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1.  Prevalence and distribution of beta-lactamase coding genes in third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from bloodstream infections in Cambodia 
Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Gram-negative bacteria is emerging in Asia. We report the prevalence and distribution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-coding genes in cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from bloodstream infections (BSI) in Cambodia. All Enterobacteriaceae isolated from BSI in adult patients at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of HOPE, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (2007–2010) were assessed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion and MicroScan according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Screening for ESBL, plasmidic AmpC and carbapenemase-coding genes was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing assays. Identification of the ST131 clone was performed in all CTX-M-positive Escherichia coli, using PCR targeting the papB gene. Out of 183 Enterobacteriaceae, 91 (49.7 %) isolates (84 BSI episodes) were cefotaxime-resistant: E. coli (n = 68), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 17) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 6). Most episodes were community-acquired (66/84; 78.3 %). ESBLs were present in 89/91 (97.8 %) cefotaxime-resistant isolates: 86 (96.6 %) were CTX-M, mainly CTX-M-15 (n = 41) and CTX-M-14 (n = 21). CTX-M of group 1 were frequently associated with TEM and/or OXA-1/30 coding genes and with phenotypic combined resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole–trimethoprim and gentamicin (39/50, 78.0 %). Plasmidic AmpC (CMY-2 and DHA-1 types) were found alone (n = 2) or in combination with ESBL (n = 4). Eighteen E. coli isolates were identified as B2-ST131-O25B: 11 (61.1 %) carried CTX-M-14. No carbapenemase-coding genes were detected. ESBL among Enterobacteriaceae from BSI in Cambodia is common, mainly associated with CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14. These findings warrant urgent action for the containment of antibiotic resistance in Cambodia.
PMCID: PMC4426130  PMID: 25717021
2.  Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg 
New Microbes and New Infections  2014;2(5):138-143.
In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC) O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.
PMCID: PMC4184478  PMID: 25356363
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli; enterohaemorrhagic E. coli; gastrointestinal disease; haemolytic uraemic syndrome; Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; travel
3.  Pseudo-Outbreak of Extremely Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Urinary Tract Infections Due to Contamination of an Automated Urine Analyzer 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(3):580-582.
By the end of May 2010, an increase in the number of urine specimens that were culture positive for extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in our 800-bed university hospital. This led to an infection control alert. No epidemiological link between the patients and no increase in the frequency of XDR P. aeruginosa in non-urine samples were observed. Therefore, a pseudo-outbreak due to analytical contamination in the laboratory was rapidly suspected. A prospective and retrospective search of cases was initiated, and the sampling of the automated urine analyzers used in the laboratory was performed. Antibiotypes were determined by disc diffusion, and genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From February to July 2010, 17 patients admitted to 12 different departments and 6 outpatients were included. The mixing device of the cytometric analyzer used for the numeration of urinary particles (Sysmex UF1000i) proved to be heavily contaminated. Isolates recovered from 12 patients belonged to the same antibiotype and PFGE type as the isolate recovered from the analyzer. Extensive disinfection with a broad-spectrum disinfectant and the replacement of the entire tubing was necessary to achieve the complete negativity of culture samples taken from the analyzer. A pseudo-outbreak caused by an XDR P. aeruginosa clone was proven to be due to the contamination of the cytometric analyzer for urinary sediment. Users of such analyzers should be aware that contamination can occur and should always perform culture either before the processing of the urine sample on the analyzer or on a distinct sample tube.
PMCID: PMC3295159  PMID: 22219304
5.  Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Nocardia Species▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(11):4015-4021.
The identification of Nocardia species, usually based on biochemical tests together with phenotypic in vitro susceptibility and resistance patterns, is a difficult and lengthy process owing to the slow growth and limited reactivity of these bacteria. In this study, a panel of 153 clinical and reference strains of Nocardia spp., altogether representing 19 different species, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypical biochemical and enzymatic tests were used. In a first step, a complementary homemade reference database was established by the analysis of 110 Nocardia isolates (pretreated with 30 min of boiling and extraction) in the MALDI BioTyper software according to the manufacturer's recommendations for microflex measurement (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany), generating a dendrogram with species-specific cluster patterns. In a second step, the MALDI BioTyper database and the generated database were challenged with 43 blind-coded clinical isolates of Nocardia spp. Following addition of the homemade database in the BioTyper software, MALDI-TOF MS provided reliable identification to the species level for five species of which more than a single isolate was analyzed. Correct identification was achieved for 38 of the 43 isolates (88%), including 34 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains identified to the genus level according to the manufacturer's log score specifications. These data suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has potential for use as a rapid (<1 h) and reliable method for the identification of Nocardia species without any substantial costs for consumables.
