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1.  Fragile X Premutation Is a Significant Risk Factor for Premature Ovarian Failure 
The preliminary results of an international collaborative study examining premature menopause in fragile X carriers are presented. A total of 760 women from fragile X families was surveyed about their fragile X carrier status and their menstrual and reproductive histories. Among the subjects, 395 carried a premutation, 128 carried a full mutation, and 237 were noncarriers. Sixty-three (16%) of the premutation carriers had experienced menopause prior to the age of 40 compared with none of the full mutation carriers and one (0.4%) of the controls. Based on these preliminary data, there is a significant association between fragile X premutation carrier status and premature menopause.
PMCID: PMC3728646  PMID: 10208170
fragile X syndrome; premature ovarian failure; premature menopause; fragile X premutation
2.  De novo deletions and duplications detected by array CGH: a study of parental origin in relation to mechanisms of formation and size of imbalance 
We report a large series of 173 patients with physical and/or neurological abnormalities and a de novo imbalance identified by array CGH. Breakpoint intervals were screened for the presence of low copy repeats (LCRs) to distinguish between rearrangements formed by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and rearrangements formed by other mechanisms. We identified significant differences in size and parental origin between the LCR-mediated and non-LCR groups. Non-LCR imbalances were evenly distributed among the four size intervals we defined, whereas LCR-mediated rearrangements had a narrow size distribution, predominantly between 1 and 5 Mb (P=0.001). Among the LCR-mediated rearrangements there were equal numbers of maternally and paternally derived cases. In contrast, for the non-LCR rearrangements there was a significant excess of paternal cases (P=0.024) over a wide size range including below 1 Mb. Our results provide novel evidence that unbalanced chromosome rearrangements are not only more frequent in males, but may also arise through different mechanisms than those seen in females. Although the paternal imbalances identified in our study are evenly distributed throughout the four size groups, there are very few maternal imbalances either <1 Mb or >10 Mb. Furthermore, a lower proportion of paternal imbalances are LCR mediated (13/71) compared with the maternal imbalances (12/30). We hypothesise that imbalances of maternal origin arise predominantly through NAHR during meiosis, while the majority of imbalances of paternal origin arise through male-specific mechanisms other than NAHR. Our data suggest that mitotic mechanisms could be important for the formation of chromosome imbalances; however, we found no association with increased paternal age.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.182
PMCID: PMC3260930  PMID: 21952720
array CGH; de novo chromosome abnormality; deletions and duplications; non-allelic homologous recombination; low copy repeats; parental and chromosomal origin
3.  Autism, language and communication in children with sex chromosome trisomies 
Archives of disease in childhood  2010;96(10):954-959.
Purpose
Sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are found on amniocentesis in 2.3–3.7 per 1000 same-sex births, yet there is a limited database on which to base a prognosis. Autism has been described in postnatally diagnosed cases of Klinefelter syndrome (XXY karyotype), but the prevalence in non-referred samples, and in other trisomies, is unclear. The authors recruited the largest sample including all three SCTs to be reported to date, including children identified on prenatal screening, to clarify this issue.
Design
Parents of children with a SCT were recruited either via prenatal screening or via a parental support group, to give a sample of 58 XXX, 19 XXY and 58 XYY cases. Parents were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and completed questionnaires about the communicative development of children with SCTs and their siblings (42 brothers and 26 sisters).
Results
Rates of language and communication problems were high in all three trisomies. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were found in 2/19 cases of XXY (11%) and 11/58 XYY (19%). After excluding those with an ASD diagnosis, communicative profiles indicative of mild autistic features were common, although there was wide individual variation.
Conclusions
Autistic features have not previously been remarked upon in studies of non-referred samples with SCTs, yet the rate is substantially above population levels in this sample, even when attention is restricted to early-identified cases. The authors hypothesise that X-linked and Y-linked neuroligins may play a significant role in the aetiology of communication impairments and ASD.
doi:10.1136/adc.2009.179747
PMCID: PMC3182523  PMID: 20656736
4.  Intermediate sized CGG repeats are not a common cause of idiopathic premature ovarian failure 
Human Reproduction (Oxford, England)  2010;25(5):1335-1338.
