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1.  Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen testing and estimation of the prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer in an elderly Polish population based on the PolSenior study 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2016;12(5):1028-1035.
Introduction
Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) in the Polish population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with PSA testing in elderly Polish men, and estimate the size of the population at risk of PCa related to PSA non-testing.
Material and methods
We analyzed questionnaire-derived data concerning PSA testing, obtained in 2567 elderly and 332 younger (age: 55–59) participants of the population-based PolSenior study. Additionally, PSA was measured in 2414 subjects.
Results
The PSA had previously been tested in 41.2% of elderly and in 24.8% of younger participants. Non-smoking status (OR = 2.06, p < 0.001), higher personal income (OR = 1.56, p < 0.001), better education (OR = 1.49, p = 0.001), previous white-collar work (OR = 1.37, p = 0.005), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.28, p = 0.02), married status (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04), dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) but not in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (OR = 0.65, p < 0.001), and dependence in ADL (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of previous PSA testing in elderly participants. There were 31 elderly previously treated for PCa (calculated standardized prevalence: 935 per 100,000 elderly population). The PSA levels > 4 ng/ml were found in 12.8% of 65–74-year-old and 4.5% of 55–59-year-old previously non-tested participants. We calculated the standardized prevalence rate of undiagnosed PCa as approximately 1370 and 2352 cases per 100,000 population aged 55–59 and 65–74 years, respectively.
Conclusions
In Poland, 58.8% of elderly men have never had PSA tested. These were less likely to be functionally independent, married, better educated, non-smokers or to have previous office employment or higher than average personal income. Our data suggest substantial underdiagnosis of prostate cancer among Polish men.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2015.55271
PMCID: PMC5016573  PMID: 27695494
epidemiology; prostate cancer screening; prostate-specific antigen; screening
2.  Factors affecting patients’ self-management in chronic venous disorders: a single-center study 
Patient preference and adherence  2016;10:1623-1629.
Background
The conservative treatment of chronic venous disorders (CVDs) includes pharmacotherapy, compression therapy, physiotherapy, and changes in lifestyle. These methods are available without prescription and not reimbursed by Polish National Health Service. Adherence to therapy is affected by poorly characterized patient-related factors.
Objective
The aim of the study was to perform an assessment of factors that affect the usage and resignation from conservative methods in CVD self-management.
Methods
A structured interview concerning self-management was carried out with 407 consecutive CVD patients of mean age 64.4 years (range: 23–87 years). All the patients had recently undergone Doppler examination and were classified in accordance with Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification.
Results
Pharmacotherapy was the most frequently (85.0% of respondents) used method in CVD self-management. Obese (odds ratio [OR] =1.75 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.99–3.05]) and subjects with longer duration of the disease (OR =1.74 [95% CI 1.16–2.62]) were more likely to use venoactive drugs, while females used ointments commonly containing heparin (OR =1.82 [95% CI 1.08–3.03]). Compression therapy was perceived by respondents as the most difficult method in self-management (OR =2.50 [95% CI 1.61–3.88]) and was also recognized as the most effective method of treatment (OR =13.9 [95% CI 7.35–26.4]). Longer duration of CVD (≥15 years) increased (OR =1.78 [95% CI 1.16–2.71]) while obesity decreased (OR =0.38 [95% CI 0.20–0.72]) the utilization of compression therapy. Females were more likely to adhere to lifestyle changes than males (OR =1.68 [95% CI 0.97–2.90]). Physiotherapy was rarely used by the patients.
Conclusion
Obesity and longer duration of CVDs increase the use of venoactive drugs. Subjects with longer duration of the disease and without obesity are more likely to utilize compression therapy, the method considered to be the most effective but difficult in CVD self-management. Females are more prone to lifestyle changes and the use of heparin-containing ointments. There is an unmet need for health promotion regarding available CVD treatment methods and proper weight control measures to support CVD self-management.
doi:10.2147/PPA.S110773
PMCID: PMC5003556  PMID: 27601887
chronic venous disease; compression therapy; pharmacotherapy; lifestyle change; compliance
3.  C–C motif ligand 11 reduction in CLL patients serum after vitamin D supplementation 
Background: Vitamin D (VD) deficiency results in a worse prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and may affect the production of cytokines. Nonetheless, there is the lack of studies dealing with VD supplementation and its impact on chemokines in CLL patients.
