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1.  Interrelationships Between Maternal Carotenoid Status and Newborn Infant Macular Pigment Optical Density and Carotenoid Status 
Purpose.
Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants.
Methods.
We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry.
Results.
We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother–infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006).
Conclusions.
Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.
Systemic carotenoid status was measured in mothers and their newborn infants, and macular pigment was measured in a subset of the enrolled infants. Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than maternal lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero.
doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12331
PMCID: PMC3747792  PMID: 23838770
macular pigment; carotenoid; nutrition; lutein; zeaxanthin
2.  Parathyroid Hormone Related-Protein Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85803.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) possesses a variety of physiological and developmental functions and is also known to facilitate the progression of many common cancers, notably their skeletal invasion, primarily by increasing bone resorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PTHrP could promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer stem cells that is critically involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. EMT was observed in DU 145 prostate cancer cells stably overexpressing either the 1-141 or 1-173 isoform of PTHrP, where there was upregulation of Snail and vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin relative to parental DU 145. By contrast, the opposite effect was observed in PC-3 prostate cancer cells where high levels of PTHrP were knocked-down via lentiviral siRNA transduction. Increased tumor progression was observed in PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells while decreased progression was observed in PTHrP-knockdown PC-3 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 formed larger tumors when implanted orthoptopically into nude mice and in one case resulted in spinal metastasis, an effect not observed among mice injected with parental DU 145 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells also caused significant bone destruction when injected into the tibiae of nude mice, while parental DU 145 cells caused little to no destruction of bone. Together, these results suggest that PTHrP may work through EMT to promote an aggressive and metastatic phenotype in prostate cancer, a pathway of importance in cancer stem cells. Thus, continued efforts to elucidate the pathways involved in PTHrP-induced EMT as well as to develop ways to specifically target PTHrP signaling may lead to more effective therapies for prostate cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085803
PMCID: PMC3899059  PMID: 24465715
3.  The Novel Development of an Experimental Model of Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning using Intravenous Amlodipine 
Background
Cardiovascular drug poisoning remains a leading cause of fatality. Within this class, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) account for the majority of deaths. CCBs are typically categorized as dihydropyridines (i.e. amlodipine or nifedipine) versus the non-dihydropyridine (i.e. verapamil and diltiazem) which are the most potent and once considered the CCB type responsible for all CCB-related deaths. Most recently, dihydropyridine deaths have increased. While there are established models of nondihydropyridine poisoning there currently are no established experimental models of dihydropyridine poisoning.
Methods
Electrocardiogram electrodes and intravenous lines were placed in anesthetized Spraque-Dawley rats. Various doses of amlodipine were administrated as a constant infusion to mimic continued gastrointestinal absorption. Intravenous amlodipine dosing was determined by the Dixon “up-and-down” method. Animals were observed for a total of two hours and death or survival was recorded.
Results
Various solvents were used such as tween and ethanol. Amlodipine was successfully dissolved in 20% DMSO. The maximum likelihood estimate for LD50 was 8.65 mg/kg (SE, +/− 2.67 mg/kg). Conclusions: A reliable experimental model of dihydropyridine poisoning using intravenous amlodipine is presented which will allow future studies concerning pathophysiology of shock from dihydropyridine poisoning and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3886834  PMID: 24416727
Cardiovascular drug; LD50; Dihydropyridine
4.  Fluorescence-guided surgery of human colon cancer increases complete resection resulting in cures in an orthotopic nude mouse model 
The Journal of surgical research  2012;179(1):87-93.
Background
We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes in fluorescent orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer.
Methods
We established fluorescent orthotopic mouse models of human colon cancer expressing a fluorescent protein. Tumors were resected under bright light surgery (BLS) or FGS. Pre- and post-operative images with the OV-100 Small Animal Imaging System were obtained to assess extent of surgical resection.
Results
All mice with primary tumor which had undergone FGS had complete resection as compared to 58% of mice in the BLS group (p=0.001). FGS resulted in decreased recurrence compared to BLS (33% vs 62%, p=0.049), and lengthened disease-free median survival from 9 weeks to >36 weeks. The median overall survival increased from 16 weeks in the BLS group to 31 weeks in the FGS group. FGS resulted in a cure in 67% of mice (alive without evidence of tumor at >6 months post-surgery) compared to only 37% of mice which underwent BLS (p=0.049).