BACKGROUND
It is recognized that FMR1 premutation expansions are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), but the role of smaller repeats at the boundary of premutation and normal is less clear.
METHODS
We have therefore investigated the incidence of these intermediate sized FMR1 CGG repeats (35–58 repeats) in a series of 366 women ascertained because of menopause before the age of 40.
RESULTS
We found no significant difference in the incidence of intermediates in cases compared with controls. Thus, we were unable to replicate previous studies showing a positive association, despite a significantly larger sample size.
CONCLUSIONS
We therefore conclude that intermediate sized FMR1 CGG repeat alleles should not be considered a high-risk factor for POF based on current evidence.
doi:10.1093/humrep/deq058
PMCID: PMC2854048  PMID: 20228389
POF; CGG repeat; FMR1; intermediate
5.  Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;20(1):186-192.
Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40–60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause ≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4–7.1, P = 4.0 × 10−7). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq417
PMCID: PMC3000672  PMID: 20952801
6.  An Analysis of the Break Points of Structural Rearrangements in Man 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1974;11(1):50-64.
The distribution of the points of breakage and reunion of a series of 58 Robertsonian translocations, 53 reciprocal translocations, and 10 inversions is described. An excess of 13/14 and 14/21 rearrangements was found among the Robertsonian translocations, this excess being independent of the method of ascertainment of the proband. The distribution of break points between chromosome arms in the reciprocal translocations, with the possible exception of the long arms of chromosome 11, was no different from that expected on the basis of their relative lengths. However, within arms there appeared to be an excess of breaks in the terminal regions, an excess of terminal/centromeric translocations where ascertainment was through a balanced carrier and a possible excess of terminal/median translocations where ascertainment was through an unbalanced carrier. Nine inversions were analysed and three of these involved identical break points on chromosome 8.
Possible reasons for the apparent non-randomness of points of breakage and exchange are discussed and it is concluded that the techniques of preparation, methods of observations, and methods of ascertainment all affect the distribution of observed points of breakage and exchange and must therefore be taken into cognizance in any study of chromosome rearrangements in man.
PMCID: PMC1013088  PMID: 4134839
7.  Population-based estimates of the prevalence of FMR1 expansion mutations in women with early menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency 
Genetics in Medicine  2013;16(1):19-24.
Purpose:
Primary ovarian insufficiency before the age of 40 years affects 1% of the female population and is characterized by permanent cessation of menstruation. Genetic causes include FMR1 expansion mutations. Previous studies have estimated mutation prevalence in clinical referrals for primary ovarian insufficiency, but these are likely to be biased as compared with cases in the general population. The prevalence of FMR1 expansion mutations in early menopause (between the ages of 40 and 45 years) has not been published.
Methods:
We studied FMR1 CGG repeat number in more than 2,000 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study who underwent menopause before the age of 46 years. We determined the prevalence of premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and intermediate (45–54 CGG repeats) alleles in women with primary ovarian insufficiency (n = 254) and early menopause (n = 1,881).
Results:
The prevalence of the premutation was 2.0% in primary ovarian insufficiency, 0.7% in early menopause, and 0.4% in controls, corresponding to odds ratios of 5.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.7–17.4; P = 0.004) for primary ovarian insufficiency and 2.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.8–5.1; P = 0.12) for early menopause. Combining primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause gave an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–5.8; P = 0.04). Intermediate alleles were not significant risk factors for either early menopause or primary ovarian insufficiency.
Conclusion:
FMR1 premutations are not as prevalent in women with ovarian insufficiency as previous estimates have suggested, but they still represent a substantial cause of primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause.
doi:10.1038/gim.2013.64
PMCID: PMC3914024  PMID: 23703681
expansion; FMR1; menopause; POI; premutation
8.  Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review* 
Aim
To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs).
Method
A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0.
Results
We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation.
Interpretation
Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03545.x
PMCID: PMC2820350  PMID: 20059514
10.  Cytogenetic Studies in Acute Leukaemia 
British Medical Journal  1961;1(5239):1564-1571.
Images
PMCID: PMC1954144  PMID: 13685930

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