Here, we present a case with an unusual chromosomal rearrangement in a child with a predominant phenotype of high-pitched crying showing deletion encompassing CTNND2 due to an unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 4 and 5. This rearrangement led to a duplication of ~35 Mb in 4qter which replaced 18 Mb genetic materials in 5pter. Even though, in this patient, there was no clinically obvious modification to the classical phenotypes of CdCS, and the influence of the 4q-duplication cannot be completely excluded in this case. However, the region 4q34.1–34.3 was previously reported as a region not leading to phenotypic changes if present in three copies, an observation which could possibly be supported by this case. Conclusion. This study showed that in a patient with an unbalanced translocation resulting in 5p deletion, the presence of partial trisomy of chromosome 4q could be clinically insignificant.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, created by a reciprocal translocation t(9:22)(q34;q11) which forms the chimeric gene, BCR-ABL. Variant Ph chromosome translocations involving chromosomes other than 9 and 22 have been identified in 5–10% of CML cases. Four-way Ph chromosome translocations are an extremely rare event in myeloid malignancies and the phenotypic consequences of such rearrangements have not been investigated. Deletions in chromosome 9 are known to be associated with a poor prognosis. In the present study, a novel case of Ph chromosome-positive CML in blast crisis is reported. A four-way Ph translocation was identified, involving five chromosomal regions, 9p21, 9q34, 12p13.3, 20q11.2 and 22q11.2, as well as an unbalanced translocation, der(7)t(7;8)(p11.2;q11.2). Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements in general have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. In the present case, multiple partial deletions, including ABL and ASS genes on chromosome 9, the region 7p11.2 to 7pter, 8q11.2 to 8pter and two regions on chromosome 12, were identified. An additional Ph chromosome was also detected. Immunophenotyping indicated that the patient had biphenotypic leukemia. The patient did not respond positively to imatinib chemotherapy and died for unknown reasons, one month after diagnosis. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of these cytogenetic abnormalities are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; four-way Philadelphia translocation; fluorescence in situ hybridization; array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is found in over 90% of cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Of these cases, 2–10% demonstrate complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements tend to have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. This study evaluated a CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed. A four-chromosome translocation involving chromosomal regions including 11p11.2 and 20q11.21 in addition to 9q34 and 22q11 was characterized in detail using array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB), a technique which has proven to be of significance in characterizing breakpoint regions in detail. Underlying mechanisms and prognostic factors are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; KAI1; KIF3B; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Recently, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platforms have significantly improved the resolution of chromosomal analysis allowing the identification of genomic copy number gains and losses smaller than 5 Mb. Here we report on a young man with unexplained severe mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations comprising hypospadia and omphalocele, and episodes of high blood pressure. An ~ 6 Mb interstitial deletion that includes the causative genes is identified by oligonucleotide-based aCGH.
Our index case exhibited a de novo chromosomal abnormality at 2q22 [del(2)(q22.1q22.3)dn] which was not visible at the 550 haploid band level. The deleted region includes eight genes: HNMT, SPOPL, NXPH2, LOC64702, LRP1B, KYNU, ARHGAP15 and GTDC1.
aCGH revealed an ~ 6 Mb deletion in 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 in an as-yet unique clinical case associated with intellectual disability, congenital malformations and autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, the deletion is co-localized with a fragile site (FRA2K), which could be involved in the formation of this chromosomal aberration. Further studies are needed to determine if deletions of 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 define a new microdeletion syndrome.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2q22 deletion syndrome; Birth defects; Hypospadia; omphalocele; Severe mental retardation; Essential hypertension; High blood pressure
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CD10+ B-cell precursor, represents the most frequent type of childhood ALL from 3 to 6 years of age. The t(12;21)(p13;q22) occurs in 25% of cases of B-cell precursor ALL, it is rare in children less than 24 months and have been related to good prognosis. Some relapse cases and unfavorable prognosis in ALL CD10+ are associated with t(12;21) bearing additional aberrations as extra copies of chromosome 21 and ETV6 gene loss. This report describes the case of a 15 month-year old girl, who displayed a karyotype with addition on chromosome 12p plus trisomy 10 and tetrasomy of chromosome 21. Molecular cytogenetic studies revealed two extra copies of the der(21) t(12;21), trisomy 10 and deletion of the second ETV6 gene due to the dic(12;18). These findings show the great importance of molecular cytogenetic studies to clarify complex karyotypes, to define prognostic, to carry out risk group stratification and to support correctly disease treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are detected in 0.043% of general population and can be characterized for their chromosomal origin, genetic content and shape by molecular cytogenetic approaches. Even though recently progress was achieved towards genotype-phenotype-correlations of sSMC, nothing is known on the influence that an additional derivative extra chromosome has on the nuclear architecture.