Conclusions
Surgical outcomes in orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer were signficantly improved with FGS. The current study can be translated to the clinic by various effective methods of fluorescently labeling tumors.
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2012.08.052
PMCID: PMC3518733  PMID: 23079571
colorectal cancer; orthotopic mouse models; fluorescence; resection; survival Short title: Fluorescence guided surgery for colon cancer
5.  Effects of Glucose Control and Variability on Endothelial Function and Repair in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes 
ISRN Endocrinology  2013;2013:876547.
Background. Endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation are precursors of cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and occur even in adolescents with T1D. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship of endothelial dysfunction to various measures of glycemia. Research Design and Methods. Forearm blood flow (FBF, venous occlusion plethysmography) was measured before and after 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion in 17 adolescents with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes. Endothelial function was assessed as postocclusion FBF and forearm vascular resistance (FVR, mean arterial pressure/FBF). Fasting glucose, 72 hour mean glucose and standard deviation from continuous glucose monitoring, hemoglobin A1c, and hemoglobin A1c by duration area under the curve were used to assess immediate, short-term, and intermediate- and long-term glycemia. Results. Postocclusion FBF (r = −0.53, P = 0.030) negatively correlated and postocclusion FVR positively correlated (r = 0.52, P = 0.031) with hemoglobin A1c levels. FVR was positively associated with log 3 day mean glucose (r = 0.55, P = 0.027). Postocclusion FBF (2.8 ± 1.1 versus 3.4 ± 0.5 mL/dL/min, mean ± SE, P = 0.084) tended to be lower and FVR (31.4 ± 10.4 versus 23.9 ± 4.4 mmHg dL min/mL, P = 0.015) was significantly higher in subjects with hemoglobin A1c above the median (8.3%) compared to those with lower hemoglobin A1c levels. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that poor intermediate-term glycemic control is associated with impaired endothelial function.
doi:10.1155/2013/876547
PMCID: PMC3893838  PMID: 24490081
6.  Physical limits of cell migration: Control by ECM space and nuclear deformation and tuning by proteolysis and traction force 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2013;201(7):1069-1084.
The physical limits of cell migration in dense porous environments are dependent upon the available space and the deformability of the nucleus and are modulated by matrix metalloproteinases, integrins and actomyosin function.
Cell migration through 3D tissue depends on a physicochemical balance between cell deformability and physical tissue constraints. Migration rates are further governed by the capacity to degrade ECM by proteolytic enzymes, particularly matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and integrin- and actomyosin-mediated mechanocoupling. Yet, how these parameters cooperate when space is confined remains unclear. Using MMP-degradable collagen lattices or nondegradable substrates of varying porosity, we quantitatively identify the limits of cell migration by physical arrest. MMP-independent migration declined as linear function of pore size and with deformation of the nucleus, with arrest reached at 10% of the nuclear cross section (tumor cells, 7 µm2; T cells, 4 µm2; neutrophils, 2 µm2). Residual migration under space restriction strongly depended upon MMP-dependent ECM cleavage by enlarging matrix pore diameters, and integrin- and actomyosin-dependent force generation, which jointly propelled the nucleus. The limits of interstitial cell migration thus depend upon scaffold porosity and deformation of the nucleus, with pericellular collagenolysis and mechanocoupling as modulators.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201210152
PMCID: PMC3691458  PMID: 23798731
7.  Stromal-cell and cancer-cell exosomes leading the metastatic exodus for the promised niche 
Exosomes are thought to play an important role in metastasis. Luga and colleagues have described the production of exosomes by stromal cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts that are taken up by breast cancer cells and are then loaded with Wnt 11, which is associated with stimulation of the invasiveness and metastasis of the breast cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that exosomes produced by breast cancer cells are taken up by stromal fibroblasts and other stromal cells, suggesting that exosomes are agents of cross-talk between cancer and stromal cells to stimulate metastasis. Imaging of exosomes by labeling with fluorescent proteins will enlighten the process by which exosomes enhance metastasis, including premetastatic niche formation.
doi:10.1186/bcr3426
PMCID: PMC3707067  PMID: 23806092
8.  Ascorbic Acid Blocks Hyperglycemic Impairment of Endothelial Function in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes 
Pediatric diabetes  2012;13(8):607-610.