PMCID: PMC3020850  PMID: 20861335
6.  Confirmation diagnosis of influenza A(H1N1)2009 by Belgian sentinel laboratories during the epidemic phase 
Archives of Public Health  2010;68(2):76-82.
PMCID: PMC3463024
Influenza; A(H1N1)pandemic; epidemiology; laboratory diagnosis
7.  National Epidemiologic Surveys of Enterobacter aerogenes in Belgian Hospitals from 1996 to 1998 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(3):889-896.
Two national surveys were conducted to describe the incidence and prevalence of Enterobacter aerogenes in 21 Belgian hospitals in 1996 and 1997 and to characterize the genotypic diversity and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical strains of E. aerogenes isolated from hospitalized patients in Belgium in 1997 and 1998. Twenty-nine hospitals collected 10 isolates of E. aerogenes, which were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) using two primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were detected by the double-disk diffusion test and characterized by isoelectric point. The median incidence of E. aerogenes colonization or infection increased from 3.3 per 1,000 admissions in 1996 to 4.2 per 1000 admissions in the first half of 1997 (P < 0.01). E. aerogenes strains (n = 260) clustered in 25 AP-PCR types. Two major types, BE1 and BE2, included 36 and 38% of strains and were found in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively. The BE1 type was indistinguishable from a previously described epidemic strain in France. Half of the strains produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, either TEM-24 (in 86% of the strains) or TEM-3 (in 14% of the strains). Over 75% of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin. Over 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides. In conclusion, these data suggest a nationwide dissemination of two epidemic multiresistant E. aerogenes strains in Belgian hospitals. TEM-24 beta-lactamase was frequently harbored by one of these epidemic strains, which appeared to be genotypically related to a TEM-24-producing epidemic strain from France, suggesting international dissemination.
PMCID: PMC87846  PMID: 11230400
10.  Rapid colorimetric hybridization assay for detecting amplified Helicobacter pylori DNA in gastric biopsy specimens. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(3):530-533.
A very simple, practical, sensitive, and specific colorimetric hybridization assay for detecting amplified Helicobacter pylori DNA is described. This assay, which combines a sensitive sandwich DNA hybridization reaction and a colorimetric protocol similar to those used in conventional enzyme immunoassays, was shown to be suitable for detecting H. pylori-infected gastric biopsy specimens and for monitoring the eradication of the pathogen after treatment. The specificity and sensitivity of the colorimetric hybridization assay were tested by assaying 27 H. pylori strains (4 reference and 23 clinical isolates), 9 strains of other Helicobacter spp. or Campylobacter spp., and 11 clinical isolates of other urease-positive bacteria. The likelihood of H. pylori detection in gastric biopsy specimens by the colorimetric hybridization assay was evaluated with 23 H. pylori-positive and 41 H. pylori-negative biopsy specimens on the basis of positive and negative results, respectively, of culture, rapid urease test, histological examination, and PCR. Biopsy specimens from 33 treated patients, endoscopied 4 to 8 weeks after the end of treatment, were also tested. All H. pylori strains showed positive results in the colorimetric hybridization assay, presenting optical densities at 450 nm (OD450S) of > or = 3.0. None of the other Helicobacter spp., Campylobacter spp., or the clinical isolates of other urease-positive bacteria showed OD450S equal to or greater than the cutoff (mean OD450 cutoff, 0.208). The colorimetric hybridization assay detected all 23 H. pylori-positive biopsy specimens (mean OD450, 2.910 +/- 0.295), while none of the H. pylori-negative biopsy specimens was shown to be positive in the assay (mean OD450, 0.108 +/- 0.025). H. pylori was considered to be not eradicated from three of the posttreatment biopsy specimens by culture, rapid urease test, histological examination, and PCR. They were all positive by the colorimetric hybridization assay, and their OD450S were > or = 3.0. The colorimetric hybridization assay also detected two other H. pylori-positive patients. Specimens from these two patients had negative culture, rapid urease test, and histology results, and a specimen from one of them also tested negative by PCR. These results indicate that the colorimetric hybridization assay is a suitable method both for the diagnosis of H. pylori in biopsy specimens and for the follow-up of patients after the end of treatment.
PMCID: PMC228840  PMID: 8904408
11.  Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by PCR: comparison with other invasive techniques and detection of cagA gene in gastric biopsy specimens. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(10):2752-2756.
