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1.  Quality of life (QOL) evaluation after acute coronary syndrome with simultaneous clopidogrel treatment 
Introduction
Double antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid is a standard procedure after acute coronary syndrome. This treatment carries a higher risk of complications. The main goal of this research was to assess the patients’ quality of life after undergoing antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Material and methods
In the questionnaire research 3220 patients after ACS and treated with clopidogrel were included. The evaluation was carried out with the quality of life questionnaire SF-12.
Results
37.9% of the interviewees experienced ACS-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 62.1% non-ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI), on average within 23 ±42 weeks (p < 0.05). 7.2% of the interviewees were receiving non-invasive treatment and in 2.4% cases it was fibrinolysis. 90.4% were treated with primary angioplasty and stenting. In 53.8% of cases a covered stent (DES) was implanted. 95.6% of the patients received, besides clopidogrel, acetylsalicylic acid. The lowest quality of life was observed after non-invasive treatment or fibrinolytic only (p < 0.05). The quality of life in those patients who underwent angioplasty and stent implantation was similar (p < 0.05). With time, a progressive improvement of all assessed quality of life aspects was observed (p < 0.05). The improvement was noted regardless of the ACS treatment method (p < 0.001). The differences between the patients were smaller at each successive evaluation (p < 0.05). In the case of vitality, emotional and psychic condition, they disappeared completely (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The quality of life rises along with time passed after acute coronary syndrome. Invasive methods provide better quality of life than fibrinolysis and non-invasive treatment in the acute coronary syndrome patients.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.38708
PMCID: PMC3953969
acute coronary syndrome; quality of life; clopidogrel; coronary angioplasty; fibrinolysis
2.  The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:603459.
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM) indexed for body surface area (BSA) and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P = 0.02). OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76), P = 0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.
doi:10.1155/2014/603459
PMCID: PMC3925527  PMID: 24616896
3.  Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:153608.
Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.
doi:10.1155/2013/153608
PMCID: PMC3881685  PMID: 24453794
4.  Purulent Cutaneous Fistula: As the First Symptom of the Late Aortic Stent-Graft Infection—A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:421780.
Purpose. Aortic stent-graft infection with fistula formation is a rare complication with high mortality rate when treated surgically by stent-graft removal. We report a case of a patient with aortic stent-graft infection, prosthetic-duodenal, and prosthetic-cutaneous fistulas operated without the removal of an infected prosthesis and ineffectively tailored antibiotic therapy. Case Report. A 66-year-old patient with high cardiovascular risk and endovascular stent-graft implantation developed a symptomatic infection of the aortic stent graft 42 months after procedure. It was manifested by iliolumbar muscle abscess and two fistulas: prosthetic cutaneous and prosthetic duodenal. The prosthetic-duodenal fistula was excised and separated from the prosthesis. The perforation within the duodenum was closed in layers. Iliolumbar abscess was removed and drainage was effected .The stent graft was left. The patient received tailored antibiotic therapy. He was readmitted to hospital after 4 weeks with symptoms of infection and leakage of pus discharge in the lumbar area. Despite the antibiotic therapy, the total parenteral nutrition of the patient's clinical status and malnutrition deteriorated and he died of cardiac arrest. Conclusion. The presented case confirms that leaving off of the infected stent graft in the patient with severe comorbidity and treated with a tailored antibiotic therapy may not be effective.
doi:10.1155/2013/421780
PMCID: PMC3745921  PMID: 23984163
5.  Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects 
The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), BMI (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), fat mass and fat percentage (r = 0.31, P < 0.01 and r = 0.23, P < 0.05, resp.). Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) and plasma zonulin (r = 0.26, P < 0.05) but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P < 0.05) and serum glucose concentration (r = 0.18, P < 0.05) and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r = −0.23, P < 0.05). Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.
doi:10.1155/2013/674106
PMCID: PMC3732644  PMID: 23970898
6.  Calcification of coronary arteries and abdominal aorta in relation to traditional and novel risk factors of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:10.
Background
Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC) and abdominal aorta (AAC) in hemodialysis patients (HD).
Methods
CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group). Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured.
