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1.  Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma: Correlation with Tumor Grading and Treatment-Related Changes 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:985950.
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for advanced stages. Unfortunately, virtually all tumors become resistant to androgen withdrawal. The progression to castration-resistance is not fully understood, although a recent paper has suggested translationally controlled tumor protein to be implicated in the process. The present study was designed to investigate the role of this protein in prostate cancer, focusing on the correlation between its expression level with tumor differentiation and response to treatment. We retrieved 292 prostatic cancer specimens; of these 153 had been treated only by radical prostatectomy and 139 had undergone radical prostatectomy after neoadjuvant treatment with combined androgen blockade therapy. Non-neoplastic controls were represented by 102 prostatic peripheral zone specimens. In untreated patients, the expression of the protein, evaluated by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, was significantly higher in tumor specimens than in non-neoplastic control, increasing as Gleason pattern and score progressed. In treated prostates, the staining was correlated with the response to treatment. An association between protein expression and the main clinicopathological factors involved in prostate cancer aggressiveness was identified. These findings suggest that the protein may be a promising prognostic factor and a target for therapy.
doi:10.1155/2015/985950
PMCID: PMC4312572  PMID: 25667934
2.  NOTCH3 IS ACTIVATED BY CHRONIC HYPOXIA AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE PROGRESSION OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER 
Prostate cancer is still the second cause of cancer-related death among men. Although patients with metastatic presentation have an ominous outcome, the vast majority of PCs are diagnosed at an early stage. Nonetheless, even among patients with clinically localized disease the outcome may vary considerably. Other than androgen sensitivity, little is known about which other signaling pathways are deranged in aggressive, localized cancers. The elucidation of such pathways may help to develop innovative therapies aimed at specific molecular targets.
We report that in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, Notch3 was activated by hypoxia and sustained cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Hypoxia also modulated cellular cholesterol content and the number and size of lipid rafts, causing a coalescence of small rafts into bigger clusters; under this experimental condition Notch3 migrated from the non-raft into the raft compartment where it co-localized with the γ-secretase complex.
We also looked at human prostate cancer biopsies and found that expression of Notch3 positively correlated with Gleason score and with expression of carbonic anhydrase IX, a marker of hypoxia. In conclusion, hypoxia triggers the activation of Notch3 which, in turn, sustains proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Notch3 pathway represents a promising target for adjuvant therapy in patients with prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28293
PMCID: PMC3788097  PMID: 23729168
Prostate Cancer; Notch3; Hypoxia; Lipid Raft; Cholesterol
3.  CT Perfusion in the Characterisation of Renal Lesions: An Added Value to Multiphasic CT 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:135013.
Objective. To prospectively evaluate if computed tomography perfusion (CTp) could be a useful tool in addition to multiphasic CT in renal lesion characterisation. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients that were scheduled for surgical resection of a renal mass with a suspicion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were enrolled. Forty-one out of 58 patients underwent total or partial nephrectomy after CTp examination, and a pathological analysis was obtained for a total of 49 renal lesions. Perfusion parameters and attenuation values at multiphasic CT for both lesion and normal cortex were analysed. All the results were compared with the histological data obtained following surgery. Results. PS and MTT values were significantly lower in malignant lesions than in the normal cortex (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, resp.); PS, MTT, and BF values were also statistically different between oncocytomas and malignant lesions. According to ROC analysis, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity to predict RCC were 95.92%, 100%, and 66.7%, respectively, for CTp whereas they were 89.80%, 93.35%, and 50%, respectively, for multiphasic CT. Conclusion. A significant difference between renal cortex and tumour CTp parameter values may suggest a malignant renal lesion. CTp could represent an added value to multiphasic CT in differentiating renal cells carcinoma from oncocytoma.
doi:10.1155/2014/135013
PMCID: PMC4145536  PMID: 25184133
4.  Tumor infiltration by chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)+ T-lymphocytes is a favorable prognostic factor in metastatic colorectal cancer 
Oncoimmunology  2012;1(4):531-532.
The immune interactions occurring within the tumor microenvironment have a critical role in determining the outcome of colorectal cancer patients. We carried-out an immunohistochemical analysis of tumor infiltrating T-lymphocytes expressing chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) in a series of colorectal cancer patients enrolled in a prospective clinical trial. We demonstrated that a high tumor infiltration score of this lymphocyte subset is predictive of longer progression free survival and overall survival.
PMCID: PMC3382880  PMID: 22754775
CCR7; colorectal cancer; prognostic factor; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
5.  Approaches to enhancing the retroviral transduction of human synoviocytes 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(4):259-263.
This report concerns a clinical trial for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), approved by the US National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration. An amphotropic retrovirus (MFG-IRAP) was used ex vivo to transfer a cDNA encoding human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) to synovium. The protocol required the transduced cells to secrete at least 30 ng IL-1Ra/106 cells per 48 h before reimplantation. Here we have evaluated various protocols for their efficiency in transducing cultures of human rheumatoid synoviocytes. The most reliably efficient methods used high titer retrovirus (approximately 108 infectious particles/ml). Transduction efficiency was increased further by exposing the cells to virus under flow-through conditions. The use of dioctadecylamidoglycylspermine (DOGS) as a polycation instead of Polybrene (hexadimethrine bromide) provided an additional small increment in efficiency. Under normal conditions of static transduction, standard titer, clinical grade retrovirus (approximately 5 × 105 infectious particles/ml) failed to achieve the expression levels required by the clinical trial. However, the shortfall could be remedied by increasing the time of transduction under static conditions, transducing under flow-through conditions, or transducing during centrifugation.
PMCID: PMC34116  PMID: 11438045
arthritis; flow-through; high-titer retrovirus; interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

Results 1-5 (5)