Here we present the first three-dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies for the nuclear architecture of sSMC. It could be shown that sSMC derived from chromosomes 15, 16 or 18 preferentially colocalized with one of their corresponding sister chromosomes. This was true in B- and T-lymphocytes as well as in skin fibroblasts. Additionally, a case with a complex sSMC with a karyotype 47,XY,+der(18)t(8;18)(8p23.2 ~ 23.1;18q11.1) was studied. Here the sSMC co-localized with one homologous chromosome 8 instead of 18.
Overall, there is a kind of "attraction" between an sSMC and one of its homologous sister chromosomes. This seems to be transmitted by the euchromatic part of the sSMC rather than its heterochromatic one.
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Approximately, 5–10% of these patients show complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since at present the majority of CML cases are treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements do not exhibit specific prognostic significance. However, events of therapy resistance remain to be studied. In this study, we report a unique case of CML exhibiting an uncommon t(21;22)(p12;q11). This translocation has been characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB). Using specific probes for the BCR and ABL genes, results of FISH showed a three-way variant Philadelphia translocation (9;22;21)(q34;q11;p12) with a BCR/ABL fusion residing on the der(22) and the 3′BCR region translocated on the short arm of the derivative chromosome 21. In addition, the aMCB technique is significant in the detection of the breakpoints of genetic changes. The underlying mechanisms and prognostic significance of these changes are discussed.
chronic myeloid leukemia; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer, occurs preferentially at specific genomic regions known as common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are evolutionarily conserved and late replicating regions with AT-rich sequences, and CFS instability is correlated with cancer. In the last decade, much progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of chromosomal instability at CFSs. However, despite tremendous efforts, identifying a cancer-associated CFS gene (CACG) remains a challenge and little is known about the function of CACGs at most CFS loci. Recent studies of FATS (for Fragile-site Associated Tumor Suppressor), a new CACG at FRA10F, reveal an active role of this CACG in regulating DNA damage checkpoints and suppressing tumorigenesis. The identification of FATS may inspire more discoveries of other uncharacterized CACGs. Further elucidation of the biological functions and clinical significance of CACGs may be exploited for cancer biomarkers and therapeutic benefits.
replication; instability; CFS; cancer; FATS; checkpoint
The Erythrinidae fish family is characterized by a large variation with respect to diploid chromosome numbers and sex-determining systems among its species, including two multiple X1X2Y sex systems in Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus. At first, the occurrence of a same sex chromosome system within a family suggests that the sex chromosomes are correlated and originated from ancestral XY chromosomes that were either homomorphic or at an early stage of differentiation. To identify the origin and evolution of these X1X2Y sex chromosomes, we performed reciprocal cross-species FISH experiments with two sex-chromosome-specific probes designed from microdissected X1 and Y chromosomes of H. malabaricus and E. erythrinus, respectively.
Our results yield valuable information regarding the origin and evolution of these sex chromosome systems. Our data indicate that these sex chromosomes evolved independently in these two closed related Erythrinidae species. Different autosomes were first converted into a poorly differentiated XY sex pair in each species, and additional chromosomal rearrangements produced both X1X2Y sex systems that are currently present.
Our data provide new insights into the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes, which increases our knowledge about fish sex chromosome evolution.
chromosome painting; microdissection; fish cytogenetics; sex chromosome evolution; Erythrinidae fish
The linkage of disease gene mapping with DNA sequencing is an essential strategy for defining the genetic basis of a disease. New massively parallel sequencing procedures will greatly facilitate this process, although enrichment for the target region before sequencing remains necessary. For this step, various DNA capture approaches have been described that rely on sequence-defined probe sets. To avoid making assumptions on the sequences present in the targeted region, we accessed specific cytogenetic regions in preparation for next-generation sequencing. We directly microdissected the target region in metaphase chromosomes, amplified it by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR, and obtained sufficient material of high quality for high-throughput sequencing. Sequence reads could be obtained from as few as six chromosomal fragments. The power of cytogenetic enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing is that it does not depend on earlier knowledge of sequences in the region being studied. Accordingly, this method is uniquely suited for situations in which the sequence of a reference region of the genome is not available, including population-specific or tumor rearrangements, as well as previously unsequenced genomic regions such as centromeres.
genomic selection; enrichment; microdissection; next-generation sequencing
The discovery of copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome opened new perspectives in the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the etiology of common diseases. Differently patterned instances of somatic mosaicism in CNV regions have been shown to be present in monozygotic twins and throughout different tissues within an individual. A single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human cell types led us to uncover mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. A unique study of immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year interval from the same two subjects shows that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and seem to occur only once, as levels of mosaicism remained stable. This finding has the potential to change our concept of dynamic human genome variation. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to understand better the etiology and physiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic variations.