A PCR assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens with specific primers for ureC gene amplification (herein referred to as ureC PCR) was compared with other routine invasive methods (culture, the rapid-urease test, and Giemsa staining of histological sections) with samples from a group of 104 consecutive dyspeptic patients. Bacteria were found in 40 (38.5%), 38 (36.5%), 36 (34.6%), and 35 (33.7%) of the patients by ureC PCR, culture, the rapid-urease test, and Giemsa stain, respectively. Sixty-three patients had negative cultures, negative histological examinations, and negative rapid-urease test results, and 61 of these patients were also negative by ureC PCR. ureC PCR detected H. pylori in two culture-negative patients. In parallel, a PCR-based assay to detect the H. pylori cytotoxin-associated antigen (cagA) gene, a putative virulence gene, was also developed. To assess the likelihood of detection of H. pylori genes directly from gastric biopsy samples and from the corresponding H. pylori isolates, specimens from 31 patients were subjected to PCR with ureC- and cagA-targeting primers. All 31 biopsy specimens and the corresponding H. pylori isolates were positive in the ureC PCR. H. pylori strains that were cagA positive also gave positive cagA PCR fragments with biopsy specimens from the same patients. All ureC PCR-positive patients were examined; biopsy specimens from 10 of 11 (91.7%) duodenal ulcer patients harbored H. pylori cagA-positive strains, whereas 19 of26 (73%) of those from patients with chronic gastritis only were found to be cagA positive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC228568  PMID: 8567918
12.  Serologic detection of infection with cagA+ Helicobacter pylori strains. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(6):1496-1500.
Approximately 60% of Helicobacter pylori isolates possess the cagA gene and express its 120- to 140-kDa product (CagA). In this study, the cagA gene was detected in H. pylori isolates from 26 (81.3%) of 32 patients with duodenal ulcers (DU), 17 (68.0%) of 25 patients with gastric ulcers, and 23 (59.0%) of 39 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). By Western blotting (immunoblotting) with antiserum to CagA, in vitro CagA expression was demonstrated for 95.5% of cagA+ strains compared with 0% of strains lacking cagA. Sera from patients infected with cagA+ strains (n = 66) reacted with recombinant CagA in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to a significantly greater extent than either sera from patients infected with strains lacking cagA (n = 30) or sera from uninfected persons (n = 25) (P < 0.001). A strain lacking cagA was isolated from eight patients who had serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to CagA, which suggests that these patients were infected with multiple strains. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to CagA were present in 87.5, 76.0, and 56.4% of patients with DU, gastric ulcers, and NUD, respectively (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 24.72; P = 0.004 [DU versus NUD]). These data demonstrate an association between infection with cagA+ H. pylori and the presence of duodenal ulceration and indicate that serologic testing is a sensitive method for detecting infection with cagA+ strains.
PMCID: PMC228203  PMID: 7650174
13.  Replicon typing characterization of plasmids encoding resistance to gentamicin and apramycin in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium isolated from human and animal sources in Belgium. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1993;111(2):229-238.
Escherichia coli and salmonella strains with plasmids conferring resistance to gentamicin and apramycin have been isolated with increasing frequency both from cattle and hospital patients in Belgium. The apramycin-gentamicin resistance plasmids were characterized in recipient strains by their profiles and molecular weights using agarose gel electrophoresis, by their antimicrobial resistance patterns and by replicon typing using a series of DNA probes specific for the genes controlling their systems of replication. Overall, most of the plasmids differed in their DNA electrophoretic patterns. Seventeen different antimicrobial resistance profiles were observed, and there were six different types of replicons. However, two replication genes predominated and had a preferential distribution in different bacterial species. The rep FIC.a plus rep Q multireplicon was found mainly in plasmids recovered from gentamicin- and apramycin-resistant E. coli while replicon of the type rep FIC.b largely prevailed in S. typhimurium. Identical replication genes were found in most animal and human strains, hence suggesting a high homology between apramycin-gentamicin plasmids in these communities. Finally, our results indicate that the rapid spread of apramycin-gentamicin-resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from animals and from humans in Belgium is not due to a single plasmid, but rather that the gene encoding AAC(3)-IV is carried by various replicons.
PMCID: PMC2271380  PMID: 8405151
14.  Evaluation of a commercially available complement fixation test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and for follow-up after antimicrobial therapy. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(12):3230-3233.