Aim: The primary endpoint of our interventional study was to evaluate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on serum chemokines levels in CLL patients.
Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects with CLL were enrolled for the study. Six-month-long cholecalciferol supplementation was performed in CLL patients with serum 25-OH-D3 levels below 30 ng/ml. Cytokines levels were assessed at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Baseline measurements of cytokines were compared to those in apparently healthy controls.
Results: Increased levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL8, CXCL10, TNFα, bFGF, G-CSF, and VEGF were found in CLL patients in comparison with the healthy controls. In the course of the VD supplementation a decrease in serum levels of chemokines CCL11, CCL3, and cytokine PDGF-BB was observed. The decrease of CCL11 was found in CLL patients on VD supplementation solely, whereas the decrease of CCL3 and PDGF-BB was observed in CLL subjects on both chemotherapy and VD supplementation.
Conclusion: The VD supplementation may exert beneficial effect on chemokines levels in CLL patients with VD deficiency.
doi:10.1080/10245332.2016.1142162
PMCID: PMC4960500  PMID: 26902783
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Vitamin D; Chemokine
4.  Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, successful aging, and mortality: the PolSenior study 
Background
In the elderly, chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) is a risk factor for the development of aging-related diseases and frailty. Using data from several thousand Eastern Europeans aged 65 years and older, we investigated whether the serum levels of two proinflammatory factors, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), were associated with physical and cognitive performance, and could predict mortality in successfully aging elderly.
Results
IL-6 and CRP levels systematically increased in an age-dependent manner in the entire study group (IL-6: n = 3496 individuals, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 3632, p = 0.003), and in the subgroup of successfully aging individuals who had never been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, type 2 diabetes, or cancer, and had a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥24 and a Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) score ≥5 (IL-6: n = 1258, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 1312, p < 0.001). In the subgroup of individuals suffering from aging-related diseases/disability, only IL-6 increased with age (IL-6: n = 2238, p < 0.001 and CRP: n = 2320, p = 0.249). IL-6 and CRP levels were lower in successfully aging individuals than in the remaining study participants (both p < 0.001). Higher IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with poorer physical performance (lower ADL score) and poorer cognitive performance (lower MMSE score) (both p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, lipids, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking status. Longer survival was associated with lower concentrations of IL-6 and CRP not only in individuals with aging-related diseases/disability (HR = 1.063 per each pg/mL, 95 % CI: 1.052-1.074, p < 0.001 and HR = 1.020 per each mg/L, 95 % CI: 1.015-1.025, p < 0.001, respectively) but also in the successfully aging subgroup (HR = 1.163 per each pg/mL, 95 % CI: 1.128-1.199, p < 0.001 and HR = 1.074 per each mg/L, 95 % CI: 1.047-1.100, p < 0.001, respectively). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, lipids and smoking status. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed similar results (all p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Both IL-6 and CRP levels were good predictors of physical and cognitive performance and the risk of mortality in both the entire elderly population and in successfully aging individuals.
doi:10.1186/s12979-016-0076-x
PMCID: PMC4891873  PMID: 27274758
Aging; Successful aging; Low-grade inflammation; Inflammaging; Interleukin 6 (IL-6); High sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP); The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); The Katz Activity of Daily Living (ADL); Mortality
5.  Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts' Fluid 
Disease Markers  2016;2016:5174929.
Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts). Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method), were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.
doi:10.1155/2016/5174929
PMCID: PMC4880712  PMID: 27293305
6.  Functional deficiency of vitamin K in hemodialysis patients in Upper Silesia in Poland 
Purpose
Functional vitamin K deficiency (both K1 and K2) is postulated to be one of the most relevant links between chronic kidney disease and vascular calcification in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Recommended dietary restrictions in HD patients superimposed on diversity of eating habits across the countries may affect the prevalence of functional vitamin K deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the level of functional vitamin K deficiency and its relation to vitamin K1 intake in HD patients in Upper Silesia in Poland.
Methods
Protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein (ucMGP) were assessed by ELISA in 153 stable, prevalent HD patients and 20 apparently healthy adults (to establish normal ranges for PIVKA-II and ucMGP). Daily phylloquinone intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire.
