Hypertension often coexists with obesity. Adipokines, ghrelin and insulin play important roles in the pathogenesis of both diseases. The aim of this study was to compare adiponectin, leptin, resistin, insulin and ghrelin mean serum concentrations and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normo- and hypertensive patients with obesity.
Material and methods
All included patients were divided on the following groups: non-diabetic hypertensive patients with class I obesity (group A, n = 21) and class II/III obesity (group B, n = 10), and normotensive obese (class I)patients (group C, n = 7). Correlations between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist circumference [WC]), HOMA-IR, and hormone and adipokine serum levels were also analyzed.
Leptin level and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in group B compared to group C (9.74 ±3.88 ng/ml vs. 4.53 ±3.00 ng/ml; p < 0.02 and 3.30 ±1.59 vs. 1.65 ±0.41; p < 0.02, respectively). A negative correlation between WC and adiponectin level (R = –0.6275; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between WC and insulin concentration (R = 0.5122; p< 0.05) as well as with HOMA-IR (R = 0.5228; p < 0.02) were found in group A. Negative correlations between BMI and ghrelin level (R = –0.7052; p < 0.05), WHR and adiponectin level (R = –0.6912; p < 0.05) and WHR and leptin level (R = –0.6728; p < 0.05) were observed in group B.
Insulin resistance and leptin may be important pathogenic factors in hypertensive patients with severe obesity. Indices of abdominal obesity (WC, WHR) correlate better than BMI with HOMA-IR, insulin, adiponectin and leptin serum levels in hypertensive obese patients.