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1.  Attenuation of miR-126 Activity Expands HSC In Vivo without Exhaustion 
Cell Stem Cell  2012;11(6):799-811.
Summary
Lifelong blood cell production is governed through the poorly understood integration of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic control of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) coordinately regulate multiple targets within signaling networks, making them attractive candidate HSC regulators. We report that miR-126, a miRNA expressed in HSC and early progenitors, plays a pivotal role in restraining cell-cycle progression of HSC in vitro and in vivo. miR-126 knockdown by using lentiviral sponges increased HSC proliferation without inducing exhaustion, resulting in expansion of mouse and human long-term repopulating HSC. Conversely, enforced miR-126 expression impaired cell-cycle entry, leading to progressively reduced hematopoietic contribution. In HSC/early progenitors, miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway, attenuating signal transduction in response to extrinsic signals. These data establish that miR-126 sets a threshold for HSC activation and thus governs HSC pool size, demonstrating the importance of miRNA in the control of HSC function.
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
► miR-126 is a novel regulator of the HSC quiescence/proliferation equilibrium ► Reduction in miR-126 induces an expansion of long-term HSC without exhaustion ► Constitutive miR-126 expression promotes HSC quiescence and progenitor proliferation ► miR-126 attenuates PI3K/AKT activation in response to cytokine stimulation
miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway to promote HSC quiescence and progenitor proliferation.
doi:10.1016/j.stem.2012.09.001
PMCID: PMC3517970  PMID: 23142521
2.  Human, viral or mutant human IL-10 expressed after local adenovirus-mediated gene transfer are equally effective in ameliorating disease pathology in a rabbit knee model of antigen-induced arthritis 
IL-10 is a Th2 cytokine important for inhibiting cell-mediated immunity while promoting humoral responses. Human IL-10 (hIL-10) has anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive as well as immunostimulatory characteristics, whereas viral IL-10 (vIL-10), a homologue of hIL-10 encoded by Epstein Barr virus (EBV), lacks several immunostimulatory functions. The immunostimulatory characteristic of hIL-10 has been attributed to a single amino acid, isoleucine at position 87, which in vIL-10 is alanine. A mutant hIL-10 in which isoleucine has been substituted (mut.hIL-10) is biologically active with only immunosuppressive, but not immunostimulatory, functions, making it a potentially superior therapeutic for inflammatory diseases. To compare the efficacy of mut.hIL-10 with hIL-10 and vIL-10 in blocking the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, we used replication defective adenoviral vectors to deliver intra-articularly the gene encoding hIL-10, vIL-10 or mut.hIL-10 to antigen-induced arthritic (AIA) knee joints in rabbits. Intra-articular expression of hIL-10, vIL-10, and mut.hIL-10 resulted in significant improvement of the pathology in the treated joints to similar levels. These observed changes included a significant reduction in intra-articular leukocytosis and the degree of synovitis, as well as normalization of cartilage matrix metabolism. Our results suggest that hIL-10, vIL-10, and mut.hIL-10 are all equally therapeutic in the rabbit AIA model for treating disease pathology.
doi:10.1186/ar1960
PMCID: PMC1779418  PMID: 16704745
3.  Lessons learned from gene transfer approaches 
Arthritis Research  1999;1(1):21-24.
Recent technological advances allow the transfer of genes to the synovial lining of joints. As well as opening novel opportunities for therapy, these techniques provide valuable new tools for the study of synovitis and other aspects of the biology of joints in health and disease. This article reviews briefly the results of experiments in which selected genes have been transferred to the knee joints of healthy rabbits and rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar6
PMCID: PMC128865  PMID: 11094409
animal model; cartilage; cytokine; gene therapy; growth factor; rheumatoid arthritis; synovium

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