Results
PIVKA-II and ucMGP levels were increased in 27.5 and 77.1 % of HD patients in comparison with the reference ranges in apparently healthy controls, respectively. In 45 % of cases, the increased PIVKA-II level was explained by insufficient phylloquinone intake for Polish population (recommended intake: >55 μg for women and >65 µg for men). Applying ROC analysis, we showed that vitamin K1 intake below 40.2 µg/day was associated with increased PIVKA-II levels. There was no correlation between vitamin K1 intake and plasma concentration of ucMGP, or between PIVKA-II and ucMGP.
Conclusions
(1) Functional vitamin K1 deficiency is explained by low vitamin K1 intake in less than half of HD patients. (2) Undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein level is a poor surrogate for functional vitamin K1 deficiency.
doi:10.1007/s11255-016-1255-6
PMCID: PMC4839038  PMID: 27000106
Hemodialysis; Nutrition; PIVKA-II; Undercarboxylated MGP; Vitamin K intake
7.  Interdependencies among Selected Pro-Inflammatory Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, C-Peptide, Anti-Inflammatory Interleukin-10 and Glucose Metabolism Disturbance in Obese Women 
Background: Currently increasing importance is attributed to the inflammatory process as a crucial factor responsible for the progressive damage to vascular walls and progression of atherosclerosis in obese people. We have studied the relationship between clinical and biochemical parameters and C-peptide and anti-inflammatory IL-10, as well as selected markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as: CCL2, CRP, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin in obese women with various degree of glucose metabolism disturbance.
Material and methods: The studied group consisted of 61 obese women, and 20 normal weight, healthy volunteers. Obese patients were spited in subgroups based on the degree of glucose metabolism disorder. Serum samples were analyzed using ELISA kits.
Results: Increased concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, E-selectin, CCL2 and CRP were found in all obese groups compared to the normal weight subjects. In patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) parameters characterizing the degree of obesity significantly positively correlated with levels of CRP and CCL2. Significant relationships were found between levels of glucose and sICAM-1and also E-selectin and HOMA-IR. C-peptide levels are positively associated with CCL2, E-selectin, triglycerides levels, and inversely with IL-10 levels in newly diagnosed T2DM group (p<0.05). Concentrations of IL-10 correlated negatively with E-selectin, CCL2, C-peptide levels, and HOMA-IR in T2DM group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Disturbed lipid and carbohydrate metabolism are manifested by enhanced inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with simply obesity. These disturbances are associates with an increase of adhesion molecules. The results suggest the probable active participation of higher concentrations of C-peptide in the intensification of inflammatory and atherogenic processes in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, altered serum concentrations of Il-10 seems to be dependent on the degree of insulin resistance and proinflammatory status.
doi:10.7150/ijms.14110
PMCID: PMC4946119  PMID: 27429585
Obesity; glucose metabolism disturbance; endothelial dysfunction; adhesion molecules; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; C-peptide; interleukin-10.
8.  Oxidative/Antioxidative Status in Obese and Sport Trained Children: A Comparative Study 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:315747.
The aim of the study was to compare oxidative/antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children and to correlate obtained redox markers with anthropometrical measurements, body composition parameters, and adipokines levels. 78 (44 males) obese (SG) and 80 (40 males) normal weight sport trained (CG) children matched for age and Tanner stage were recruited for the study. Body composition parameters and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Oxidative/antioxidative status was evaluated in plasma by total oxidative status (PerOX), oxidized-LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOx), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). Leptin and adiponectin levels and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L) were also investigated. OxLDL was higher in SG versus CG (P < 0.05), but ImAnOx and GPx were reduced in SG versus CG (P < 0.01). Redox markers correlated significantly with BMI Z-score, WHR, WHtR, body composition parameters, leptin (in boys only), and A/L ratio (in boys only) in SG and in a whole studied population. PerOX significantly correlated with BMR in the CG. Antioxidative/oxidative status in obese children is significantly impaired and related adipose tissue excess and its hormonal activity. Oxidative status assessed by PerOx is also high in sport trained children but antioxidative defense is significantly more efficient with no overproduction of oxidized LDL.
doi:10.1155/2015/315747
PMCID: PMC4396141  PMID: 25918709
9.  Depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia 
Background
Symptoms of depression are common in patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are usually a reaction to deterioration of health, severity of lower urinary tract symptoms, and erectile dysfunction. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with BPH and factors affecting their occurrence in a large Polish cohort.