Commercially available complement fixation test reagents (Institute Virion Ltd., Rüschlikon, Zurich, Switzerland) available in package format were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The assay was compared with bacterial culture and histological Giemsa stain of gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 930 patients of different ages and from different ethnic groups, with a variety of upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, respectively, were 35, 71, 90, 80, and 85% for Belgian patients aged 40 years or younger, 50, 81, 93, 92, and 83% for Belgian patients older than 40 years, and 83, 83, 79, 95, and 48% for Mediterranean patients. Using 645 serum specimens from 226 patients, we also evaluated the complement fixation test for its ability to monitor the eradication of H. pylori following antimicrobial therapy. Overall, H. pylori was eradicated from 122 patients while 104 patients remained infected with the organism. A significant decrease in antibody levels was observed 3 to 6 months after the end of therapy in the group of patients from whom H. pylori was eradicated.
PMCID: PMC270638  PMID: 1452707
15.  Evaluation of a commercially available second-generation immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(1):176-180.
We evaluated a commercially available second-generation anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Cobas Core Anti-Helicobacter pylori EIA; Roche S. A., Basel, Switzerland) for serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection. The results of the assay were assessed in relation to the results of bacterial culture, urease testing, and histological Giemsa stain of gastric biopsy specimens from 1,134 patients with a variety of symptoms relating to the upper gastrointestinal tract. H. pylori was detected in biopsy specimens from 660 (58.2%) patients: 6 had a normal mucosa, 123 had chronic gastritis only, and 531 were found to have chronic active gastritis by histology; endoscopy showed duodenal and gastric ulcers in 137 and 64 patients of the last two groups, respectively. The test was evaluated with different age and ethnic groups. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, (i) for Belgian patients between 18 and 40 years old, 34, 93, 95, 91, and 96%; (ii) for Belgian patients more than 40 years old, 53, 96, 91, 93, and 95%; and (iii) the Mediterranean patients more than 17 years old, 87, 94, 70, 95, and 64%. All sera showing discordant immunoassay results compared with the results of histology and culture of biopsy specimens, as well as those with borderline immunoassay results, were tested further by immunoblotting. Among the EIA results considered false negative, we demonstrated an absence of seroconversion in 14 of 19 patients tested by immunoblotting. Among the EIA results considered false positive, immunoblotting showed the presence of specific antibodies in 28 of 37 patients tested. Among the borderline results obtained in the first assay with 22 patients' sera, a second assay showed positive results in 10 patients (8 were positive by immunoblotting) and negative reactions in 10 patients (9 were negative by immunoblotting), whereas 2 remained borderline. These data indicate that sera showing borderline immunoassay results must be tested again. In conclusion, this commercially available second-generation EIA, which is easy and quick to perform, was found highly reliable for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC265016  PMID: 1734050
16.  Evaluation of the E test for quantitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(9):2072-2075.
The Progressive Diagnostics Manufacturers epsilometer test (E test; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), a quantitative variant of the disk diffusion technique, was evaluated comparatively to an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori. A collection of 79 H. pylori clinical strains, including isolates with known resistance to various antimicrobial agents, was tested against 12 different antimicrobial agents. All strains were tested on Columbia agar supplemented with 10% horse blood. Plates were incubated at 37 degrees C in microaerobic atmosphere (5% O2, 10% CO2), and readings were done after 3 days of incubation. In general, E test MICs were easy to interpret and the correlation between MICs by the agar dilution method and the E test was good, with 86 and 99.5% of results being within, respectively, 1 and 2 log2 dilution steps in a total of 936 tests. All strains of H. pylori with documented resistance to the tested agents were detected by the E test. Thus, the E test appears to be an easy and reliable method for determination of MICs of antibiotics for H. pylori, and it may offer an interesting alternative to MIC determination by the agar dilution technique.
PMCID: PMC270265  PMID: 1774337
18.  Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia from pulmonary abscess in a male alcohol abuser. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(5):1132-1134.
A case of Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia is reported. This bacteremia occurred in a male alcohol abuser who developed definite signs of pulmonary abscess and empyema. Streptococcus milleri grew from another blood culture, but Gardnerella vaginalis was also isolated from a bronchoscopic aspirate and pleural drainage sample as part of mixed flora containing anaerobes, Streptococcus species, Neisseria sicca, and a Haemophilus sp. We discuss the possible pathogenic character of G. vaginalis outside the genital tract from a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC267503  PMID: 2787333
19.  Protective effect of amdinocillin against emergence of resistance to ceftazidime in Enterobacter cloacae. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(11):1632-1635.
