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1.  Antithrombotic therapy – predictor of early and long-term bleeding complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2013;9(6):1062-1070.
Introduction
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) – aspirin and clopidogrel – is recommended after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) without an evidence base. The main aim of the study was to estimate the impact of antithrombotic therapy on early and late bleeding. Moreover, we assessed the impact of patients’ characteristics on early bleeding and the influence of bleeding on prognosis.
Material and methods
Between 2009 and 2011, 83 consecutive TAVI patients, age 81.1 ±7.2 years, were included. Bleeding complications were defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) scale. The median follow-up was 12 ±15.5 months (range: 1 to 23) and included 68 (81.9%) patients.
Results
Early bleeding occurred in 51 (61.4%) patients. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) pre-TAVI (p = 0.001) and VKA + clopidogrel early post-TAVI (p = 0.04) were the safest therapies; in comparison to the safest one, peri-procedural DAPT (p = 0.002; p = 0.05) or triple anticoagulant therapy (TAT) (p = 0.003, p = 0.05) increased the risk for early bleeding. Predictors for early bleeding were: clopidogrel pre-TAVI (OR: 4.43, 95% CI: 1.02–19.24, p = 0.04), preceding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.08, OR: 95% CI: 1.12–90.56, p = 0.04), anemia (OR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.32–12.15, p = 0.01), age > 85 years (OR: 5.96, 95% CI: 1.47–24.13, p = 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74–0.99, p = 0.04). Late bleeding occurred in 35 patients (51.4%) on combined therapy, and none on VKA or clopidogrel monotherapy (p = 0.04). Bleeding complications did not worsen the survival.
Conclusions
This study seems to suggest that advanced age, BMI, and a history of anemia increased the risk for early bleeding after TAVI. Clopidogrel pre-TAVI should be avoided; therefore, time of preceding PCI should take into account discontinuation of clopidogrel in the pre-TAVI period. Vitamin K antagonists with clopidogrel seems to be the safest therapy in the early post-TAVI period, similarly as VKA/clopidogrel monotherapy in long-term prophylaxis.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.39794
PMCID: PMC3902724  PMID: 24482651
transcatheter aortic valve implantation; antithrombotic prophylaxis; bleeding complications; aortic stenosis
2.  Vascular complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): risk and long-term results 
Vascular complications are the main safety limitations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of the study was to assess the incidents, predictors, and the impact of early vascular complications on prognosis after TAVI. This was a single-center analysis of vascular complications related to TAVI. Early vascular complications were defined as incidents within 30 days after TAVI and comprised complications related to transvascular: transfemoral/transsubclavian ,and transapical bioprosthesis implantation. Evaluated risk factors were: (1) clinical characteristics, (2) TAVI route, and (3) center experience. In patients with transvascular TAVI the impact of: (1) diameters of access arteries, vascular sheathes and difference between them, (2) arterial wall calcification, and (3) ProStar devices used for access site closure were assessed. Arterial wall calcification and arteries diameters were measured by 64-slice computer tomography. Arterial wall calcification was graded according to 5° scale. Results: between 2009–2011; follow-up 1–23 months (12 ± 15.55), 83 consecutive patients, and 62–91 (81.10 ± 7.20) years, underwent TAVI: 67 (80.72 %) patients had transvascular, and 16 (19.27 %) patients had transapical bioprosthesis implantation. We noted 44 (53.01 %) early vascular complications: 17 (20.48 %) were major and 27 (32.53 %) were minor incidents. Independent predictors of early vascular complications were: history of anaemia (OR 3.497: 95 % CI [1.276–9.581]; p = 0.014), diabetes (OR 0.323: 95 % CI [0.108–0.962]; p = 0.042), percutaneous coronary intervention performed as preparation for TAVI (OR 4.809: 95 % CI [1.172–19.736]; p = 0.029), and arterial wall calcification (OR 1.945: 95 % CI [1.063–3.558]; p = 0.03). Of 6 (7.22 %) in-hospital and 10 (12.98 %) late deaths: 5 (83.33 %) patients and 8 (80 %) patients respectively had post-procedural vascular complications. Vascular complications, which occurred in 30-days after TAVI, predict late mortality (p = 0.036). Conclusions derived were: (1) TAVI patients with history of anaemia and diabetes required careful monitoring for early vascular complications. (2) If coronary intervention before TAVI is required, it should be performed in the time allowing vascular injuries to heal. (3) Calcification of access arteries is an independent predictor of post-procedural vascular complications; therefore, its estimation should be a regular element of preceding computer tomography. (4) Vascular complications seem to be predictors of late mortality after TAVI.
doi:10.1007/s11239-013-0996-7
PMCID: PMC3984661  PMID: 24132402
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; Vascular complications; Long-term mortality
4.  Right heart perforation by pacemaker leads 
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.27273
PMCID: PMC3309429  PMID: 22457667

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