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1.  A New Generation of Biomarkers Tests of Myocardial Necrosis: The Real Quality a Physician can get from the Laboratory 
Background
Recent guidelines recommended by ESC, ACC, AHA, and WHF concerning biomarkers of myocardial necrosis also apply to the work of clinical laboratories. Methodological modification for tests used in determining cardiac biomarkers reduced the time of the analytical procedure to 9 min (STAT version of the tests). We decided to determine and compare analytical quality of the tests in standard and STAT versions for determining serum level: troponin T, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, and myoglobin, as well as to verify whether the TnThs STAT test meets the following requirements: CV <10% at the level close to diagnostic, equal to the 99th percentile of reference population, and turnaround time <60 min.
Material/Methods
We evaluated real precision and accuracy for both standard and STAT versions of tests as well as the correlation of results of physiological and pathological levels. Additionally, observations of turnaround time were made.
Results
Calculated values of total errors did not exceed the recommended acceptable total error (<20%). Comparable precision of the 2 measurement methods (CV=3.07%) was obtained. A strong correlation (R>0.99) between both variants of tests for all the parameters was confirmed. Thanks to the application of new reagent kit, the percentage of results with turnaround time <60 min increased from 40% to 75% (n=115; p=0.000008).
Conclusions
The new generation of STAT cardiac biomarkers has high analytical quality and meets international precision requirements. It guarantees high analytical and clinical reliability of results. Use of the STAT version of biomarkers contributes to a significant decrease in turnaround time and allows obtaining a good result of an analysis.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892033
PMCID: PMC4318227  PMID: 25629263
Biological Markers; Myocardial Infarction; Troponin T
2.  Assessment of the Relationship between Lipid Parameters and Obesity Indices in Non-Diabetic Obese Patients: A Preliminary Report 
Background
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between obesity and lipid markers.
Material/Methods
We divided 66 non-diabetic adult obese patients (mean age: 55.8±11.6 years) into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI). All patients were measured for waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI), and visceral adiposity index (VAI). Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined, and lipid indices TC/HDL, LDL/HDL, and TG/HDL were also estimated.
Results
TC and LDL-C in Group III were lower than in Group I (5.0±1.0 vs. 6.0±1.0 mmol/L, and 2.9±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.2 mmol/L; p<0.05 for both). Negative correlations were found between: BMI and TC, LDL, and HDL (r=−0.291; r=−0.310, r=−0.240, respectively); and WC, WHR, VAI, and HDL (r=−0.371, r=−0.296, r=−0.376, respectively). Positive correlations were found between WC, WHR, and TG/HDL (r=0.279, r=0.244, respectively) and between VAI and: TC (r=0.327), TG (r=0.885), TC/HDL (r=0.618), LDL/HDL (r=0.480), and TG/HDL (r=0.927).
Conclusions
Obesity is associated with lipid disturbances, especially with HDL-C reduction, in obese non-diabetic patients. VAI is strongly related to lipid profile and thus may be the most valuable obesity index in obese patients with dyslipidemias.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890845
PMCID: PMC4271804  PMID: 25512170
Dyslipidemias; Obesity; Therapeutics
3.  Obesity indices and inflammatory markers in obese non-diabetic normo- and hypertensive patients: a comparative pilot study 
Background
The aim of this study was to estimate associations between inflammatory markers and obesity indices in normo- and hypertensive subjects.
Methods
65 obese adult subjects were divided into two groups: (A) of hypertensives (n = 54) and (B) of normotensives (n = 11). Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum concentrations were estimated.
Results
In group A WHtR was higher (0.69 ± 0.07 vs 0.63 ± 0.06; p < 0.01), hsCRP correlated with BMI and WHtR (r = 0.343; p = 0.011 and r = 0.363; p < 0.01, respectively). BAI correlated with hsCRP in group A and B (r = 0.329; p < 0.05 and r = 0.642; p < 0.05; respectively) and in females and males (r = 0.305; p = 0.05 and r = 0.44; p < 0.05, respectively). In females hsCRP was higher (3.2 ± 2.2 mg/l vs 2.1 ± 1.5 mg/l; p < 0.05). In patients without lipid lowering treatment hsCRP and IL-6 were higher (3.2 ± 1.7 mg/l vs 2.4 ±2.2 mg/l; p = 0.01 and 15.9 ± 7.2 pg/ml vs 13.6 ± 9.9 pg/ml; p < 0.01, respectively).
Conclusions
WHtR is a sensitive index associated with chronic inflammation in obese hypertensive subjects. BAI correlates with hsCRP independently of hypertension and sex. hsCRP is more sensitive marker associated with obesity than IL-6 and TNF-α. Lipid lowering treatment influence chronic inflammation.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-29
PMCID: PMC3921991  PMID: 24507240
Obesity; Hypertension; Chronic inflammation; Obesity indices
4.  Obesity indices and adipokines in non-diabetic obese patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease 
Background
The aim of this study was to estimate obesity parameters: waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI), and serum adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and their associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine, and microalbuminuria (MA) in patients with early stages of CKD and in non-CKD obese patients.
Material/Methods
67 non-diabetic obese (BMI ≥30 mg/kg2) out-clinic patients (25 males, 42 females), aged from 36.5 to 64 years were divided into 2 groups: Group A (n=15) – patients with early stages of CKD (eGFR between 30 and 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or with MA >20 mg/l in morning urine sample independently from GFR) and Group B – patients without chronic CKD (n=52).