Objective
To determine whether acute acorbic acid infusions alters the effect of hyperglycemia on endothelial function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Research Design and Methods
The forearm blood flow (FBF) reactive hyperemic response to 5 min of upper arm occlusion was studied in 8 adolescents with type 1 diabetes during euglycemic and hyperglycemic insulin clamp (40 mU/m2/min) with and without ascorbic acid infusion (3 mg/min).
Results
The ratio of post-occlusion to pre-occlusion FBF decreased during hyperglycemia without ascorbic acid (p=0.013) but did not change during hyperglycemia with ascorbic acid. The changes during hyperglycemia were different between the two studies (p=0.038). Similar results were found when the percent change in forearm vascular resistance following occlusion was assessed.
Conclusions
These results indicate that antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid blocks acute hyperglycemic impairment of endothelial function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-5448.2012.00882.x
PMCID: PMC3505260  PMID: 22925199
9.  Blue-Light Reflectance Imaging of Macular Pigment in Infants and Children 
Purpose.
While the role of the macular pigment carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration has been extensively studied in adults, comparatively little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital video fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children.
Methods.
We used blue light reflectance to image the macular pigment in premature babies at the time of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and in children aged under 7 years who were undergoing examinations under anesthesia for other reasons. We correlated the MPOD with skin carotenoid levels measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, serum carotenoids measured by HPLC, and dietary carotenoid intake.
Results.
We enrolled 51 infants and children ranging from preterm to age 7 years. MPOD correlated significantly with age (r = 0.36; P = 0.0142), with serum lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.44; P = 0.0049) and with skin carotenoid levels (r = 0.42; P = 0.0106), but not with dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake (r = 0.13; P = 0.50). All premature infants had undetectable macular pigment, and most had unusually low serum and skin carotenoid concentrations.
Conclusions.
Our most remarkable finding is the undetectable MPOD in premature infants. This may be due in part to foveal immaturity, but the very low levels of serum and skin carotenoids suggest that these infants are carotenoid insufficient as a consequence of low dietary intake and/or severe oxidative stress. The potential value of carotenoid supplementation in the prevention of ROP and other disorders of prematurity should be a fruitful direction for further investigation.
Little is known about the physiology and function of lutein and zeaxanthin in the developing eye. We therefore developed a protocol using a digital fundus camera (RetCam) to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and distributions in premature infants and in children.
doi:10.1167/iovs.13-11891
PMCID: PMC3680006  PMID: 23652486
macular pigment; carotenoid; imaging; lutein; zeaxanthin
10.  Development of a Clinically-Precise Mouse Model of Rectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79453.
Currently-used rodent tumor models, including transgenic tumor models, or subcutaneously growing tumors in mice, do not sufficiently represent clinical cancer. We report here development of methods to obtain a highly clinically-accurate rectal cancer model. This model was established by intrarectal transplantation of mouse rectal cancer cells, stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), followed by disrupting the epithelial cell layer of the rectal mucosa by instilling an acetic acid solution. Early-stage tumor was detected in the rectal mucosa by 6 days after transplantation. The tumor then became invasive into the submucosal tissue. The tumor incidence was 100% and mean volume (±SD) was 1232.4 ± 994.7 mm3 at 4 weeks after transplantation detected by fluorescence imaging. Spontaneous lymph node metastasis and lung metastasis were also found approximately 4 weeks after transplantation in over 90% of mice. This rectal tumor model precisely mimics the natural history of rectal cancer and can be used to study early tumor development, metastasis, and discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutics for this treatment-resistant disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079453
PMCID: PMC3827128  PMID: 24265772
11.  Recurrent Tissue-Specific mtDNA Mutations Are Common in Humans 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(11):e1003929.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation can affect phenotypic variation; therefore, knowing its distribution within and among individuals is of importance to understanding many human diseases. Intra-individual mtDNA variation (heteroplasmy) has been generally assumed to be random. We used massively parallel sequencing to assess heteroplasmy across ten tissues and demonstrate that in unrelated individuals there are tissue-specific, recurrent mutations. Certain tissues, notably kidney, liver and skeletal muscle, displayed the identical recurrent mutations that were undetectable in other tissues in the same individuals. Using RFLP analyses we validated one of the tissue-specific mutations in the two sequenced individuals and replicated the patterns in two additional individuals. These recurrent mutations all occur within or in very close proximity to sites that regulate mtDNA replication, strongly implying that these variations alter the replication dynamics of the mutated mtDNA genome. These recurrent variants are all independent of each other and do not occur in the mtDNA coding regions. The most parsimonious explanation of the data is that these frequently repeated mutations experience tissue-specific positive selection, probably through replication advantage.