Patients and methods
Four thousand thirty-five men (4,035) diagnosed with BPH participated in the survey (age 65 ± 8 years). The occurrence of symptoms of depression was assessed using the Beck depression inventory, severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on the basis of the international prostate symptoms score, and erectile dysfunction using the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5).
Results
Depressive symptoms were found in 22.4 % of patients (mild in 20.8 % and moderate/severe in 1.6 %). Erectile dysfunction was found in 71.9 % of patients. Monotherapy for BPH was prescribed to 50.9 % of patients (mostly ARA—selective α1-selective alpha-adrenolytic—47.5 %), while polytherapy (ARA with a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor—5αRI) to 47.9 %. Logistic regression analysis showed a bidirectional relation between the occurrence of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction. The occurrence of both depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction was related to severity of LUTS, nocturia, the use of 5αRI, comorbidity, and sedentary life style.
Conclusions
Prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with BPH is associated with severity of LUTS, erectile dysfunction, nocturia, BPH pharmacotherapy (5αRIs), sedentary life style, and comorbidities including obesity.
doi:10.1007/s11255-015-0920-5
PMCID: PMC4341023  PMID: 25673555
Depressive symptoms; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Erectile dysfunction; Risk factors; Cohort study
10.  Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone 
Case Reports in Surgery  2015;2015:270206.
Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter) tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand's hernia). Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.
doi:10.1155/2015/270206
PMCID: PMC4320869  PMID: 25802791
11.  Prevalence of HLA-B27 antigen in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis 
Reumatologia  2015;53(3):125-130.
Introduction
Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is considered as a risk factor for development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of HLA-B27 antigen in JIA categories and its influence on disease onset and response to conventional therapy.
Material and methods
The retrospective analysis included 461 unselected children with JIA hospitalized in a single reference rheumatology centre between July 2007 and June 2012. The diagnosis was based on criteria by the International League of Association for Rheumatology. HLA-B27 was determined in 387 of all patients (84%) by hybridization of the amplified, labelled product to immobilize it on the microarray probe.
Results
HLA-B27 antigen was found in 104 of 383 affected children (27.2%), 48 of 206 girls (23.3%), and 56 of 177 boys (31.6%) – most frequently in patients with enthesitis-related arthritis (71%), psoriatic arthritis (50%) and unclassified cases (86.7%). The age of JIA onset was slightly (by 1 year) but significantly different in patients with and without HLA-B27 antigen [11 (8.5–14) vs. 10 (5–13.5) years.; p < 0.001].
The use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and corticosteroids was more frequently clinically ineffective in HLA-B27 positive than negative patients (23.1% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.09). Patients with polyarthritis, systemic, and psoriatic arthritis more frequently received biological therapy. HLA-B27 positive patients with enthesitis-related arthritis received biological therapy more frequently than HLA-B27 negative ones (20.4% vs. 0, respectively; p = 0.09).
Conclusions
HLA-B27 antigen is a strong risk factor for the development of enthesitis-related arthritis, and to a lesser extent for psoriatic arthritis and extended course of oligoarthritis. The presence of this antigen does not affect the disease onset but seems to predict resistance to therapy with disease-modifying drugs and corticosteroids.
doi:10.5114/reum.2015.53133
PMCID: PMC4847302  PMID: 27407238
juvenile idiopathic arthritis; therapy; HLA-B27 antigen
12.  Quality of life (QOL) evaluation after acute coronary syndrome with simultaneous clopidogrel treatment 
Introduction
Double antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid is a standard procedure after acute coronary syndrome. This treatment carries a higher risk of complications. The main goal of this research was to assess the patients’ quality of life after undergoing antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Material and methods
In the questionnaire research 3220 patients after ACS and treated with clopidogrel were included. The evaluation was carried out with the quality of life questionnaire SF-12.
Results
37.9% of the interviewees experienced ACS-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 62.1% non-ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI), on average within 23 ±42 weeks (p < 0.05). 7.2% of the interviewees were receiving non-invasive treatment and in 2.4% cases it was fibrinolysis. 90.4% were treated with primary angioplasty and stenting. In 53.8% of cases a covered stent (DES) was implanted. 95.6% of the patients received, besides clopidogrel, acetylsalicylic acid. The lowest quality of life was observed after non-invasive treatment or fibrinolytic only (p < 0.05). The quality of life in those patients who underwent angioplasty and stent implantation was similar (p < 0.05). With time, a progressive improvement of all assessed quality of life aspects was observed (p < 0.05). The improvement was noted regardless of the ACS treatment method (p < 0.001). The differences between the patients were smaller at each successive evaluation (p < 0.05). In the case of vitality, emotional and psychic condition, they disappeared completely (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The quality of life rises along with time passed after acute coronary syndrome. Invasive methods provide better quality of life than fibrinolysis and non-invasive treatment in the acute coronary syndrome patients.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.38708
PMCID: PMC3953969  PMID: 24701211
acute coronary syndrome; quality of life; clopidogrel; coronary angioplasty; fibrinolysis