Enterobacter cloacae infections have been shown clinically to respond less reliably to monotherapy with broad-spectrum cephalosporins than was initially expected. Selection of populations producing high levels of beta-lactamase has been shown to be the most frequent reason for treatment failure, and the use of these agents with another active antibiotic is recommended. In this study, E. cloacae strains from clinical specimens susceptible to ceftazidime and amdinocillin by broth dilution and disk tests were examined. In the presence of ceftazidime at 10 micrograms/ml, in vitro selection of resistant organisms was demonstrated for 3 of 11 strains. Selection was prevented when amdinocillin was added in combination. A more rapid killing was also demonstrated with this combination. At inocula of 10(8) CFU/ml, ceftazidime-resistant populations were isolated from 6 of 11 strains in vitro, and the emergence of this resistance was prevented by amdinocillin. The enhanced killing effect noted for amdinocillin with ceftazidime may have resulted in part from complementary activity of the antibiotics on penicillin-binding proteins. The ceftazidime-amdinocillin combination offers an interesting prospect for the therapy of infections caused by E. cloacae strains which are initially susceptible to both antibiotics.
PMCID: PMC175942  PMID: 3075433
20.  In vitro susceptibility of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans to 24 antimicrobial agents. 
The in vitro susceptibilities of 37 clinical isolates of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxidans to 24 antimicrobial agents were determined. Imipenem was the only drug with consistent activity (MIC for 90% of isolates, 2 micrograms/ml). Piperacillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, and co-trimoxazole were active against most strains. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefamandole, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, aztreonam, amdinocillin, and temocillin. Most isolates were resistant to the aminoglycosides tested, including amikacin. Lack of activity was also observed for all new 4-quinolone antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC172153  PMID: 3163242
21.  Rate of bactericidal activity for Streptococcus faecalis of a new quinolone, CI-934, compared with that of amoxicillin. 
The rate of bactericidal activity of a new quinolone, CI-934, was compared with that of amoxicillin for 20 strains of Streptococcus faecalis. At 10 and 100 micrograms/ml, the bactericidal activity of CI-934 was more rapid at 6 h than that of amoxicillin. A paradoxical effect (a killing rate higher at 1 microgram/ml than at 100 micrograms/ml at 6 h) was observed for 19 of the 20 strains with amoxicillin and for 1 of the 20 strains with CI-934. It remains to be demonstrated whether in vivo studies will confirm the results obtained in vitro.
PMCID: PMC180530  PMID: 3094437
22.  Clinical evaluation of teicoplanin for therapy of severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. 
Teicoplanin was evaluated in 47 patients with severe infections, including 14 patients with bone infections, 11 patients with soft-tissue infections, 7 patients with endocarditis, 5 patients with pneumonia, 3 patients with septic thrombophlebitis, 3 patients with septicemia of unknown origin, and 4 patients with miscellaneous infections. Overall, bacteremia was documented in 24 patients. The pathogens isolated were 35 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (including 8 methicillin-resistant strains), 4 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 strains of Streptococcus faecalis, 2 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 5 strains of other streptococci, and 1 Micrococcus luteus strain. A total of 22 patients (46.8%) were clinically cured, 8 patients (17.0%) improved, 2 patients (4.3%) had relapses after initial improvement, and 15 patients (31.9%) failed to respond. The results were better in nonbacteremic patients (19 of 23 patients [82.6%] were cured or improved) than in patients with bacteremia (12 of 24 patients [50%] were cured or improved). Bacteriological cure occurred in 25 patients (53.2%), and superinfections were documented in 6 patients (12.8%). No major adverse effects were observed. We conclude that teicoplanin is a potentially effective and well-tolerated antimicrobial agent for therapy of nonbacteremic infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.
PMCID: PMC180363  PMID: 2942100
23.  Correlation between growth curve and killing curve of Escherichia coli after a brief exposure to suprainhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and piperacillin. 
Escherichia coli strains that were susceptible to multiple antibiotics were exposed to suprainhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and piperacillin. As with the majority of beta-lactam antibiotics, the growth curves showed an increase in optical density (OD) before lysis during the first hours. This increase in OD depended on the concentration of ampicillin and was independent of the concentration of piperacillin. A good correlation was found between the prelytic increase in OD and the killing curve. During the prelytic increase in OD, the number of CFU per milliliter remained constant. The decrease in the number of CFU per milliliter depended on the concentration of ampicillin and was independent of the concentration of piperacillin. pH variations gave rise to similar effects on growth curves and killing curves.
PMCID: PMC180323  PMID: 3909953
24.  Pseudomonas paucimobilis peritonitis in patients treated by peritoneal dialysis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1984;20(6):1225-1226.
Pseudomonas paucimobilis has rarely been reported as an opportunistic human pathogen. We report the isolation of this organism in two patients who developed peritonitis during the course of intermittent or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The origin of the infection was related to contamination of the dialysate in the first patient but could not be determined in the second case.
PMCID: PMC271560  PMID: 6520233

Results 1-24 (24)