NCT00325195. Registered 10 May 2006, NCT01356498. Registered 27 October 2008.
doi:10.1186/ar4497
PMCID: PMC4060440  PMID: 24588936
3.  Effective Therapy for Nephritis in (NZB X NZW)F1 Mice With Triptolide and Tripdiolide, the Principal Active Components of the Chinese Herbal Remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(6):1774-1783.
Objective
Triptolide and tripdiolide are thought to be active components of the Chinese antirheumatic herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which has been shown to be effective in treating murine lupus nephritis. This study was undertaken to examine the therapeutic effect of triptolide and tripdiolide on established lupus nephritis in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice.
Methods
(NZB X NZW)F1 mice were treated with vehicle, triptolide, or tripdiolide for 15 weeks beginning at the age of 29 weeks (after the development of lupus nephritis). Body weight, proteinuria, and anti-doublestranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were monitored, and the kidney and spleen were assessed histologically. Culture supernatants of spleen mononuclear cells were assayed for cytokines.
Results
By 28 weeks, most (NZB X NZW)F1 mice had developed lupus nephritis. Vehicle-treated mice exhibited progressive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and evidence of severe nephritis. In contrast, proteinuria and BUN levels were significantly reduced in mice treated with either triptolide or tripdiolide as compared with those treated with vehicle. There was no hypoalbuminemia or apparent evidence of lupus nephritis in mice treated with either of the 2 diterpenoids. At 44 weeks of age, the survival rate in mice treated with vehicle (35.7%) was markedly lower than that in mice treated with either triptolide (87.5%) or tripdiolide (88.2%). The mean level of anti-dsDNA antibody in mice treated with tripdiolide was lower than that in the vehicle-treated mice upon completion of the treatment course. Production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by spleen cells was also decreased after diterpenoid therapy.
Conclusion
Therapy with triptolide or tripdiolide significantly ameliorated lupus nephritis in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice, reduced cytokine and chemokine production, and prolonged survival.
doi:10.1002/art.23513
PMCID: PMC3560846  PMID: 18512813
4.  Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae) 
Phytochemistry  2007;68(6):10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.11.029.
Plants in the genus Tripterygium, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of Tripterygium extracts and of the main bioactive constituent, the diterpene triepoxide triptolide (1), to treat a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related conditions. The main mode of action of the Tripterygium extracts and triptolide (1) is the inhibition of expression of proinflammatory genes such as those for interleukin-2 (IL-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The efficacy and safety of certain types of Tripterygium extracts were confirmed in human clinical trials in the US and abroad. Over 300 compounds have been identified in the genus Tripterygium, and many of these have been evaluated for biological activity. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully mimicked by any individual constituent. This review discusses the biochemical composition and biological and pharmacological activities of Tripterygium extracts, and their main bioactive components.
doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.11.029
PMCID: PMC3867260  PMID: 17250858
Tripterygium; Celastraceae; Thunder god vine; Terpenoids; Triptolide; Inflammation; Antiinflammatory drugs; Immunosuppression