13.  The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:603459.
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM) indexed for body surface area (BSA) and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P = 0.02). OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76), P = 0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.
doi:10.1155/2014/603459
PMCID: PMC3925527  PMID: 24616896
14.  Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:153608.
Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.
doi:10.1155/2013/153608
PMCID: PMC3881685  PMID: 24453794
15.  Bronchial asthma control after argon plasma coagulation turbinectomy in patients with chronic rhinitis 
Bronchial asthma is frequently accompanied by chronic rhinitis. It has been observed that effective treatment of rhinitis may reduce asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the control of bronchial asthma symptoms in patients with chronic rhinitis after argon plasma coagulation turbinectomy (APCt). The effect of APCt was assessed in 47 adults with drug-resistant chronic rhinitis and bronchial asthma 3-month post-procedure. Changes of asthma symptoms were scored using Asthma Control Test (ACT). Subjective improvement of nasal congestion 3 months after APCt was observed in 87 % and of rhinorrhoea in 75 % patients. Rhinomanometry showed 219 ± 19 cm³/s increase of flow and 0.75 ± 0.06 Pa/cm³/s reduction of resistance. The prevalence of patients with insufficient bronchial asthma control decreased from 79 to 4 %. The decrease was associated with diminished frequency of eosinophils >20 % in nasal cytology from 83 % pre-procedure to 28 % in the follow-up. The percentage of eosinophils >20 % in cytology before APCt increased the chance for asthma control improvement by 22.8 times. Reduction in symptoms of drug-resistant rhinitis after APCt is followed by significant improvement of asthma control. The most beneficial therapeutic effects of APCt are noted in patients with a high rate of eosinophils in nasal cytology.
doi:10.1007/s00405-013-2762-z
PMCID: PMC4010716  PMID: 24141470
Bronchial asthma; Chronic rhinitis; Argon plasma coagulation; Turbinectomy; Asthma control test
16.  Purulent Cutaneous Fistula: As the First Symptom of the Late Aortic Stent-Graft Infection—A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:421780.
Purpose. Aortic stent-graft infection with fistula formation is a rare complication with high mortality rate when treated surgically by stent-graft removal. We report a case of a patient with aortic stent-graft infection, prosthetic-duodenal, and prosthetic-cutaneous fistulas operated without the removal of an infected prosthesis and ineffectively tailored antibiotic therapy. Case Report. A 66-year-old patient with high cardiovascular risk and endovascular stent-graft implantation developed a symptomatic infection of the aortic stent graft 42 months after procedure. It was manifested by iliolumbar muscle abscess and two fistulas: prosthetic cutaneous and prosthetic duodenal. The prosthetic-duodenal fistula was excised and separated from the prosthesis. The perforation within the duodenum was closed in layers. Iliolumbar abscess was removed and drainage was effected .The stent graft was left. The patient received tailored antibiotic therapy. He was readmitted to hospital after 4 weeks with symptoms of infection and leakage of pus discharge in the lumbar area. Despite the antibiotic therapy, the total parenteral nutrition of the patient's clinical status and malnutrition deteriorated and he died of cardiac arrest. Conclusion. The presented case confirms that leaving off of the infected stent graft in the patient with severe comorbidity and treated with a tailored antibiotic therapy may not be effective.
doi:10.1155/2013/421780
PMCID: PMC3745921  PMID: 23984163
17.  Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects 
The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), BMI (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), fat mass and fat percentage (r = 0.31, P < 0.01 and r = 0.23, P < 0.05, resp.). Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) and plasma zonulin (r = 0.26, P < 0.05) but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P < 0.05) and serum glucose concentration (r = 0.18, P < 0.05) and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r = −0.23, P < 0.05). Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.
doi:10.1155/2013/674106
PMCID: PMC3732644  PMID: 23970898
18.  Calcification of coronary arteries and abdominal aorta in relation to traditional and novel risk factors of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:10.
