Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, accounting for 1-2% of all plasma cell neoplasms, characterized by the presence of >2 × 109/l of plasma cells circulating in the peripheral blood, and exists in two forms: primary PCL (pPCL, 60% of the cases), and secondary PCL (sPCL), the latter being a leukemic transformation in patients with a previously diagnosed multiple myeloma. PCL is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and a short median survival of 7 months.
Here, we report a pPCL case with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and plasma cell count up to 60% in peripheral blood and 80% in bone marrow. Immunophenotype was compatible with PCL. A del(9)(p22.3) was characterized using banding cytogenetics and array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB), the latter being of enormous significance to characterize breakpoint regions in detail.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pPCL associated with a partially monosomy 9pter to 9p22.3 as a sole chromosomal abnormality.
Primary plasma cell leukemia; Multiple myeloma; Del(9)(p22.3); Array-proven multicolor banding; Prognostic factors
The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It is the product of a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the transfer of the 3′ portion of the proto-oncogene ABL from 9q34 to the 5′ portion of the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) on 22q11. Currently, most CML cases are treated with Imatinib and variant rearrangements are thought to have no specific prognostic significance, although the events of therapy resistance have not yet been studied. In this study we report a novel case of CML exhibiting an uncommon t(2;7)(p13.1;p21.3) besides t(9;22)(q34;q11). This unusual translocation has been characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB), the latter being extremely significant in characterizing breakpoint regions in detail. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of this cytogenetic abnormality are discussed in this study.
chronic myeloid leukemia; ETV1; ATR1; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Alterations in the human chromosomal complement are expressed phenotypically ranging from (i) normal, via (ii) frequent fetal loss in otherwise normal person, to (iii) sub-clinical to severe mental retardation and dysmorphism in live births. A subtle and microscopically undetectable chromosomal alteration is uniparental disomy (UPD), which is known to be associated with distinct birth defects as per the chromosome involved and parental origin. UPD can be evident due to imprinted genes and/or activation of recessive mutations.
The present study comprises of data mining of published UPD cases with a focus on associated phenotypes. The goal was to identify non-random and recurrent associations between UPD and various genetic conditions, which can possibly indicate the presence of new imprinted genes.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Data mining was carried out using the homepage “http://www.fish.uniklinikum-jena.de/UPD.html.”, an online catalog of published cases with UPD.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The UPD cases having normal karyotype and with or without clinical findings were selected to analyze the associated phenotypes for each chromosome, maternal or paternal involved in UPD.
Our results revealed many genetic conditions (other than the known UPD syndromes) to be associated with UPD. Even in cases of bad obstetric history as well as normal individuals chance detection of UPD has been reported.
The role of UPD in human genetic disorders needs to be studied by involving larger cohorts of individuals with birth defects as well as normal population. The genetic conditions were scrutinized in terms of inheritance patterns; majority of these were autosomal recessive indicating the role of UPD as an underlying mechanism.
Autosomal recessive; birth defects; data mining; phenotypic expression; uniparental disomy
The editors of Molecular Cytogenetics would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 5 (2012).
Since being established in 1963, the murine fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 has been
used in thousands of studies. NIH 3T3 immortalized spontaneously and became
tetraploid shortly after its establishment. Here we report the first molecular
cytogenetic characterization of NIH 3T3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization
based multicolor banding (mcb). Overall, a complex rearranged karyotype
presenting 16 breakpoints was characterized. Also it was possible to deduce the
resulting gains and losses of copy numbers in NIH 3T3. Overall, only 1.8% of the
NIH 3T3 genome is disome, 26.2% tri-, 60% tetra-, 10.8% quinta-, and 1.2%
hexasome. Strikingly, the cell line gained only 4 derivative chromosomes since
its first cytogenetic description in 1989. An attempt to align the observed
imbalances of the studied cell line with their homologous regions in humans gave
the following surprising result: NIH 3T3 shows imbalances as typically seen in
human solid cancers of ectodermal origin.
NIH 3T3 cell line; murine multicolor banding (mcb); cytogenetics; genetics; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Heterochromatic variants of pericentromere of chromosome 9 are reported and discussed since decades concerning their detailed structure and clinical meaning. However, detailed studies are scarce. Thus, here we provide the largest ever done molecular cytogenetic research based on >300 chromosome 9 heteromorphism carriers.
