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1.  Association between primary nocturnal enuresis and habitual snoring in children with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome 
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) and obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) are common problems during childhood, and population studies have reported a significant correlation between them. This study aimed to assess whether habitual snoring, mouth breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with increased incidence of NE in children with OSAHS.
Material and methods
Polysomnography was performed in 42 children (66.7% males), 3.5-14.5 years old, who were evaluated for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).
Fourteen out of 42 children (33.3%) presented mild, 16 out of 42 (38.1%) moderate and 12 out of 42 (28.6%) severe degree of OSAHS. Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ranged between 1.30-94.20 (10.54 ±15.67) events per hour of sleep. Nocturnal enuresis was reported in 7/42 (16.7%) of them. The main observed symptoms were snoring (90.5%), restless sleep (81%), mouth breathing (71.4%), nasal congestion (76.2%), and difficulty in arousal (52.4%). A statistically significant association was found between NE and mouth breathing (p = 0.014) or nasal congestion (p = 0.005). Children with OSAHS and NE had a higher arousal index (8.14 ±8.05) compared with OSAHS children without NE (4.61 ±7.95) (p = 0.19, z = –1.28). Snorers had higher levels of AHI (11.02 ±16.37) compared with non-snorers (6.05 ±4.81) (p = 0.33, z = –0.96), and habitually snorers (23/42, 54.76%) were at greater risk of having NE (4/23) than were non-snorers (0/4, p = 0.36). However, the prevalence of enuresis was not related to the severity of OSAHS, expressed as AHI (p = 0.70).
Mouth breathing, nasal congestion and high threshold of arousal during sleep should be more carefully evaluated in cases of children with NE who do not respond to standard treatment and present SDB.
PMCID: PMC3400898  PMID: 22852010
nocturnal enuresis; sleep apnoea syndrome
2.  Acute bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department of Northern Greece. Comparisons between two decades 
Acute bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and toddlers concerning small bronchi or bronchioli. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of acute bronchiolitis and the use of β2-agonists between two different decades.
Material and methods
During 1990-1991 and 2001-2002, the files of the 2nd Paediatric Emergency Department of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital were reviewed and cases of acute bronchiolitis were recorded and analysed.
During 1990-1991, 14 538 children were identified with respiratory infections and bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 519/14 538 children (3.56%). Only 34 out of 519 patients received nebulised salbutamol (6.6%) and 221/519 were hospitalized (42.6%). During 2001-2002, 9001 children were found to have respiratory tract infections and acute bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 641/9001 of them (7.12%). In total, 411/641 children (64.1%) received salbutamol and ipratropium, and 89/641 patients (13.88%) were hospitalized. There was a predominance of male sex in both decades (p = 0.509). There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) concerning the use of nebulised salbutamol with nebulised ipratropium between the two decades. Finally, during 2001-2002, the use of bronchodilators with or without corticosteroids was more frequent and it appears to be correlated with the reduced number of admissions to hospital (p < 0.05) compared with 1990-1991.
There was an increase in the incidence of acute bronchiolitis during the last decade. The admission rate decreased probably due to the use of nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium, but further multicentre comparative trials are required to define the role of bronchodilators in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis.
PMCID: PMC3400904  PMID: 22852008
acute bronchiolitis; management; respiratory infections

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