Results
CAC and AAC (calcification score ≥ 1) were found in 76 (73.1%) and 83 (79.8%) HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR = 17.37 and 13.00, respectively). CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR = 1.13) and hemodialysis vintage (OR = 1.14) were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR = 1.20) was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD.
Conclusions
1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-10
PMCID: PMC3556324  PMID: 23317172
Atherosclerosis; Risk factors; Hemodialysis
7.  The influence of oral water load on energy expenditure and sympatho-vagal balance in obese and normal weight women 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;8(6):1003-1008.
Introduction
Oral water load may increase the energy expenditure (EE) by stimulation of sympathetic dependent thermogenesis. Thus, drinking of water may be helpful in weight reduction. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of water load on energy expenditure and sympathetic activity in obese and normal weight women.
Material and methods
Forty-five women were included. Energy expenditure was measured twice, in the morning and after oral water load, by the indirect calorimetric method. The heart rate variability parameters low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), LF/HF index, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square difference among successive RR normal intervals (rMSSD) were used for the indirect assessment of the sympatho-vagal balance.
Results
Resting energy expenditure (REE) was significantly higher in obese than in normal weight women (1529 ±396 kcal/day vs. 1198 ±373 kcal/day; p = 0.02). In both study groups after water load EE increased significantly (by 20% and by 12%, corresponding to 8.6 kcal/h and 5.2 kcal/h respectively), while, LF/HF index increased simultaneously. The increase of energy expenditure (EE) did not exceed the energetic cost of water heating, from room to body temperature – 15 kcal/1000 ml. There was no correlation between changes of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters.
Conclusions
The increase of EE induced by water load is mostly related to the heating of the consumed water to body temperature. The assessment of autonomic balance by means of standard HRV indices had been found insufficient for detection of actually operating mechanisms.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.32406
PMCID: PMC3542490  PMID: 23319974
energy expenditure; sympatho-vagal balance; oral water load; obesity
8.  Factors that favor the occurrence of cough in patients treated with ramipril – A pharmacoepidemiological study 
Summary
Background
Dry cough is a common cause for the discontinuation of ramipril treatment. The aim of this pharmacoepidemiological study was to assess the incidence of ramipril-related cough among the Polish population and to characterize patients at risk of experiencing the adverse effect of cough during ramipril treatment.
Material/Methods
This was a prospective observational study involving 10,380 patients treated with ramipril for a period of no longer than 8 weeks, consisting of 3 visits: baseline, first follow-up (after 4–8 weeks) and second follow-up visit (after 4–8 weeks of cessation of ramipril, conducted only for evaluating coughing patients).
Results
The incidence of ramipril-related cough was 7.1%. Logistic regression analysis identified female sex (OR=1.35), cigarette smoking (OR=2.50), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=1.70), asthma (OR=1.60) and previous history of tuberculosis (OR=6.20) to be significantly and independently associated with the onset of ramipril-related cough.
Coughing subsided within a period of 2–20 days after ramipril was discontinued. In all patients reporting the appearance of cough within the first 5 days after therapy initiation, the adverse effect subsided after therapy discontinuation. If cough appeared within 6–10 days, it subsided after discontinuation in 81.6% of subjects. Cough persisted in 30.4% of those reporting later onset.
Conclusions
1. Female sex, cigarette smoking, COPD, asthma, and previous history of tuberculosis increase the risk of ramipril-related cough. 2. The later the cough occurs during treatment, the less often the drug is the causative agent and the cough and also less likely to disappear after discontinuation of ramipril.
doi:10.12659/MSM.883336
PMCID: PMC3560643  PMID: 22936201
ramipril; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; cough
9.  Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome? 
Introduction
Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Material and methods
One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients with ACS, without age limit, were enrolled in the study. In all patients plasma concentration of creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), troponin C, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), and UII were assessed, and echocardiography was performed in order to assess the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF) and mass (LVM).
Results
In patients with the highest risk (TIMI 5-7) plasma UII concentration was significantly lower than in those with low risk (TIMI 1-2): 2.61±1.47 ng/ml vs. 3.60±2.20 ng/ml. Significantly lower plasma UII concentration was found in patients with increased concentration of troponin C (2.60±1.52 ng/ml vs. 3.41±2.09 ng/ml). There was a significant negative correlation between plasma UII concentration and TIMI score or concentration of troponin C, but not CK-MB. Borderline correlation between plasma UII and ejection fraction (R = 0.157; p=0.063) or NT-proBNP (R = − 0.156; p=0.058) was found.