In this study, 334 carriers of heterochromatic variants of chromosome 9 were included, being 192 patients from Western Europe and the remainder from Easter-European origin. A 3-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe-set directed against for 9p12 to 9q13~21.1 (9het-mix) and 8 different locus-specific probes were applied for their characterization. The 9het-mix enables the characterization of 21 of the yet known 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic patterns. In this study, 17 different variants were detected including five yet unreported; the most frequent were pericentric inversions (49.4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23.9%), variants of 9ph (11.4%), cenh (8.2%), and dicentric- (3.8%) and duplication-variants (3.3%). For reasons of simplicity, a new short nomenclature for the yet reported 24 heteromorphic patterns of chromosome 9 is suggested. Six breakpoints involved in four of the 24 variants could be narrowed down using locus-specific probes.
Based on this largest study ever done in carriers of chromosome 9 heteromorphisms, three of the 24 detailed variants were more frequently observed in Western than in Eastern Europe. Besides, there is no clear evidence that infertility is linked to any of the 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic variants.
Chromosome 9; Heteromorphism; Breakpoints; Western Europe; Eastern Europe
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome created by the reciprocal translocation t(9:22)(q34;q11), resulting in the chimeric gene breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson (ABL). Variant Ph chromosome translocations involving chromosomes other than 9 and 22 occur in 5–10% of CML cases. In the present study, a novel case of a Ph chromosome-positive CML in the chronic phase (CP) is reported, with a three-way Ph translocation involving three chromosomal regions, 9q34, 10p11.2 and 22q11.2, in addition to the loss of the Y chromosome, where the latter was a secondary abnormality. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements generally have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of these cytogenetic abnormalities are discussed in the present study.
chronic myeloid leukemia; three-way Philadelphia translocation; fluorescence in situ hybridization; multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases. Amplification or duplication of the BCR-ABL gene has been found to be one of the key factors leading to drug resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM). In the present study, we identified the presence of isodicentric Ph chromosomes [idic(Ph)] in an IM-resistant patient. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on metaphase chromosomes confirmed the heterogeneity and amplification of the fused BCR-ABL gene. FISH analysis superimposed on G-banding confirmed the presence of idic(Ph) chromosomes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products revealed the presence of the BCR-ABL fusion transcript b3a2. The idic(Ph) chromosomes in CML were shown to be fused at the satellite regions of the short arms. The patient did not respond to IM chemotherapy and did not achieve remission. In this study, the impact of the idic(Ph) chromosomes on genomic instability, heterogeneity and amplification of the BCR-ABL gene in IM-resistant patients is discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; isodicentric Philadelphia chromosomes; fluorescence in situ hybridization; imatinib mesylate
Here, we present a case with an unusual chromosomal rearrangement in a child with a predominant phenotype of high-pitched crying showing deletion encompassing CTNND2 due to an unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 4 and 5. This rearrangement led to a duplication of ~35 Mb in 4qter which replaced 18 Mb genetic materials in 5pter. Even though, in this patient, there was no clinically obvious modification to the classical phenotypes of CdCS, and the influence of the 4q-duplication cannot be completely excluded in this case. However, the region 4q34.1–34.3 was previously reported as a region not leading to phenotypic changes if present in three copies, an observation which could possibly be supported by this case. Conclusion. This study showed that in a patient with an unbalanced translocation resulting in 5p deletion, the presence of partial trisomy of chromosome 4q could be clinically insignificant.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, created by a reciprocal translocation t(9:22)(q34;q11) which forms the chimeric gene, BCR-ABL. Variant Ph chromosome translocations involving chromosomes other than 9 and 22 have been identified in 5–10% of CML cases. Four-way Ph chromosome translocations are an extremely rare event in myeloid malignancies and the phenotypic consequences of such rearrangements have not been investigated. Deletions in chromosome 9 are known to be associated with a poor prognosis. In the present study, a novel case of Ph chromosome-positive CML in blast crisis is reported. A four-way Ph translocation was identified, involving five chromosomal regions, 9p21, 9q34, 12p13.3, 20q11.2 and 22q11.2, as well as an unbalanced translocation, der(7)t(7;8)(p11.2;q11.2). Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements in general have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. In the present case, multiple partial deletions, including ABL and ASS genes on chromosome 9, the region 7p11.2 to 7pter, 8q11.2 to 8pter and two regions on chromosome 12, were identified. An additional Ph chromosome was also detected. Immunophenotyping indicated that the patient had biphenotypic leukemia. The patient did not respond positively to imatinib chemotherapy and died for unknown reasons, one month after diagnosis. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of these cytogenetic abnormalities are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; four-way Philadelphia translocation; fluorescence in situ hybridization; array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is found in over 90% of cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Of these cases, 2–10% demonstrate complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements tend to have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. This study evaluated a CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed. A four-chromosome translocation involving chromosomal regions including 11p11.2 and 20q11.21 in addition to 9q34 and 22q11 was characterized in detail using array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB), a technique which has proven to be of significance in characterizing breakpoint regions in detail. Underlying mechanisms and prognostic factors are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; KAI1; KIF3B; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Recently, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platforms have significantly improved the resolution of chromosomal analysis allowing the identification of genomic copy number gains and losses smaller than 5 Mb. Here we report on a young man with unexplained severe mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations comprising hypospadia and omphalocele, and episodes of high blood pressure. An ~ 6 Mb interstitial deletion that includes the causative genes is identified by oligonucleotide-based aCGH.