6.  B cell directed cytokines 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(Suppl 2):O16.
doi:10.1186/ar3420
PMCID: PMC3194145
7.  SLE Peripheral Blood B Cell, T Cell and Myeloid Cell Transcriptomes Display Unique Profiles and Each Subset Contributes to the Interferon Signature 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67003.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by defective immune tolerance combined with immune cell hyperactivity resulting in the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Previous gene expression studies employing whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have demonstrated that a majority of patients with active disease have increased expression of type I interferon (IFN) inducible transcripts known as the IFN signature. The goal of the current study was to assess the gene expression profiles of isolated leukocyte subsets obtained from SLE patients. Subsets including CD19+ B lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD33+ myeloid cells were simultaneously sorted from PBMC. The SLE transcriptomes were assessed for differentially expressed genes as compared to healthy controls. SLE CD33+ myeloid cells exhibited the greatest number of differentially expressed genes at 208 transcripts, SLE B cells expressed 174 transcripts and SLE CD3+CD4+ T cells expressed 92 transcripts. Only 4.4% (21) of the 474 total transcripts, many associated with the IFN signature, were shared by all three subsets. Transcriptional profiles translated into increased protein expression for CD38, CD63, CD107a and CD169. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that both SLE lymphoid and myeloid subsets expressed elevated transcripts for cytosolic RNA and DNA sensors and downstream effectors mediating IFN and cytokine production. Prolonged upregulation of nucleic acid sensing pathways could modulate immune effector functions and initiate or contribute to the systemic inflammation observed in SLE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067003
PMCID: PMC3691135  PMID: 23826184
8.  Characterization of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation in the absence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase 
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes depends upon the deamination of C nucleotides in WRCY (W=A/T, R=A/G, Y=C/T) motifs by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA). Despite this, a large number of mutations occur in WA motifs that can be accounted for by the activity of polymerase eta (POL η). To determine whether there are AICDA-independent mutations and to characterize the relationship between AICDA- and POL η-mediated mutations, 1,470 H chain and 1,313 kappa and lambda chain rearrangements from three AICDA−/− patients were analyzed. The Ig mutation frequency of all VH genes from AICDA−/− patients was 40-fold less than that of normal donors whereas the mutation frequency of mutated VH sequences from AICDA−/− patients was 6.8-fold less than normal donors. AICDA−/− B cells lack mutations in WRCY/RGYW motifs as well as replacement mutations and mutational targeting in complementarity determining regions. A significantly reduced mutation frequency in WA motifs compared to normal donors and an increased percentage of transitions, which may relate to reduced uracil DNA-glycosylase (UNG) activity, suggest a role for AICDA in regulating POL η and UNG activity. Similar results were observed in VL rearrangements. The residual mutations were predominantly G:C substitutions, indicating that AICDA-independent cytidine deamination was a likely, yet inefficient, mechanism for mutating Ig genes.
PMCID: PMC2587332  PMID: 18606684
human; activation induced cytidine deaminase; somatic hypermutation; polymerase eta; uracil-DNA glycosylase
10.  Molecular Characterization of Circulating Plasma Cells in Patients with Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44362.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a generalized autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal B cell activation and the occurrence of increased frequencies of circulating plasma cells (PC). The molecular characteristics and nature of circulating PC and B cells in SLE have not been completely characterized. Microarray analysis of gene expression was used to characterize circulating PC in subjects with active SLE. Flow cytometry was used to sort PC and comparator B cell populations from active SLE blood, normal blood and normal tonsil. The gene expression profiles of the sorted B cell populations were then compared.
SLE PC exhibited a similar gene expression signature as tonsil PC. The differences in gene expression between SLE PC and normal tonsil PC and tonsil plasmablasts (PB) suggest a mature Ig secreting cell phenotype in the former population. Despite this, SLE PC differed in expression of about half the genes from previously published gene expression profiles of normal bone marrow PC, indicating that these cells had not achieved a fully mature status. Abnormal expression of several genes, including CXCR4 and S1P1, suggests a mechanism for the persistence of SLE PC in the circulation. All SLE B cell populations revealed an interferon (IFN) gene signature previously only reported in unseparated SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data indicate that SLE PC are a unique population of Ig secreting cells with a gene expression profile indicative of a mature, but not fully differentiated phenotype.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044362
PMCID: PMC3448624  PMID: 23028528
13.  Aberrant CD200/CD200R1 expression and function in systemic lupus erythematosus contributes to abnormal T-cell responsiveness and dendritic cell activity 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R123.
Introduction
CD200 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that can regulate the activation threshold of inflammatory immune responses, polarize cytokine production, and maintain immune homeostasis. We therefore evaluated the functional status of CD200/CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) interactions in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
Serum CD200 level was detected by ELISA. The expression of CD200/CD200R1 by CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) was examined by flow cytometry, and then compared between SLE patients and healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and annexin V/propidium iodide for evaluation of the effect of CD200 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the effect of CD200 on DC function was determined by transwell migration assay as well as by measurement of binding and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
Results
In SLE patients, the number of CD200+ cells and the level of soluble CD200 were significantly higher than in healthy controls, whereas the expression of CD200R1 by CD4+ T cells and DCs was decreased. Furthermore, the increased CD200 expression by early apoptotic cells contributed to their diminished binding and phagocytosis by DCs in SLE. Importantly, the engagement of CD200 receptor on CD4+ T cells with CD200-Fc fusion protein in vitro reduced the differentiation of T-helper type 17 cells and reversed the defective induction of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells by transforming growth factor beta in SLE patients. Conversely, blockade of CD200-CD200R1 interaction with anti-CD200R1 antibody promoted CD4+ T-cell proliferation.