Background
Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC) and abdominal aorta (AAC) in hemodialysis patients (HD).
Methods
CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group). Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured.
Results
CAC and AAC (calcification score ≥ 1) were found in 76 (73.1%) and 83 (79.8%) HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR = 17.37 and 13.00, respectively). CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR = 1.13) and hemodialysis vintage (OR = 1.14) were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR = 1.20) was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD.
Conclusions
1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-10
PMCID: PMC3556324  PMID: 23317172
Atherosclerosis; Risk factors; Hemodialysis
19.  The influence of oral water load on energy expenditure and sympatho-vagal balance in obese and normal weight women 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;8(6):1003-1008.
Introduction
Oral water load may increase the energy expenditure (EE) by stimulation of sympathetic dependent thermogenesis. Thus, drinking of water may be helpful in weight reduction. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of water load on energy expenditure and sympathetic activity in obese and normal weight women.
Material and methods
Forty-five women were included. Energy expenditure was measured twice, in the morning and after oral water load, by the indirect calorimetric method. The heart rate variability parameters low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), LF/HF index, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square difference among successive RR normal intervals (rMSSD) were used for the indirect assessment of the sympatho-vagal balance.
Results
Resting energy expenditure (REE) was significantly higher in obese than in normal weight women (1529 ±396 kcal/day vs. 1198 ±373 kcal/day; p = 0.02). In both study groups after water load EE increased significantly (by 20% and by 12%, corresponding to 8.6 kcal/h and 5.2 kcal/h respectively), while, LF/HF index increased simultaneously. The increase of energy expenditure (EE) did not exceed the energetic cost of water heating, from room to body temperature – 15 kcal/1000 ml. There was no correlation between changes of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters.
Conclusions
The increase of EE induced by water load is mostly related to the heating of the consumed water to body temperature. The assessment of autonomic balance by means of standard HRV indices had been found insufficient for detection of actually operating mechanisms.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.32406
PMCID: PMC3542490  PMID: 23319974
energy expenditure; sympatho-vagal balance; oral water load; obesity
20.  Factors that favor the occurrence of cough in patients treated with ramipril – A pharmacoepidemiological study 
Summary
Background
Dry cough is a common cause for the discontinuation of ramipril treatment. The aim of this pharmacoepidemiological study was to assess the incidence of ramipril-related cough among the Polish population and to characterize patients at risk of experiencing the adverse effect of cough during ramipril treatment.
Material/Methods
This was a prospective observational study involving 10,380 patients treated with ramipril for a period of no longer than 8 weeks, consisting of 3 visits: baseline, first follow-up (after 4–8 weeks) and second follow-up visit (after 4–8 weeks of cessation of ramipril, conducted only for evaluating coughing patients).
Results
The incidence of ramipril-related cough was 7.1%. Logistic regression analysis identified female sex (OR=1.35), cigarette smoking (OR=2.50), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=1.70), asthma (OR=1.60) and previous history of tuberculosis (OR=6.20) to be significantly and independently associated with the onset of ramipril-related cough.
Coughing subsided within a period of 2–20 days after ramipril was discontinued. In all patients reporting the appearance of cough within the first 5 days after therapy initiation, the adverse effect subsided after therapy discontinuation. If cough appeared within 6–10 days, it subsided after discontinuation in 81.6% of subjects. Cough persisted in 30.4% of those reporting later onset.
Conclusions
1. Female sex, cigarette smoking, COPD, asthma, and previous history of tuberculosis increase the risk of ramipril-related cough. 2. The later the cough occurs during treatment, the less often the drug is the causative agent and the cough and also less likely to disappear after discontinuation of ramipril.
doi:10.12659/MSM.883336
PMCID: PMC3560643  PMID: 22936201
ramipril; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; cough
21.  Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome? 
Introduction
Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Material and methods
One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients with ACS, without age limit, were enrolled in the study. In all patients plasma concentration of creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), troponin C, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), and UII were assessed, and echocardiography was performed in order to assess the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF) and mass (LVM).
