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1.  Could Some Geriatric Characteristics Hinder the Prescription of Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly? 
Journal of Aging Research  2014;2014:693740.
Several studies have reported underprescription of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF). We conducted an observational study on 142 out of a total of 995 consecutive ≥75 years old patients presenting AF (14%) when admitted in an emergency unit of a general hospital, in search of geriatric characteristics that might be associated with the underprescription of anticoagulation therapy (mostly antivitamin K at the time of the study). The following data was collected from patients presenting AF: medical history including treatment and comorbidities, CHADS2 score, ISAR scale (frailty), Lawton's scale (ADL), GDS scale (mood status), MUST (nutrition), and blood analysis (INR, kidney function, and albumin). Among those patients for who anticoagulation treatment was recommended (73%), only 61% were treated with it. In the group with anticoagulation therapy, the following characteristics were observed more often than in the group without such therapy: a recent (≤6 months) hospitalization and medical treatment including digoxin or based on >3 different drugs. Neither the value of the CHADS2 score, nor the geriatric characteristics could be correlated with the presence or the absence of an anticoagulation therapy. More research is thus required to identify and clarify the relative importance of patient-, physician-, and health care system-related hurdles for the prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF.
doi:10.1155/2014/693740
PMCID: PMC4175391  PMID: 25295192
2.  Increased Basal and Alum-Induced Interleukin-6 Levels in Geriatric Patients Are Associated with Cardiovascular Morbidity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81911.
Background/Aim of the study
Low-grade systemic inflammation was suggested to participate to the decline of physiological functions and increased vulnerability encountered in older patients. Geriatric syndromes encompass various features such as functional dependence, polymorbidity, depression and malnutrition. There is a strong prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors and chronic cytomegalovirus infections in the geriatric population. As these underlying conditions were proposed to influence the inflammatory state, the aim of this study was to assess their potential contribution to the association of geriatric syndromes with inflammatory parameters.
Methodology
We recruited 100 subjects in the general population or hospitalized for chronic medical conditions (age, 23-96 years). We collected information on clinical status (medical history, ongoing comorbidities, treatments and geriatric scales), biological parameters (hematological tests, cytomegalovirus serology) and cytokines production (basal and alum-induced interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels). Using stepwise backward multivariate analyses, we defined which set of clinical and biological variables could be predictive for increased inflammatory markers.
Principal Findings
We confirmed the age-associated increase of circulating IL-6 levels. In contrast to geriatric scales, we found history of cardiovascular diseases to be strongly associated for this parameter as for high IL-6 production upon ex vivo stimulation with alum.
Conclusions
Association between low-grade inflammation and geriatric conditions could be linked to underlying cardiovascular diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081911
PMCID: PMC3828251  PMID: 24244750
3.  Frailty in Old Age Is Associated with Decreased Interleukin-12/23 Production in Response to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65325.
Aging is associated with progressive alterations of immune functions, leading to higher susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and reduced vaccine responses. Data concerning cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are highly variable in old people, reflecting the heterogeneity of the geriatric population. The aim of our study was to define the relative contribution of age and clinical status on TLR-induced interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-23 production as these cytokines play an important role in the protection against intracellular and extracellular pathogens, respectively. For this purpose, we recruited 100 subjects (aged 23–96 years) in the general population or hospitalized for chronic diseases. We collected information on clinical status (medical history, ongoing comorbidities, treatments and geriatric scales), biological parameters (biochemical and hematological tests, telomere length determination, cytomegalovirus serology). Whole blood samples were stimulated with a combination of TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands. We performed univariate and stepwise backward multivariate analyses regression to define which set of clinical variables could be predictive for IL-12p70 and IL-23 production in these conditions. Our results indicated that age was not correlated with TLR-mediated IL-12p70 and IL-23 production. In contrast, poor nutritional status and frailty in subjects >75 years were associated with decreased IL-12p70 and IL-23 production. By intracytoplasmic staining, we confirmed that production of IL-12/23p40 by conventional dendritic cells (DCs) upon TLR ligation was decreased in frail patients. However, proportion of DCs and monocytes subsets, phenotypic maturation and proximal signaling events were found to be comparable in frail and healthy old subjects. These results suggest the importance of age-associated clinical parameters and not age by itself in the alteration of innate immune responses in old individuals and emphasis the importance of innate immune responses in the susceptibility of frail geriatric patients to infections.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065325
PMCID: PMC3673922  PMID: 23755218
4.  Fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older people. results of a cross-sectional study conducted in a Belgian town 
Objectives
This article aims at describing, in a Belgian town, the frequency of the fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among non-institutionalised people aged 65 years and over, and at identifying persons affected by these two issues.
Methods
Cross-sectional survey conducted in Fontaine l'Evêque (Belgium) in 2006, using a self-administered questionnaire.
Results
The participants could fill in the questionnaire on their own or with the help of a third party if needed. The latter were not taken into account in this article. Analyses covered 419 questionnaires. Fear of falling and activity restriction were reported by, respectively, 59.1% and 33.2% of participants. They were more frequent among fallers but also affected non-fallers. In logistic regression analyses: gender, the fact of living alone and the number of falls were significantly associated with fear of falling; gender, age and the number of falls were significantly associated with activity restriction.
Conclusions
Our study, despite various limitations, shows the importance of fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among older people, among fallers as well as among non-fallers. It also provides information, though limited, concerning persons affected by these two issues in Belgium, and in other contexts as well. Given the ageing of our populations, it is important to take these problems into account when caring for older people.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-70-1
PMCID: PMC3415108  PMID: 22958732
Accidental falls; activity restriction; aged; aged 80 and over; fear of falling

Results 1-4 (4)