Author Summary
DNA mutations are expected to be formed randomly, thus any reproducible pattern of DNA somatic mutations across multiple individuals or even across organs within each individual is highly unexpected. Using next generation sequencing of multiple tissues from the same individuals we found several somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA that appear in a heteroplasmic state in all individuals examined, but only in particular tissues. These mutations were only found in known regions of replication control for the mitochondrial DNA. These data imply the presence of tissue-specific positive selection for these variants.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003929
PMCID: PMC3820769  PMID: 24244193
12.  MAJOR LIVER RESECTION STIMULATES STROMAL RECRUITMENT AND METASTASIS COMPARED TO REPEATED MINOR RESECTION 
The Journal of surgical research  2012;178(1):280-287.
Background
This study examines the effects of types of liver resection on the growth of liver and lung metastasis.
Materials and Methods
Experimental liver metastases were established by spleen injection of the Colon 26 murine adenocarcinoma cell line expressing GFP into transgenic nude mice expressing RFP. Experimental lung metastases were established by tail vein injection with Colon 26-GFP. Three days after cell injection, groups of mice underwent liver resection (35%+35% [repeated minor resection] vs. 70% [major resection]). Metastatic tumor growth was measured by color-coded fluorescence imaging of the GFP-expressing cancer cells and RFP-expressing stroma.
Results
Although major and repeated minor resection removed the same volume of liver parenchyma, the two procedures had very different effects on metastatic tumor growth: major resection, stimulated liver and lung metastatic growth as well as recruitment of host-derived stroma compared to repeated minor resection. Repeated minor resection did not stimulate metastasis or stromal recruitment. There was no significant difference in liver regeneration between the two groups. Host-derived stroma density, which is stimulated by major resection compared to repeated minor resection, may stimulate growth in the liver-metastatic tumor. TGF-β is also preferentially stimulated by major resection and may play a role in stroma and metastasis stimulation.
Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that when liver resection is necessary, repeated minor liver resection is superior to major liver resection, since major resection, in contrast to repeated minor resection, stimulates metastasis, which should be taken into consideration in clinical situations indicating liver resection.
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2012.03.020
PMCID: PMC3396724  PMID: 22487397
Nude mice; liver resection; lung metastasis; liver metastasis; stroma; green fluorescent protein; red fluorescent protein; color-coded imaging
13.  Multipotent nestin-expressing stem cells capable of forming neurons are located in the upper, middle and lower part of the vibrissa hair follicle 
Cell Cycle  2012;11(18):3513-3517.
We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells. Nestin-expressing cells were initially identified in the hair follicle bulge area (BA) using a transgenic mouse model in which the nestin promoter drives the green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). The hair-follicle ND-GFP-expressing cells are keratin 15-negative and CD34-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we showed that the nestin-expressing stem cells could affect nerve and spinal cord regeneration after injection in mouse models. In the present study, we separated the mouse vibrissa hair follicle into three parts (upper, middle and lower). Each part of the follicle was cultured separately in DMEM-F12 containing B-27 and 1% methylcellulose supplemented with basic FGF. After 2 mo, the nestin-expressing cells from each of the separated parts of the hair follicle proliferated and formed spheres. Upon transfer of the spheres to RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% FBS, the nestin-expressing cells in the spheres differentiated to neurons, as well as glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes. The differentiated cells were produced by spheres which formed from nestin-expressing cells from all segments of the hair follicle. However, the differentiation potential is greatest in the upper part of the follicle. This result is consistent with trafficking of nestin-expressing cells throughout the hair follicle from the bulge area to the dermal papilla that we previously observed. The nestin-expressing cells from the upper part of the follicle produced spheres in very large amounts, which in turn differentiated to neurons and other cell types. The results of the present study demonstrate that multipotent, nestin-expressing stem cells are present throughout the hair follicle and that the upper part of the follicle can produce the stem cells in large amounts that could be used for nerve and spinal cord repair.