Results
In patients with the highest risk (TIMI 5-7) plasma UII concentration was significantly lower than in those with low risk (TIMI 1-2): 2.61±1.47 ng/ml vs. 3.60±2.20 ng/ml. Significantly lower plasma UII concentration was found in patients with increased concentration of troponin C (2.60±1.52 ng/ml vs. 3.41±2.09 ng/ml). There was a significant negative correlation between plasma UII concentration and TIMI score or concentration of troponin C, but not CK-MB. Borderline correlation between plasma UII and ejection fraction (R = 0.157; p=0.063) or NT-proBNP (R = − 0.156; p=0.058) was found.
Conclusions
Decreased plasma urotensin II concentration in patients with ACS could be associated with more severe injury of myocardium.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29400
PMCID: PMC3400911  PMID: 22851999
urotensin II; acute coronary syndrome
22.  Circulating visfatin level and visfatin/insulin ratio in obese women with metabolic syndrome 
Introduction
Visfatin is an adipokine secreted by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-mimetic properties. Higher circulating visfatin levels were reported in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyse circulating visfatin and insulin levels and the visfatin/insulin ratio in obese women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Material and methods
The study involved 92 obese women. Subjects were diagnosed with MetS according to IDF 2005 criteria. The MetS group consisted of 71 subjects (age: 52.8 ±9.4 years, body mass index [BMI]: 39.1 ±5.6 kg/m2, waist circumference: 109.6 ±11.4 cm and fat mass: 52.0 ±12.8 kg) while the non-MetS group consisted of 21 subjects (age: 51.7 ±9.5 years, BMI: 36.3 ±5.2 kg/m2, waist circumference: 104.7 ±11.0 cm and fat mass: 45.2 ±10.7 kg). In addition to anthropometric measurements and assessment of serum glucose and lipids, plasma concentrations of visfatin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and of insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and visfatin/insulin ratio were calculated.
Results
In the MetS group significantly higher (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of insulin and HOMA-IR values but similar visfatin levels were observed than in the non-MetS group. As a consequence of the significantly higher plasma insulin concentration the visfatin/insulin ratio was significantly lower in the MetS group (p < 0.05). The visfatin/insulin ratio correlated inversely with anthropometric parameters such as body mass, BMI, body fat and waist circumference (r = –0.41, p = 0.0003; r = –0.42, p = 0.0002; r = –0.29, p = 0.01; r = –0.23, p = 0.04, respectively).
Conclusions
We conclude that the visfatin/insulin ratio declining with increasing visceral obesity may predispose to the development of insulin resistance.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28547
PMCID: PMC3361032  PMID: 22661992
visfatin; insulin; obesity; metabolic syndrome
23.  Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 
Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.
doi:10.1155/2010/928383
PMCID: PMC3034958  PMID: 21318141
24.  The Influence of Weight Loss on Anaerobic Threshold in Obese Women 
Obesity is associated with decreased physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the anaerobic threshold in obese and normal weight women and to analyse the effect of weight-reduction therapy on the determined thresholds. Patients and methods: 42 obese women without concomitant disease (age 30.5 ± 6.9y; BMI 33.6 ± 3.7 kg·m-2) and 19 healthy normal weight women (age 27.6 ± 7.0y; BMI 21.2 ± 1.9 kg·m-2) performed cycle ergometer incremental ramp exercise test up to exhaustion. The test was repeated in 19 obese women after 12.3 ± 4.2% weight loss. The lactate threshold (LT) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. Obese women had higher lactate (expressed as oxygen consumption) and ventilator threshold than normal weight women. The lactate threshold was higher than ventilatory one both in obese and normal weight women (1.11 ± 0.21 vs 0.88 ± 0.18 L·min-1, p < 0.001; 0.94 ± 0.15 vs 0.79 ± 0.23 L·min- 1, p < 0.01, respectively). After weight reduction therapy neither the lactate nor the ventilatory threshold changed significantly. The results concluded that; 1. The higher lactate threshold noted in obese women may be related to the increased fat acid usage in metabolism. 2. Both in obese and normal weight women lactate threshold appears at higher oxygen consumption than ventilatory threshold. 3. The obtained weight reduction, without weight normalisation was insufficient to cause significant changes of lactate and ventilatory thresholds in obese women.
Key pointsResults showed that adolescent young female gymnasts have an altered serum inflammatory markers and endothelial activation, compared to their less physically active peers.Physical activities improved immune system.Differences in these biochemical data kept significant after adjustment for body weight and height.
PMCID: PMC3761814  PMID: 24149782
Obesity; anaerobic threshold; lactate threshold; ventilatory threshold

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