Conclusion
CD200 and CD200R1 expression and function are abnormal in SLE and may contribute to the immunologic abnormalities in SLE.
doi:10.1186/ar3853
PMCID: PMC3446504  PMID: 22621248
14.  Mechanisms of B cell autoimmunity in SLE 
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is known to be associated with polyclonal B-cell hyperreactivity. The underlying causes of the diffuse B-cell over-reactivity are unclear, but potential candidates include (a) intrinsic hyper-reactivity leading to polyclonal B-cell activation with disturbed activation thresholds and ineffective negative selection; (b) lack of immunoregulatory functions; (c) secondary effects of an overactive inflammatory environment, such as overactive germinal center and ectopic follicular activity; and/or (d) disturbed cytokine production by non-B immune cells. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may operate to varying extents and at varying times in SLE. Phenotypic and molecular studies as well as the results of recent clinical trials have begun to provide new insights to address these possibilities. Of importance, new information has made it possible to distinguish between the contribution played by abnormalities in central checkpoints that could lead to a pre-immune repertoire enriched in autoreactive B cells, on the one hand, and the possibility that autoimmunity arises in the periphery from somatic hypermutation and abnormal selection during T cell-dependent B-cell responses on the other. There is an intriguing possibility that apoptotic material bound to the surface of follicular dendritic cells positively selects autoreactive B cells that arise from non-autoreactive B-cell precursors as a result of somatic hypermutation and thereby promotes the peripheral emergence of autoimmunity.
doi:10.1186/ar3433
PMCID: PMC3308063  PMID: 22078750
15.  The role of the T cell in autoimmune inflammation 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2005;7(Suppl 2):S4-S14.
T cells, in particular CD4+ T cells, have been implicated in mediating many aspects of autoimmune inflammation. However, current evidence suggests that the role played by CD4+ T cells in the development of rheumatoid inflammation exceeds that of activated proinflammatory T-helper (Th)1 effector cells that drive the chronic autoimmune response. Subsets of CD4+ T cells with regulatory capacity, such as CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th2 cells, have been identified, and recent observations suggest that in rheumatoid arthritis the function of these regulatory T cells is severely impaired. Thus, in rheumatoid arthritis, defective regulatory mechanisms might allow the breakdown of peripheral tolerance, after which the detrimental Th1-driven immune response evolves and proceeds to chronic inflammation. Here, we review the functional abnormalities and the contribution of different T cell subsets to rheumatoid inflammation.
doi:10.1186/ar1703
PMCID: PMC2833981  PMID: 15833146
16.  B cell abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2003;5(Suppl 4):S22-S27.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by the differentiation of short- and long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells that secrete pathogenic autoantibodies. Ectopic germinal centers and plasma cells secreting autoantibodies have been observed in lupus nephritis kidneys. Candidate genetic susceptibility loci for SLE include genes that affect differentiation and survival of plasma cells, such as those that influence activation, proliferation, cytokine and chemokine secretion/responsiveness, and apoptosis of the T and B cells that are involved in humoral immunity generated in germinal centers, as well as genes that are involved in presentation and clearance of apoptotic material and autoantigens by antigen presenting cells and other phagocytes. Emerging data have demonstrated that B lymphocytes are active participants in humoral immune responses that lead to T-dependent and T-independent differentiation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells by homotypic CD154–CD40 interactions as well as continued stimulation by B cell activating factor through B cell maturation antigen, B cell activating factor receptor and transmembrane activater.
doi:10.1186/ar1009
PMCID: PMC2833441  PMID: 15180894
B cells; germinal centers; immunoglobulin-secreting cells; plasma cells; systemic lupus erythematosus
17.  Announcement 
We are pleased to announce a number of changes to the journal that will take effect from the start of 2003.