Conclusions
Decreased plasma urotensin II concentration in patients with ACS could be associated with more severe injury of myocardium.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29400
PMCID: PMC3400911  PMID: 22851999
urotensin II; acute coronary syndrome
10.  Circulating visfatin level and visfatin/insulin ratio in obese women with metabolic syndrome 
Introduction
Visfatin is an adipokine secreted by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-mimetic properties. Higher circulating visfatin levels were reported in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyse circulating visfatin and insulin levels and the visfatin/insulin ratio in obese women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Material and methods
The study involved 92 obese women. Subjects were diagnosed with MetS according to IDF 2005 criteria. The MetS group consisted of 71 subjects (age: 52.8 ±9.4 years, body mass index [BMI]: 39.1 ±5.6 kg/m2, waist circumference: 109.6 ±11.4 cm and fat mass: 52.0 ±12.8 kg) while the non-MetS group consisted of 21 subjects (age: 51.7 ±9.5 years, BMI: 36.3 ±5.2 kg/m2, waist circumference: 104.7 ±11.0 cm and fat mass: 45.2 ±10.7 kg). In addition to anthropometric measurements and assessment of serum glucose and lipids, plasma concentrations of visfatin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and of insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and visfatin/insulin ratio were calculated.
Results
In the MetS group significantly higher (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of insulin and HOMA-IR values but similar visfatin levels were observed than in the non-MetS group. As a consequence of the significantly higher plasma insulin concentration the visfatin/insulin ratio was significantly lower in the MetS group (p < 0.05). The visfatin/insulin ratio correlated inversely with anthropometric parameters such as body mass, BMI, body fat and waist circumference (r = –0.41, p = 0.0003; r = –0.42, p = 0.0002; r = –0.29, p = 0.01; r = –0.23, p = 0.04, respectively).
Conclusions
We conclude that the visfatin/insulin ratio declining with increasing visceral obesity may predispose to the development of insulin resistance.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28547
PMCID: PMC3361032  PMID: 22661992
visfatin; insulin; obesity; metabolic syndrome
11.  Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 
Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.
doi:10.1155/2010/928383
PMCID: PMC3034958  PMID: 21318141
12.  The Influence of Weight Loss on Anaerobic Threshold in Obese Women 
Obesity is associated with decreased physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the anaerobic threshold in obese and normal weight women and to analyse the effect of weight-reduction therapy on the determined thresholds. Patients and methods: 42 obese women without concomitant disease (age 30.5 ± 6.9y; BMI 33.6 ± 3.7 kg·m-2) and 19 healthy normal weight women (age 27.6 ± 7.0y; BMI 21.2 ± 1.9 kg·m-2) performed cycle ergometer incremental ramp exercise test up to exhaustion. The test was repeated in 19 obese women after 12.3 ± 4.2% weight loss. The lactate threshold (LT) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. Obese women had higher lactate (expressed as oxygen consumption) and ventilator threshold than normal weight women. The lactate threshold was higher than ventilatory one both in obese and normal weight women (1.11 ± 0.21 vs 0.88 ± 0.18 L·min-1, p < 0.001; 0.94 ± 0.15 vs 0.79 ± 0.23 L·min- 1, p < 0.01, respectively). After weight reduction therapy neither the lactate nor the ventilatory threshold changed significantly. The results concluded that; 1. The higher lactate threshold noted in obese women may be related to the increased fat acid usage in metabolism. 2. Both in obese and normal weight women lactate threshold appears at higher oxygen consumption than ventilatory threshold. 3. The obtained weight reduction, without weight normalisation was insufficient to cause significant changes of lactate and ventilatory thresholds in obese women.
Key pointsResults showed that adolescent young female gymnasts have an altered serum inflammatory markers and endothelial activation, compared to their less physically active peers.Physical activities improved immune system.Differences in these biochemical data kept significant after adjustment for body weight and height.
PMCID: PMC3761814  PMID: 24149782
Obesity; anaerobic threshold; lactate threshold; ventilatory threshold

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