Copy number variations; pod-FISH; mosaicism.
Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that.
Mosaic; small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC); genotype-phenotype correlation.
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases. Approximately 5–10% of these patients show complex translocations involving a third chromosome in addition to chromosomes 9 and 22. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with imatinib, variant rearrangements in general have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. This study evalutated a CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed. A four chromosome translocation involving chromosomal regions such as 12q24.2–24.31 and 16p11.2 besides 9q34 and 22q11 were characterized in detail by array-proven multicolor banding (aMCB). A beneficial response to imatinib was noted in the patient.
chronic myeloid leukemia; variant Philadelphia chromosome; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high-resolution array-proven multicolor banding; imatinib mesylate
Cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities (UBCA), reported for >50 euchromatic regions of almost all human autosomes, are comprised of a few megabases of DNA, and carriers are in many cases clinically healthy. It may be speculated, that some of the UBCA may be similar or identical to copy number variants (CNV) of the human genome.
Here we report on a yet unreported cytogenetically visible copy number variant (CNV) in the long arm of chromosome 8, region 8q21.2, detected in three unrelated clinically healthy carriers.
The first description of a cytogenetically visible CNV/UBCA in 8q21.2 shows that banding cytogenetics is far from being outdated. It is a cost efficient, up-to-date method for a single cell specific overview on the whole genome, still prepared to deliver unexpected findings.
The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR) is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically significant CNVs. Here we report the use of array-CGH for the first time in a Greek cohort. A total of 82 children of Greek origin with mean age 4.9 years were analysed in the present study. Patients with visible cytogenetic abnormalities ascertained by standard karyotyping as well as those with subtelomeric abnormalities determined by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) or subtelomeric FISH had been excluded.
Fourteen CNVs were detected in the studied patients. In nine patients (11%) the chromosomal aberrations were inherited from one of the parents. One patients showed two duplications, a 550 kb duplication in 3p14.1 inherited from the father and a ~1.1 Mb duplication in (22)(q13.1q13.2) inherited from the mother. Although both parents were phenotypically normal, it cannot be excluded that the dual duplication is causative for the patient's clinical profile including dysmorphic features and severe developmental delay. Furthermore, three de novo clinically significant CNVs were detected (3.7%). There was a ~6 Mb triplication of 18q21.1 in a girl 5 years of age with moderate MR and mild dysmorphic features and a ~4.8 Mb duplication at (10)(q11.1q11.21) in a 2 years old boy with severe MR, multiple congenital anomalies, severe central hypotonia, and ataxia. Finally, in a 3 year-old girl with microcephaly and severe hypotonia a deletion in (2)(q31.2q31.3) of about ~3.9 Mb was discovered. All CNVs were confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For the remaining 9 patients the detected CNVs (inherited duplications or deletions of 80 kb to 800 kb in size) were probably not associated with the clinical findings.
Genomic microarrays have within the recent years proven to be a highly useful tool in the investigation of unexplained MR. The cohorts reported so far agree on an around 11% diagnostic yield of clinically significant CNVs in patients with unexplained MR. Various publicly available databases have been created for the interpretation of identified CNVs and parents are analyzed in case a rare CNV is identified in the child. We have conducted a study of Greek patients with unexplained MR and confirmed the high diagnostic value of the previous studies. It is important that the technique becomes available also in less developed countries when the cost of consumables will be reduced.
Partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 9 is among the most common autosomal structural chromosomal anomalies leading to chromosomal imbalance in human. Clinical characteristics are craniofacial dysmorphism including hypertelorism, prominent nose, deep-set eyes, and down-slanting palpebral fissures. The degree of clinical severity in partial trisomy 9p roughly correlates with the size of the chromosomal imbalance. Therefore, breakpoints as well as clinical findings need to be precisely defined for differential diagnosis.
Chromosomes of a young female were analyzed due to primary amenorrhea, short stature, developmental delay and a characteristic facial appearance. Cytogenetic analysis using GTG banding identified a karyotype 46, XX, add(9pter). Surprisingly the application of high resolution molecular cytogenetic techniques characterized a partial trisomy 9p24.2-p22 and partial monosomy 9pter-p24.2. To the best of our knowledge only four similar case were reported by now.