Our index case exhibited a de novo chromosomal abnormality at 2q22 [del(2)(q22.1q22.3)dn] which was not visible at the 550 haploid band level. The deleted region includes eight genes: HNMT, SPOPL, NXPH2, LOC64702, LRP1B, KYNU, ARHGAP15 and GTDC1.
aCGH revealed an ~ 6 Mb deletion in 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 in an as-yet unique clinical case associated with intellectual disability, congenital malformations and autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, the deletion is co-localized with a fragile site (FRA2K), which could be involved in the formation of this chromosomal aberration. Further studies are needed to determine if deletions of 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 define a new microdeletion syndrome.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2q22 deletion syndrome; Birth defects; Hypospadia; omphalocele; Severe mental retardation; Essential hypertension; High blood pressure
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CD10+ B-cell precursor, represents the most frequent type of childhood ALL from 3 to 6 years of age. The t(12;21)(p13;q22) occurs in 25% of cases of B-cell precursor ALL, it is rare in children less than 24 months and have been related to good prognosis. Some relapse cases and unfavorable prognosis in ALL CD10+ are associated with t(12;21) bearing additional aberrations as extra copies of chromosome 21 and ETV6 gene loss. This report describes the case of a 15 month-year old girl, who displayed a karyotype with addition on chromosome 12p plus trisomy 10 and tetrasomy of chromosome 21. Molecular cytogenetic studies revealed two extra copies of the der(21) t(12;21), trisomy 10 and deletion of the second ETV6 gene due to the dic(12;18). These findings show the great importance of molecular cytogenetic studies to clarify complex karyotypes, to define prognostic, to carry out risk group stratification and to support correctly disease treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are detected in 0.043% of general population and can be characterized for their chromosomal origin, genetic content and shape by molecular cytogenetic approaches. Even though recently progress was achieved towards genotype-phenotype-correlations of sSMC, nothing is known on the influence that an additional derivative extra chromosome has on the nuclear architecture.
Here we present the first three-dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies for the nuclear architecture of sSMC. It could be shown that sSMC derived from chromosomes 15, 16 or 18 preferentially colocalized with one of their corresponding sister chromosomes. This was true in B- and T-lymphocytes as well as in skin fibroblasts. Additionally, a case with a complex sSMC with a karyotype 47,XY,+der(18)t(8;18)(8p23.2 ~ 23.1;18q11.1) was studied. Here the sSMC co-localized with one homologous chromosome 8 instead of 18.
Overall, there is a kind of "attraction" between an sSMC and one of its homologous sister chromosomes. This seems to be transmitted by the euchromatic part of the sSMC rather than its heterochromatic one.
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Approximately, 5–10% of these patients show complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since at present the majority of CML cases are treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements do not exhibit specific prognostic significance. However, events of therapy resistance remain to be studied. In this study, we report a unique case of CML exhibiting an uncommon t(21;22)(p12;q11). This translocation has been characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB). Using specific probes for the BCR and ABL genes, results of FISH showed a three-way variant Philadelphia translocation (9;22;21)(q34;q11;p12) with a BCR/ABL fusion residing on the der(22) and the 3′BCR region translocated on the short arm of the derivative chromosome 21. In addition, the aMCB technique is significant in the detection of the breakpoints of genetic changes. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic significance of these changes are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer, occurs preferentially at specific genomic regions known as common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are evolutionarily conserved and late replicating regions with AT-rich sequences, and CFS instability is correlated with cancer. In the last decade, much progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of chromosomal instability at CFSs. However, despite tremendous efforts, identifying a cancer-associated CFS gene (CACG) remains a challenge and little is known about the function of CACGs at most CFS loci. Recent studies of FATS (for Fragile-site Associated Tumor Suppressor), a new CACG at FRA10F, reveal an active role of this CACG in regulating DNA damage checkpoints and suppressing tumorigenesis. The identification of FATS may inspire more discoveries of other uncharacterized CACGs. Further elucidation of the biological functions and clinical significance of CACGs may be exploited for cancer biomarkers and therapeutic benefits.