Results
In Group A compared to Group B, BAI and leptin were higher (42.2±7.1 vs. 37.5±7.0; p<0.05 and 51.8±26.7 ng/mL vs. 35.3±24.9 ng/mL; p<0.05; respectively) and negative correlations occurred between eGFR and BAI (r=−0.709; p=0.003), leptin (r=−0.68; p=0.005), and resistin (r=−0.528; p<0.05). In Group B, negative correlations occurred between creatinine and VAI (r=−0.332; p<0.05), BAI (r=−0.619; p<0.0001), leptin (r=−0.676; p<0.0001), and adiponectin (r=−0.423; p=0.002), and between eGFR and resistin (r=−0.276; p<0.05).
Conclusions
BAI may be a valuable obesity parameter as a predictor of early stages of CKD in patients with obesity. Leptin may be an important pathogenic factor in obese patients with early stages of CKD. Resistin is associated with eGFR in obese patients, independently of CKD.
doi:10.12659/MSM.889390
PMCID: PMC3852621  PMID: 24280776
adipokines; chronic kidney disease; obesity
5.  Examination of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A clinical value in acute coronary syndrome prediction and monitoring 
Introduction
Chronic vascular inflammatory process promotes and intensifies all atherogenic events. The aim of this research was to estimate the clinical value of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) measurement associated with plaque destabilization and rupture in prediction and monitoring of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as well as to assess the predictive value of this biomarker in comparison to traditional myocardial infarction (MI) risk markers.
Material and methods
The study included 119 patients in 2 investigated groups and one control group. PAPP-A assay was performed using manual ELISA kit, DRG. All other parameters were determined using automatic analyzers: Olympus and Dade Behring.
Results
A statistically significant difference between PAPP-A concentration median value was found in the investigated group MI individuals’ serum and control group individuals’ serum (11.42 ng/ml and 7.22 ng/ml respectively, p = 0.003). PAPP-A assay had the highest specificity (83.3%) and sensitivity (53.8%), and therefore the highest clinical value. In patients with clinically and laboratory confirmed MI we proved that PAPP-A serum level is a clinically useful biomarker in ACS prediction, better than C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen (FBG) level.
Conclusions
The highest diagnostic efficiency for ACS prediction was proved for simultaneous panel assays consisting of 2-3 parameters (PAPP-A – hsCRP, PAPP-A – FBG, PAPP-A – hsCRP – FBG), while PAPP-A itself does not show characteristics necessary for it to be used as a biomarker for MI dynamic monitoring. It is possible that prothrombotic component is mainly responsible for repeated major adverse cardiac events, more than inflammatory process.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.33343
PMCID: PMC3598147  PMID: 23515702
pregnancy-associated plasma protein A; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction prediction; biomarker
6.  Serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, ghrelin and insulin and their association with obesity indices in obese normo- and hypertensive patients – pilot study 
Introduction
Hypertension often coexists with obesity. Adipokines, ghrelin and insulin play important roles in the pathogenesis of both diseases. The aim of this study was to compare adiponectin, leptin, resistin, insulin and ghrelin mean serum concentrations and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normo- and hypertensive patients with obesity.
Material and methods
All included patients were divided on the following groups: non-diabetic hypertensive patients with class I obesity (group A, n = 21) and class II/III obesity (group B, n = 10), and normotensive obese (class I)patients (group C, n = 7). Correlations between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist circumference [WC]), HOMA-IR, and hormone and adipokine serum levels were also analyzed.
Results
Leptin level and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in group B compared to group C (9.74 ±3.88 ng/ml vs. 4.53 ±3.00 ng/ml; p < 0.02 and 3.30 ±1.59 vs. 1.65 ±0.41; p < 0.02, respectively). A negative correlation between WC and adiponectin level (R = –0.6275; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between WC and insulin concentration (R = 0.5122; p< 0.05) as well as with HOMA-IR (R = 0.5228; p < 0.02) were found in group A. Negative correlations between BMI and ghrelin level (R = –0.7052; p < 0.05), WHR and adiponectin level (R = –0.6912; p < 0.05) and WHR and leptin level (R = –0.6728; p < 0.05) were observed in group B.
Conclusions
Insulin resistance and leptin may be important pathogenic factors in hypertensive patients with severe obesity. Indices of abdominal obesity (WC, WHR) correlate better than BMI with HOMA-IR, insulin, adiponectin and leptin serum levels in hypertensive obese patients.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29397
PMCID: PMC3400908  PMID: 22851996
insulin resistance; obesity; adipokines; ghrelin; hypertension
7.  Waist circumference, ghrelin and selected adipose tissue-derived adipokines as predictors of insulin resistance in obese patients: Preliminary results 
Summary
Background
The aim of the study was to estimate the association between anthropometric obesity parameters, serum concentrations of ghrelin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in obese non-diabetic insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients.
Material/Methods
Study subjects included 37 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) out-clinic patients aged 25 to 66 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Serum fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and leptin were measured by using the ELISA method. Body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured to calculate BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values for all the patients. According to HOMA-IR, patients were divided into two groups: A, insulin sensitive (n=19); and B, insulin resistant (n=18).
Results
Patients with insulin resistance have greater mean waist circumference (WC) higher mean serum insulin level and leptin concentration, but lower concentrations of adiponectin and ghrelin. In the insulin-sensitive patient group we observed positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR, WC and HOMA-IR, and adiponectin and leptin, and negative correlations between ghrelin and HOMA-IR, WC and adiponectin, and WHR and adiponectin. In the insulin-resistant group, there was a positive correlation between resistin and ghrelin and a negative correlation between WHR and leptin.
Conclusions
Waist circumference, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin are associated with insulin resistance and may be predictors of this pathology.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882030
PMCID: PMC3539504  PMID: 22037753
adipokines; ghrelin; insulin resistance; obese patients; waist circumference

Results 1-7 (7)