doi:10.4161/cc.21803
PMCID: PMC3466560  PMID: 22918245
hair follicle; bulge area; nestin; outer-root sheath; stem cell; green fluorescent protein; differentiation; neuron
14.  A Descriptive Comparison of Alcohol-Related Presentations at a Large Urban Hospital Center from 1902 to 2009 
Journal of Medical Toxicology  2012;8(3):271-277.
Although alcohol use has long been a significant cause of hospital presentations, little is published regarding the long-term demographic changes that have occurred at a single hospital site. To address this deficit, we prospectively studied all acute alcohol-related presentations to Bellevue Hospital Center (New York, NY) and compared this contemporary data set with one from the same institution from 1902 to 1935. We prospectively identified all patients presenting to the emergency department because of acute alcohol use over an 8-week period in 2009. We described the basic attributes of patients presenting currently because of alcohol and compared these data to those previously described between 1902 and 1935. We also compared our census data with contemporaneous data from all patients presenting to this hospital site. During the study period, 560 patients presented because of acute alcohol use which extrapolated to an estimated 3,800 patients over the calendar year. This compares to 7,600 presentations recorded annually early in the twentieth century. Twelve percent of patients in 2009 were female as compared to 18 % of patients between 1934 and 1935. Patients with alcohol-related presentations in 2009 were more likely to be admitted than contemporaneous patients without an alcohol-related presentation (30 vs. 19 % admitted; p < 0.001). Since first measured 110 years ago at one large New York City hospital, alcohol-related presentations remain common representing 5 % of all emergency department visits. This demonstrates alcoholism's continuing toll on society's limited medical resources and on public health as a whole.
doi:10.1007/s13181-012-0230-6
PMCID: PMC3550172  PMID: 22555763
Alcohol; Demographics; Emergency department; Emergency medicine; Urban
15.  In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Reveals the Promotion of Mammary Tumorigenesis by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69658.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which are recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME) and influence tumor progression through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effects of MSCs on the tunmorigenic capacity of 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells. It was found that MSC-conditioned medium increased the proliferation, migration, and efficiency of mammosphere formation of 4T1 cells in vitro. When co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, 4T1 cells showed enhanced tumor growth and generated increased spontaneous lung metastasis. Using in vivo fluorescence color-coded imaging, the interaction between GFP-expressing MSCs and RFP-expressing 4T1 cells was monitored. As few as five 4T1 cells could give rise to tumor formation when co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, but no tumor was formed when five or ten 4T1 cells were implanted alone. The elevation of tumorigenic potential was further supported by gene expression analysis, which showed that when 4T1 cells were in contact with MSCs, several oncogenes, cancer markers, and tumor promoters were upregulated. Moreover, in vivo longitudinal fluorescence imaging of tumorigenesis revealed that MSCs created a vascularized environment which enhances the ability of 4T1 cells to colonize and proliferate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the promotion of mammary cancer progression by MSCs was achieved through the generation of a cancer-enhancing microenvironment to increase tumorigenic potential. These findings also suggest the potential risk of enhancing tumor progression in clinical cell therapy using MSCs. Attention has to be paid to patients with high risk of breast cancer when considering cell therapy with MSCs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069658
PMCID: PMC3723858  PMID: 23936067
16.  Bugging Tumors 
Cancer discovery  2012;2(7):588-590.
Summary
The effects of bacteria on cancer patients have been observed for at least two centuries. Recent studies in animal models of cancer have demonstrated efficacy of both anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridia and Bifidobacteria and facultative anaerobes such as Salmonella. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Flentie et al have identified five Salmonella promoters that are specifically stimulated by cancer cells as well as by acid pH, a property of most tumors. One of these promoters (STM1787) was linked to a Shiga toxin gene and inserted in a wild-type Salmonella typhimurium strain, which showed in vivo antitumor efficacy. Approaches to further improving the efficacy of S. typhimurium with the use of tumor-targeting mutations are discussed. Since the barriers to efficacy of standard therapy of cancer appear to be opportunities for bacterial cancer therapy, the future of bacterial therapy of cancer appears bright.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0227
PMCID: PMC3706103  PMID: 22787089
17.  Fluorescence-Guided Surgery Allows for More Complete Resection of Pancreatic Cancer Resulting in Longer Disease-Free Survival Compared to Standard Surgery in Orthotopic Mouse Models 
Background
Negative surgical margins are vital to achieve cure and prolong survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes and reduce recurrence rates in orthotopic mouse models of human pancreatic cancer.