Attempts for genotype-phenotype correlations for partial trisomy 9p might have been hampered by the fact that more complex, cryptic aberrations were neither considered nor detected in comparable clinical cases.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell disorder almost always characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), usually due to t(9;22)(q34;q11). The presence of Ph results in the formation of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, which is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase. Approximately 1% of CML patients appear to have a Ph-negative karyotype but carry a cryptic BCR/ABL fusion that can be located by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) at chromosome 22q11, 9q34 or a third chromosome. This study investigated a rare Ph-negative CML case with insertion of the 3′ ABL region into the long arm of derivative chromosome 1 but lacking the 5′ BCR region on der(22).
Philadelphia chromosome negative; chronic myeloid leukemia; BCR/ABL rearrangement; fluorescence in situ hybridization
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Around 5–10% of these patients show complex translocations involving other chromosomes in addition to and/or besides chromosomes 9 and 22. CML cases with fusion transcripts, such as e13a3, in which ABL exon 3 rather than exon 2 has fused to BCR, are extremely rare. Such reported cases with the e13a3 transcript showed the Ph chromosome on karyotype analysis. This study reported a rare Ph chromosome-positive CML case with new complex chromosomal aberrations and an e13a3 BCR-ABL transcript that has yet to be established. A four-chromosome translocation involving chromosomal regions 12p11.2, 19q13.3, 9q34.1 and 22q11.2, besides a trisomy 8 and a derivative chromosome 12, were identified using high resolution multicolor banding. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction products showed the presence of BCR-ABL fusion transcript e13a3, and this signifies the major BCR breakpoint. The significance of the observed rearrangements and their possible role in the progression of CML was investigated.
chronic myeloid leukemia; variant Philadelphia chromosome; e13a3; fluorescence in situ hybridization; high resolution multicolor banding; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Approximately 84% of cases of ALL are classified as B-precursor ALL, 14% of cases are T-cell and 2% of cases are B-cell (B-)ALL. About one third of B-ALL cases show an abnormal karyotype. Combining data obtained by immunophenotyping, karyotyping and molecular cytogenetic analyses allows for a better understanding of this heterogeneous disease. This study reports an exceptional B-ALL case with a poor prognosis and unique complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed, i.e., a translocation involving the six chromosomal regions 1q42, 4q21, 4q24, 4q35 (twice), 8q22 and 10p15.3 besides 9q34 and 22q11.2.
childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; BCR/ABL positive; chromosomal aberrations; fluorescence in situ hybridization; multicolor banding
The reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11), leading to the formation of two fusion genes, BCR/ABL and ABL/BCR, is found in 90–95% of cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). ABL-BCR expression does not correlate with prognosis, as assessed by cytogenetic response, since the ABL/BCR gene is expressed in only a proportion of CML patients. This study examined an exceptional BCR/ABL-positive CML case with inversion in 9q22q34 leading to the absence of ABL/BCR. Moreover, an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 10 and 17 which caused deletion of the TP53 gene was identified. The TP53 gene plays a potential role in CML progression, and loss of TP53 may be regarded as a poor prognostic factor.
chronic myeloid leukemia; chromosomal aberrations; cytogenetic; fluorescence in situ hybridization; multicolor banding probe; tumor suppressor gene TP53
Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are still a problem in cytogenetic diagnostic and genetic counseling. This holds especially true for the rare cases with multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Most such cases are reported to be clinically severely affected due to the chromosomal imbalances induced by the presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Here we report the first case of a patient having four different small supernumerary marker chromosomes which, apart from slight developmental retardation in youth and non-malignant hyperpigmentation, presented no other clinical signs.
Our patient was a 30-year-old Caucasian man, delivered by caesarean section because of macrosomy. At birth he presented with bilateral cryptorchidism but no other birth defects. At age of around two years he showed psychomotor delay and a bilateral convergent strabismus. Later he had slight learning difficulties, with normal social behavior and now lives an independent life as an adult. Apart from hypogenitalism, he has multiple hyperpigmented nevi all over his body, short feet with pes cavus and claw toes. At age of 30 years, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 50,XY,+min(6)(:p11.1-> q11.1:),+min(8)(:p11.1->q11.1:),+min(11)(:p11.11->q11:),+min(12)(:p11.2~12->q10:), leading overall to a small partial trisomy in 12p11.1~12.1.