replication; instability; CFS; cancer; FATS; checkpoint
The Erythrinidae fish family is characterized by a large variation with respect to diploid chromosome numbers and sex-determining systems among its species, including two multiple X1X2Y sex systems in Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus. At first, the occurrence of a same sex chromosome system within a family suggests that the sex chromosomes are correlated and originated from ancestral XY chromosomes that were either homomorphic or at an early stage of differentiation. To identify the origin and evolution of these X1X2Y sex chromosomes, we performed reciprocal cross-species FISH experiments with two sex-chromosome-specific probes designed from microdissected X1 and Y chromosomes of H. malabaricus and E. erythrinus, respectively.
Our results yield valuable information regarding the origin and evolution of these sex chromosome systems. Our data indicate that these sex chromosomes evolved independently in these two closed related Erythrinidae species. Different autosomes were first converted into a poorly differentiated XY sex pair in each species, and additional chromosomal rearrangements produced both X1X2Y sex systems that are currently present.
Our data provide new insights into the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes, which increases our knowledge about fish sex chromosome evolution.
chromosome painting; microdissection; fish cytogenetics; sex chromosome evolution; Erythrinidae fish
The linkage of disease gene mapping with DNA sequencing is an essential strategy for defining the genetic basis of a disease. New massively parallel sequencing procedures will greatly facilitate this process, although enrichment for the target region before sequencing remains necessary. For this step, various DNA capture approaches have been described that rely on sequence-defined probe sets. To avoid making assumptions on the sequences present in the targeted region, we accessed specific cytogenetic regions in preparation for next-generation sequencing. We directly microdissected the target region in metaphase chromosomes, amplified it by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR, and obtained sufficient material of high quality for high-throughput sequencing. Sequence reads could be obtained from as few as six chromosomal fragments. The power of cytogenetic enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing is that it does not depend on earlier knowledge of sequences in the region being studied. Accordingly, this method is uniquely suited for situations in which the sequence of a reference region of the genome is not available, including population-specific or tumor rearrangements, as well as previously unsequenced genomic regions such as centromeres.
genomic selection; enrichment; microdissection; next-generation sequencing
The discovery of copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome opened new perspectives in the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the etiology of common diseases. Differently patterned instances of somatic mosaicism in CNV regions have been shown to be present in monozygotic twins and throughout different tissues within an individual. A single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human cell types led us to uncover mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. A unique study of immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year interval from the same two subjects shows that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and seem to occur only once, as levels of mosaicism remained stable. This finding has the potential to change our concept of dynamic human genome variation. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to understand better the etiology and physiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic variations.
Copy number variations; pod-FISH; mosaicism.
Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that.
Mosaic; small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC); genotype-phenotype correlation.
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases. Approximately 5–10% of these patients show complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements in general have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. This study evalutated a CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed. A four chromosome translocation involving chromosomal regions such as 12q24.2–24.31 and 16p11.2 besides 9q34 and 22q11 were characterized in detail by array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB). A beneficial response to imatinib was noted in the patient.
chronic myeloid leukemia; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities (UBCA), reported for >50 euchromatic regions of almost all human autosomes, are comprised of a few megabases of DNA, and carriers are in many cases clinically healthy. It may be speculated, that some of the UBCA may be similar or identical to copy number variants (CNV) of the human genome.
Here we report on a yet unreported cytogenetically visible copy number variant (CNV) in the long arm of chromosome 8, region 8q21.2, detected in three unrelated clinically healthy carriers.
The first description of a cytogenetically visible CNV/UBCA in 8q21.2 shows that banding cytogenetics is far from being outdated. It is a cost efficient, up-to-date method for a single cell specific overview on the whole genome, still prepared to deliver unexpected findings.