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1.  Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(1):488-490.
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCBC) is a type of rare malignant tumor of the urinary tract. As it does not have specific symptoms and its epidemiological features are similar to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, it is often misdiagnosed. SCBC is highly aggressive, metastasizes very early and has a poor prognosis, and consequently, it has become a focus for urological surgeons and oncologists. An 82-year-old male visited the Department of Urinary Surgery, in the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College (Zhanjiang, China), due to gross hematuria that had persisted for one week. Abdominal computed tomography showed a neoplasm of ~6×6×7 cm on the anterior wall of the bladder. The initial diagnosis was of uroepithelial cell carcinoma of the bladder and surgery was performed to remove the tumor. However, the subsequent pathological examination suggested that the tumor was an SCBC. Small cell carcinoma is a highly malignant disease, with a high mortality rate, and it rarely occurs in the bladder. Upon review of a large number of studies, SCBC was not found to present with specific symptoms, making the early diagnosis of the disease difficult, however, commonly occurring symptoms included dysuria, painless gross hematuria and urinary tract obstruction.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2646
PMCID: PMC4246694  PMID: 25436014
small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder; dysuresia; painless gross hematuria; bladder
2.  Effect of stable transfection with PHD3 on growth and proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo 
Objective: To establish a human hepatoma HepG2 cell line with stable expression of Prolyl hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3) gene and study its effect of growth and proliferation in nude mice xenograft tumor. Methods: Eukaryotic expression vectors of pcDNA 3.1-PHD3 was constructed. HepG2 cells were transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA 3.1-PHD3 and empty vector plasmid pcDNA 3.1 by lipofectamine 2000 as transfected group, control group respectively, while the HepG2 cell without any operation was considered as parental group. Steady expression cells were gotten by G418 selecting. RT-PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to confirm the expression of PHD3 in HepG2 cells and transfection successfully. The growth of these cells in vivo were also observed by injecting three groups of cell into nude mice, and volume were measured and compared. Results: The recombinant plasmid pcDNA 3.1-PHD3 and empty vector plasmid pcDNA 3.1 were successfully transfected into human hepatoma HepG2 cell line and showed stable expression in this cell line. Tumors were observed in nude mice when the transfectant cells were xenografted successfully, The average tumor size of PCDNA (3.1)-PHD3 groups are significant different compared with other two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The PHD3 gene may have negative influence of growth and proliferation on HepG2 cells in vitro. The PHD3 may be a potentially tumor suppressor.
PMCID: PMC4161567  PMID: 25232407
Prolyl hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3); hypoxia inducible factor (HIF); hepatocellular cancer (HCC); transfection
3.  Tumor suppressor TSLC1 inhibits growth, proliferation, invasiveness and angiogenesis in nude mice xenografted tumor of Eca109 cells 
Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation is implicated in the occurrence, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of esophageal cancer. TSLC1 was studied by comparing the tumor formation of TSLC1 transfectant and control cells in nude mice. Compared with blank group and mock group, tumor size and infiltrating range of transfected group was less, differentiation of tumor tissue was slightly better, and differences of tumor angiogenesis was worse. There was no obvious difference between blank group and mock group. We have shown TSLC1 gene inhibited the growth proliferation, infiltration and angiogenesis of Eca109 cells.
PMCID: PMC4100959  PMID: 25035773
Tumor suppressor gene; tumor suppressor in lung cancer -1 (TSLC1); esophageal cancer; tumorigenicity; nude mice
4.  Function and expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3 in cancers 
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a product of tumor cells that plays an important role in protecting tumor cells and adjusting to low oxygen tension through driving the progression and aggressiveness of tumors and changing the growth, angiogenesis, differentiation and metastasis of tumors. Prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) is a member of PHDs that are induced in hypoxia. Many studies have shown that PHD3 not only can hydroxylate HIF-1α, but also has various other biological functions. Thus PHD3 plays significant roles in suppressing the growth, angiogenesis, differentiation and metastasis of tumors and promoting apoptosis of tumors under hypoxic conditions. It may become a new tumor suppressor gene and also may become a new approach to investigate tumors.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.36987
PMCID: PMC3776186  PMID: 24049515
prolyl hydroxylase 3; cancer; hypoxia inducible factors
5.  Construction of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing PHD3 gene and its expression in HepG2 cells 
Prolyl hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3) is a hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) regulator; it degrades HIFα in the presence of oxygen. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies about the role of PHD3 in proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, most of the evidence for the role of PHD3 is observational, and little is known of the molecular mechanism. In our current study, we constructed a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing the PHD3 gene and detected its biological activity in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells). We successfully constructed a recombinant pcDNA 3.1(+)-PHD3 plasmid; the results showed that PHD3 overexpression could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce apoptosis by activating caspase-3 activity. Our study has provided preliminary materials and data for further investigation of the effect of PHD3 on HepG2 cells.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-31-64
PMCID: PMC3511251  PMID: 22898032
Prolyl hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3); Hepatocellular cancer (HCC); Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF); Caspase-3

Results 1-6 (6)