Including this case, four single case reports are available in the literature with a karyotype 50,XN,+4mar. For prenatally detected multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes in particular we learn from this case that such a cytogenetic condition may be correlated with a positive clinical outcome.
Premature ovarian failure (POF) has repeatedly been associated to X-chromosome deletions. FMR1 gene premutation allele's carrier women have an increased risk for POF. We intent to determine the cause of POF in a 29 year old female, evaluating both of these situations.
Concomitant analysis of FMR1 gene CGG repeat number and karyotype revealed an X-chromosome terminal deletion. Fluorescence in situ further characterized the breakpoint. A methylation assay for FMR1 gene allowed to determine its methylation status, and hence, the methylation status of the normal X-chromosome.
We report a POF patient with a 46,X,del(X)(q26) karyotype and with skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the structural abnormal X-chromosome.
Despite the hemizygosity of FMR1 gene, the patient does not present Fragile X syndrome features, since the normal X-chromosome is not subject to methylation. The described deletion supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of X-linked genes can be on the basis of POF, and special attention should be paid to X-linked genes in region Xq28 since they escape inactivation and might have a role in this disorder. A full clinical and cytogenetic characterization of all POF cases is important to highlight a pattern and help to understand which genes are crucial for normal ovarian development.
Genomic imbalances constitute a major cause of congenital and developmental abnormalities. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by various de novo mutations in the facilitated human glucose transporter 1 gene (1p34.2) and patients with this syndrome have been diagnosed with hypoglycorrhachia, mental and developmental delay, microcephaly and seizures. Furthermore, 1q terminal deletions have been submitted in the recent reports and the absence of corpus callosum has been related to the deletion between C1orf100 and C1orf121 in 1q44.
This study reports on a sibling pair with developmental delay, mental retardation, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism, ataxia and impaired speech. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1 in both patients. FISH and MCB analysis showed two interstitial deletions at 1p34.2 and 1q44. SNP array and array-CGH analysis also determined the sizes of deletions detailed. The deleted region on 1p34.2 encompasses 33 genes, among which is GLUT1 gene (SLC2A1). However, the deleted region on 1q44 includes 59 genes and distal-proximal breakpoints were located in the ZNF672 gene and SMYD3 gene, respectively.
Haploinsufficiency of GLUT1 leads to GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, consistent with the phenotype in patients of this study. Conversely, in the deleted region on 1q44, none of the genes are related to findings in these patients. Additionally, the results confirm previous reports on that corpus callosal development may depend on the critical gene(s) lying in 1q44 proximal to the SMYD3 gene.
Uniparental disomy (UPD) is often considered as an event to be characterized exclusively by molecular genetic or epigenetic approaches. This review shows that at least one third of UPD cases emerge in connection with or due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Thus, additional (molecular) cytogenetic characterization of UPD cases is essential. Up to now > 1,100 UPD cases detected in clinical, non-tumor cases are reported in the literature. Recently, these cases were summarized in a regularly updated, freely available online database http://www.med.uni-jena.de/fish/sSMC/00START-UPD.htm. Based of this, here the presently known imprinting syndromes, the chromosomal contribution to UPD phenomenon, and the cytogenetic subgroups of UPD, including cases with normal, abnormal balanced or unbalanced karyotype (like e.g. small supernumerary marker chromosomes and Robertsonian translocations) and segmental UPD are reviewed. Furthermore, chromosome fragmentation as a possible mechanism of trisomic rescue is discussed, which might help to explain the observed 1:9 rate of maternal versus paternal UPD present in cases with original trisomic karyotypes. Overall, as UPD is more but an interesting rarity, the genetic background of each "UPD-patient" needs to be characterized besides by molecular methods, also by molecular cytogenetics in detail.
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in almost all cases with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Around 5-10% of these patients show complex translocations involving other chromosomes in addition to and/or besides chromosomes 9 and 22. As nowadays most CML cases are treated with Imatinib, variant rearrangements have in general no specific prognostic significance, though events of therapy resistance remain to be studied.
Here we report a Ph chromosome positive patient with hematological typical chronic phase CML. Untypically, an unbalanced complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 16 and 17 leading to a deletion of 16pter and partial trisomy of 17q21 to 17qter, was identified besides a trisomy 8 and an additional Ph chromosome in a part of malignant cells.
Here a novel and cytogenetically unique case of a Ph chromosome positive CML clinically in chronic phase is reported, having complex secondary chromosomal aberrations. Thus, CML patients with complex chromosomal changes are nonetheless treatable by Imatinib.