doi:10.1186/ar611
PMCID: PMC154431  PMID: 16509962
18.  Kitasato symposium 2010: new prospects for cytokines 
The Second Kitasato Symposium: New Prospects for Cytokines brought together researchers and rheumatologists to consider the essential role of cytokines in health and their contributions to autoimmunity. Topics addressed during the Symposium - which was held in Berlin, Germany from 27 to 29 May 2010 - included established and new cytokine targets in arthritis and autoimmunity and innovative aspects of osteoimmunology as well as current perspectives from translational and clinical studies. The keynote lecture, delivered by George Kollias, focused on insights gained from animal models into the mechanisms of TNF function in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The presentations at the Symposium resulted in productive discussions regarding potential new targets for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders.
doi:10.1186/ar3196
PMCID: PMC3046527  PMID: 21235827
19.  Comparison of Antibody Repertoires Produced by HIV-1 Infection, Other Chronic and Acute Infections, and Systemic Autoimmune Disease 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e16857.
Background
Antibodies (Abs) produced during HIV-1 infection rarely neutralize a broad range of viral isolates; only eight broadly-neutralizing (bNt) monoclonal (M)Abs have been isolated. Yet, to be effective, an HIV-1 vaccine may have to elicit the essential features of these MAbs. The V genes of all of these bNt MAbs are highly somatically mutated, and the VH genes of five of them encode a long (≥20 aa) third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3). This led us to question whether long CDR-H3s and high levels of somatic mutation (SM) are a preferred feature of anti-HIV bNt MAbs, or if other adaptive immune responses elicit them in general.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We assembled a VH-gene sequence database from over 700 human MAbs of known antigen specificity isolated from chronic (viral) infections (ChI), acute (bacterial and viral) infections (AcI), and systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD), and compared their CDR-H3 length, number of SMs and germline VH-gene usage. We found that anti-HIV Abs, regardless of their neutralization breadth, tended to have long CDR-H3s and high numbers of SMs. However, these features were also common among Abs associated with other chronic viral infections. In contrast, Abs from acute viral infections (but not bacterial infections) tended to have relatively short CDR-H3s and a low number of SMs, whereas SAD Abs were generally intermediate in CDR-H3 length and number of SMs. Analysis of VH gene usage showed that ChI Abs also tended to favor distal germline VH-genes (particularly VH1-69), especially in Abs bearing long CDR-H3s.
Conclusions and Significance
The striking difference between the Abs produced during chronic vs. acute viral infection suggests that Abs bearing long CDR-H3s, high levels of SM and VH1-69 gene usage may be preferentially selected during persistent infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016857
PMCID: PMC3068138  PMID: 21479208
20.  Tocilizumab in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Safety, Preliminary Efficacy, and Impact on Circulating Plasma Cells 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2010;62(2):542-552.
Objective
To assess the safety of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition and to collect preliminary data on clinical and immunologic efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
In an open label, dose-escalating, Phase I study, 16 patients with mild to moderate disease activity were treated bi-weekly for 12 weeks with one of three doses (2 mg/kg [n=4], 4 mg/kg [n=6], 8 mg/kg [n=6]) of tocilizumab and followed for 8 additional weeks.
Results
The infusions were well tolerated. Tocilizumab led to dose-related decreases in absolute neutrophil count with a median decrease of 38% in the 4 mg/kg and 56% in the 8 mg/kg dose groups. Neutrophil counts returned to normal after cessation of treatment. One subject was withdrawn because of neutropenia. Infections occurred in 11 patients; none was associated with neutropenia. Disease activity showed a significant improvement with 8/15 evaluable patients having a decrease of 4 or more points in the modified SELENA-SLEDAI score. Arthritis improved in all seven patients with arthritis at baseline and resolved in four. Anti-dsDNA antibody levels decreased by a median 47% in the 4 and 8 mg/kg dose groups compared to a 7.8% decrease in IgG levels. These changes together with a significant decrease in circulating plasma cells suggest a specific effect of tocilizumab on autoantibody producing cells.
Conclusion
Although neutropenia may limit the maximum dose of tocilizumab in SLE, the observed clinical and serological response data are promising and warrant further studies to establish the optimal dosing regimen and efficacy.
doi:10.1002/art.27221
PMCID: PMC3057537  PMID: 20112381
22.  Analysis of the Transcriptional Program of Developing Induced Regulatory T Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16913.