Study Design
A randomized active-control pre-clinical trial comparing bright light surgery (BLS) to fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) was utilized. Orthotopic mouse models of human pancreatic cancer were established using the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). Two weeks after orthotopic implantation, tumors were resected with BLS or FGS. Pre- and postoperative images were obtained with the OV-100 Small Animal Imaging System to assess completeness of surgical resection. Postoperatively, whole body imaging was done to assess recurrence and follow tumor progression. Six weeks postoperatively, mice were sacrificed to evaluate primary pancreatic and metastatic tumor burden.
Results
A more complete resection of pancreatic cancer was achieved using FGS compared to BLS: 98.9% vs. 77.1%, p=0.005. The majority of mice undergoing BLS (63.2%) had evidence of gross disease with no complete resections, whereas 20% of mice undergoing FGS had complete resection and an additional 75% had only minimal residual disease (p=0.0001). The mean postoperative tumor burden was significantly less with FGS compared to BLS: 0.08 ± 0. 06 mm2 vs. 2.64 ± 0.63 mm2, p=0.001. The primary tumor burden at termination was significantly less with FGS compared to BLS: 19.3 ± 5.3 mm2 vs. 6.2 ± 3.6 mm2, p=0.048. FGS resulted in significantly longer disease-free survival than BLS (p=0.02, HR=0.39, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.88)).
Conclusions
Surgical outcomes were improved in pancreatic cancer using fluorescence-guidance. This novel approach has significant potential to improve surgical treatment of cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.02.021
PMCID: PMC3383387  PMID: 22632917
pancreatic cancer; orthotopic mouse models; surgery; fluorescence; resection; recurrence; survival
18.  Incidence of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Adults Following Drug Overdose 
Academic Emergency Medicine  2012;19(7):843-849.
Objectives
Drug overdose is a leading cause of cardiac arrest and is currently the second leading cause of overall injury-related fatality in the United States. Despite these statistics, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events (ACVEs) in emergency department (ED) patients following acute drug overdose is unknown. With this study, we address the 2010 American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care update calling for research to characterize the incidence of in-hospital ACVE following drug overdose.
Methods
This was a prospective cohort study at two tertiary care hospitals over 12 months. Consecutive adult ED patients with acute drug overdose were prospectively followed to hospital discharge. The main outcome was occurrence of in-hospital ACVE, defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following: myocardial injury, shock, ventricular dysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest.
Results
There were 459 ED patients with suspected drug overdose, of whom 274 acute drug overdose qualified and were included for analysis (mean [±SE] age = 40.3 [±1.0] years; 63% male). Hospital course was complicated by ACVE in 16 patients (some had more than one): 12 myocardial injury, three shock, two dysrhythmia, and three cardiac arrest. The incidence of ACVE was 5.8% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6% to 9.3%) and 10.7% (95% CI = 6.6% to 16.9%) among inpatient admissions, with all-cause mortality at 0.7% (95% CI = 0.2% to 2.6%).
Conclusions
Based on this study of adult patients with acute drug overdose, ACVE may occur in up to 9.3% overall and up to 16.9% of hospital admissions. Implications for the evaluation and triage of ED patients with acute drug overdose require further study with regard to optimizing interventions to prevent adverse events.
doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01397.x
PMCID: PMC3399948  PMID: 22725631
19.  IL-17A is Essential for Cell Activation and Inflammatory Gene Circuits in Psoriasis 
Background
In psoriasis, inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia are thought to be controlled by T cell-derived cytokines. Evidence suggests that the Th17 cell cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) may play a role in disease pathogenesis.
Objective
To understand the impact that neutralization of IL-17 has on the clinical features of psoriasis and to understand the role that IL-17 has in inflammatory pathways underlying psoriasis in human subjects.
