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1.  Subtypes of cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells infiltrating cancer nests correlate with prognosis in patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma 
Objective
Adaptive immune effectors do not influence prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). Therefore, we tried to clarify the prognostic role of innate immunity and granzyme B-dependent cytotoxicity as defined by intratumoral infiltrates of natural killer cells (CD56+) and lymphocytes expressing granzyme B (GrB+).
Methods
We analyzed 76 primary vSCCs and 35 lymph node metastases that were obtained from 76 patients with a full clinical history. The distribution and density of GrB+ and CD56+ cells within cancer tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological features, commonly recognized prognostic factors and overall survival (OS).
Results
CD56+ cells were mostly detected within the cancer nests, while GrB+ cells were predominant in the tumor stroma. Intraepithelial (IE) CD56+ infiltrates at the primary site were correlated with depth of invasion (r = 0.339, p = 0.003) and recurrence (r = 0.295, p = 0.011), while IE GrB+ infiltrates were correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.304, p = 0.009) and age (r = 0.333, p = 0.004). The primary cancer nests of metastatic patients were infiltrated more by intraepithelial (IE) CD56+ cells than were those of the non-metastatic patients (p = 0.05). The median OS was 41.16 months (range 1.7–98.43). High IE GrB+ infiltrates predicted longer OS among patients without metastases (p = 0.028). High IE CD56+ infiltrates were correlated with longer OS in metastatic cases (p = 0.009).
Conclusion
The combined cytotoxicity of innate and adaptive immune effectors infiltrating cancer nests (IE GrB+) predicts an improved clinical outcome among non-metastatic vSCC patients. The functional status of prognostic IE CD56+ infiltrates in immune escaped (metastatic) tumors requires further investigation.
doi:10.1007/s00262-013-1511-x
PMCID: PMC3928516  PMID: 24368339
Vulvar cancer; vSCC; CD56+; Granzyme B; Prognosis; TILs
2.  Mastocytosis in children and adults: clinical disease heterogeneity 
Mastocytosis is a clonal disease of the hematopoietic stem cell. The condition consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a pathological accumulation of mast cells in tissues including the skin, bone marrow, liver, spleen and the lymph nodes. Mastocytosis is a rare disease which occurs both in children and adults. Childhood onset mastocytosis is usually cutaneous and transient while in adults the condition commonly progresses to a systemic form. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation of mastocytosis is typically related to the tissue mast cell burden, symptoms due to the release of mast cell mediators, the type of skin lesions, the patient's age at the onset and associated haematological disorders. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. The present article provides an overview of clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria and treatment of mastocytosis to facilitate the diagnosis and management of mastocytosis patients in clinical practice.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29409
PMCID: PMC3400919  PMID: 22852012
mastocytosis; children; adults; classification; clinics; treatment

Results 1-2 (2)