CD25+ regulatory T cells develop in the thymus (nTregs), but may also be generated in the periphery upon stimulation of naive CD4 T cells under appropriate conditions (iTregs). To gain insight into the mechanisms governing iTreg development, we performed longitudinal transcriptional profiling of CD25+ T cells during their differentiation from uncommitted naive CD4 T cells. Microarray analysis of mRNA from CD25+ iTregs early after stimulation revealed expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression and T cell activation, which largely overlapped with genes expressed in CD25+ effector T cells (Teffs) used as a control. Whereas expression of these genes remained elevated in Teffs, it declined gradually in developing iTregs, resulting in a more quiescent phenotype in mature iTregs. A similar pattern of kinetics was observed for biological processes and for intracellular pathways over-represented within the expressed genes. A maximum dichotomy of transcriptional activity between iTregs and Teffs was reached at late stages of their maturation. Of interest, members of the FoxO and FoxM1 transcription factor family pathways exhibited a reciprocal expression pattern in iTregs and Teffs, suggesting a role of these transcription factors in determining T cell fate.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016913
PMCID: PMC3036712  PMID: 21347372
23.  Comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F Versus Sulfasalazine in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Annals of internal medicine  2009;151(4):229-W51.
Background
Extracts of the medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) have been used in China for centuries to treat a spectrum of inflammatory diseases.
Objective
To compare the benefits and side effects of TwHF extract with those of sulfasalazine for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis.
Design
Randomized, controlled trial. A computer-generated code with random, permuted blocks was used to assign treatment.
Setting
2 U.S. academic centers (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, and University of Texas, Dallas, Texas) and 9 rheumatology subspecialty clinics (in Dallas and Austin, Texas; Tampa and Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Arlington, Virginia; Duncanville, Pennsylvania; Wheaton and Greenbelt, Maryland; and Lansing, Michigan).
Patients
121 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and 6 or more painful and swollen joints.
Intervention
TwHF extract, 60 mg 3 times daily, or sulfasalazine, 1 g twice daily. Patients could continue stable doses of oral prednisone or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but had to stop taking disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs at least 28 days before randomization.
Measurements
The primary outcome was the rate of achievement of 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR 20) at 24 weeks. Secondary end points were safety; radiographic scores of joint damage; and serum levels of interleukin-6, cholesterol, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Results
Outcome data were available for only 62 patients at 24 weeks. In a mixed-model analysis that imputed data for patients who dropped out, 65.0% (95% CI, 51.6% to 76.9%) of the TwHF group and 32.8% (CI, 21.3% to 46.0%) of the sulfasalazine group met the ACR 20 response criteria (P = 0.001). Patients receiving TwHF also had significantly higher response rates for ACR 50 and ACR 70 in mixed-model analyses. Analyses of only completers showed similar significant differences between the treatment groups. Significant improvement was demonstrated in all individual components of the ACR response, including the Health Assessment Questionnaire disability score. Interleukin-6 levels rapidly and significantly decreased in the TwHF group. Although not statistically significant, radiographic progression was lower in the TwHF group. The frequency of adverse events was similar in both groups.
Limitations
Only 62% and 41% of patients continued receiving TwHF extract and sulfasalazine, respectively, during the 24 weeks of the study. Long-term outcome data were not collected on participants who discontinued treatment.
Conclusion
In patients who continued treatment for 24 weeks and could also use stable oral prednisone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, attainment of the ACR 20 response criteria was significantly greater with TwHF extract than with sulfasalazine.
Primary Funding Source
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
PMCID: PMC2938780  PMID: 19687490
25.  B cells in autoimmunity 
B-cell development is tightly regulated, including the induction of B-cell memory and antibody-secreting plasmablasts and plasma cells. In the last decade, we have expanded our understanding of effector functions of B cells as well as their roles in human autoimmune diseases. The current review addresses the role of certain stages of B-cell development as well as plasmablasts/plasma cells in immune regulation under normal and autoimmune conditions with particular emphasis on systemic lupus erythematosus. Based on preclinical and clinical data, B cells have emerged increasingly as both effector cells as well as cells with immunoregulatory potential.
doi:10.1186/ar2780
PMCID: PMC2787254  PMID: 19849820

Results 1-25 (59)