Methods
We examined skin lesions obtained from 40 subjects participating in a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab (previously LY2439821), in which subjects received subcutaneous 5mg, 15mg, 50mg or 150mg ixekizumab or placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 4.
Results
There were significant, dose-dependent reductions from baseline in keratinocyte proliferation, hyperplasia, epidermal thickness, infiltration into the dermis and epidermis by T cells and dendritic cells and keratinocyte expression of innate defense peptides at 2 weeks. By week 6, the skin appeared normal. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and microarrays revealed an ablation of the disease-defining mRNA expression profile by 2 weeks after the first dose of study drug. The effect of IL-17 blockade on expression of genes synergistically regulated by IL-17 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was of higher magnitude at 2 weeks than in prior studies with TNF antagonism.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that IL-17 is a key “driver” cytokine in psoriasis that activates pathogenic inflammation. Neutralizing IL-17 with ixekizumab may be a successful therapeutic strategy.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.024
PMCID: PMC3470466  PMID: 22677045
Psoriasis; interleukin -17; Th17 cells; TNF
20.  MULTI-COLOR PALLET OF FLUORESCENT PROTEINS FOR IMAGING THE TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT OF ORTHOTOPIC TUMORGRAFT MOUSE MODELS OF CLINICAL PANCREATIC CANCER SPECIMENS 
Journal of cellular biochemistry  2012;113(7):2290-2295.
Pancreatic-cancer-patient tumor specimens were initially established subcutaneously in SCID-NOD mice immediately after surgery. The patient tumors were then harvested from SCID-NOD mice and passaged orthotopically in transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing RFP. The primary patient tumors acquired RFP-expressing stroma. The RFP-expressing stroma included cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Further passage to transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing GFP resulted in tumors and metastasis that acquired GFP stroma in addition to their RFP stroma, including CAFs and TAMs and blood vessels. The RFP stroma persisted in the tumors growing in the GFP mouse. Further passage to transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing CFP resulted in tumors and metastasis acquiring CFP stroma in addition to persisting RFP and GFP stroma including RFP- and GFP-expressing CAFs and TAMs and blood vessels. This model can be used to image primary and metastatic progression of patient pancreatic tumors to visually target stroma as well as cancer cells and individualize therapy.
doi:10.1002/jcb.24099
PMCID: PMC3566777  PMID: 22573550
human-patient pancreas cancer; imaging; tumor microenvironment; GFP; RFP; CFP
21.  Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells Promote Nerve Growth in Long-Term 3-Dimensional Gelfoam®-Supported Histoculture 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67153.
We have previously reported that hair follicles contain multipotent stem cells which express nestin. The nestin-expressing cells form the hair follicle sensory nerve. In vitro, the nestin-expressing hair follicle cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, the sciatic nerve was excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice). The ND-GFP cells of the sciatic nerve were also found to be multipotent as the ND-GFP cells in the hair follicle. When the ND-GFP cells in the mouse sciatic nerve cultured on Gelfoam® and were imaged by confocal microscopy, they were observed forming fibers extending the nerve. The fibers consisted of ND-GFP-expressing spindle cells, which co-expressed the neuron marker β-III tubulin, the immature Schwann-cell marker p75NTR and TrkB which is associated with neurons. The fibers also contain nestin-negative spherical cells expressing GFAP, a Schwann-cell marker. The β-III tubulin-positive fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin, indicating they are growing axons. When the sciatic nerve from mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was co-cultured on Gelfoam® with the sciatic nerve from ND-GFP transgenic mice, the interaction of nerves was observed. Proliferating nestin-expressing cells in the injured sciatic nerve were also observed in vivo. Nestin-expressing cells were also observed in posterior nerves but not in the spinal cord itself, when placed in 3-D Gelfoam® culture. The results of the present report suggest a critical function of nestin-expressing cells in peripheral nerve growth and regeneration.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067153
PMCID: PMC3686756  PMID: 23840607
22.  Mosaicism in Stickler syndrome 
Stickler syndrome is a heterogeneous condition due to mutations in COL2A1, COL11A1, COL11A2, and COL9A1. To our knowledge, neither non-penetrance nor mosaicism for COL2A1 mutations has been reported for Stickler syndrome. We report on a family with two clinically affected sibs with Stickler syndrome who have clinically unaffected parents. Both sibs have a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 26 of COL2A1 (c.1525delT); this results in a premature termination codon downstream of the mutation site. One parent was found to have low level mosaicism in DNA extracted from whole blood. This scenario encourages consideration of molecular testing in seemingly unaffected parents for recurrence risks and potential screening for mild age-related manifestations.
doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.03.006
PMCID: PMC3674818  PMID: 22522174
Stickler syndrome; Mosaicism; COL2A1; Recurrence risk
23.  An LED Light Source and Novel Fluorophore Combinations Improve Fluorescence Laparoscopic Detection of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Models 
Background
The aim of this study was to improve fluorescence laparoscopy of pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic mouse model with the use of an LED light source and an optimal fluorophore combination.
Study Design
Human pancreatic cancer models were established with fluorescent FG-RFP, MiaPaca2-GFP, BxPC-3-RFP, and BxPC-3 cancer cells implanted in 6-week-old female athymic mice. Two weeks post-implantation, diagnostic laparoscopy was performed with a Stryker L9000 LED light source or a Stryker X8000 xenon light source 24 hours after tail vein injection of CEA antibodies conjugated with Alexa 488 or Alexa 555. Cancer lesions were detected and localized under each light mode. Intravital images were obtained with the OV-100 Olympus Small Animal Imaging System and Maestro CRI Small Animal Imaging System, serving as a positive control. Tumors were collected for histologic review.
Results
Fluorescence laparoscopy with a 495-nm emission filter and an LED light source enabled real-time visualization of the fluorescence-labeled tumor deposits in the peritoneal cavity. The simultaneous use of different fluorophores (Alexa 488 and Alexa 555) conjugated to antibodies brightened the fluorescence signal, enhancing detection of sub-millimeter lesions without compromising background illumination. Adjustments to the LED light source permitted simultaneous detection of tumor lesions of different fluorescent colors and surrounding structures with minimal autofluorescence.
Conclusions
Using an LED light source with adjustments to the red, blue and green wavelengths, we can simultaneously identify tumor metastases expressing fluorescent proteins of different wavelengths, which greatly enhanced the signal without compromising background illumination. Development of this technology for clinical use can improve staging and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.02.009
PMCID: PMC3360832  PMID: 22542065
pancreatic cancer; orthotopic mouse models; fluorescence; laparoscopy; LED light source
24.  Visual outcomes in children with neurofibromatosis type 1–associated optic pathway glioma following chemotherapy: a multicenter retrospective analysis 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;14(6):790-797.
Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) occur in 15%–20% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1); up to half become symptomatic. There is little information regarding ophthalmologic outcomes after chemotherapy. A retrospective multicenter study was undertaken to evaluate visual outcomes following chemotherapy for NF1-associated OPG, to identify risks for visual loss, and to ascertain indications for treatment. Subjects included children undergoing initial treatment for OPGs with chemotherapy between January 1997 and December 2007. Of 115 subjects, visual acuity (VA) decline and tumor progression were the primary reasons to initiate treatment, although there were significant differences in the pattern of indications cited among the institutions. Eighty-eight subjects and 168 eyes were evaluable for VA outcome. At completion of chemotherapy, VA improved (32% of subjects), remained stable (40%), or declined (28%). Tumor location was the most consistent prognostic factor for poor VA outcome. There was poor correlation between radiographic and VA outcomes. Although visual outcomes for NF1-associated OPG are not optimal, approximately one-third of children regain some vision with treatment. Since radiographic outcomes do not predict visual outcomes, their use as the primary measure of treatment success is in question. The lack of consensus regarding the indications for treatment underlines the need for better standardization of care. Future clinical trials for OPG require standardized visual assessment methods and clear definitions of visual outcomes.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos076
PMCID: PMC3367846  PMID: 22474213
neurofibromatosis; optic glioma; outcomes; visual acuity
25.  Correction: Involvement of CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor in Metastastic HER2-Positive Esophageal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):10.1371/annotation/5dafa9a8-2e6d-4487-b35f-7126141fe00e.
doi:10.1371/annotation/5dafa9a8-2e6d-4487-b35f-7126141fe00e
PMCID: PMC3661766

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