This study explores physical effects associated with the application of cryopreservation via vitrification using a class of compounds which are defined here as synthetic ice modulators (SIMs). The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. A subcategory of SIMs, referred to in the literature as synthetic ice blockers (SIBs), are compounds that interact directly with ice nuclei or crystals to modify their structure and/or rate of growth. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects during vitrification, with emphasis on measuring the physical property of thermal expansion—the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. Materials under investigation are the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with one of the following SIMs: 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3 cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3 butanediol. Results are presented for the CPA-SIM cocktail in the absence and presence of bovine muscle and goat artery specimens. This study focuses on the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the CPA behaves as a fluid for all practical applications. Results of this study indicate that the addition of SIMs to DP6 allows lower cooling rates to ensure vitrification and extends the range of measurements. It is demonstrated that the combination of SIM with DP6 increases the thermal expansion of the cocktail, with implications for the likelihood of fracture formation—the most dramatic outcome of thermo-mechanical stress.
Thermal Expansion; Solid Mechanics; Vitrification; Synthetic Ice Blockers; Synthetic Ice Modulators
Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed.
gaseous oxygen perfusion; persufflation; organ preservation
This review focuses on the application of hypothermic perfusion technology as a topic of current interest with the potential to have a salutary impact on the mounting clinical challenges to improve the quantity and quality of donor organs and the outcome of transplantation. The ex vivo perfusion of donor organs on a machine prior to transplant, as opposed to static cold storage on ice, is not a new idea but is being re-visited because of the prospects of making available more and better organs for transplantation. The rationale for pursuing perfusion technology will be discussed in relation to emerging data on clinical outcomes and economic benefits for kidney transplantation. Reference will also be made to on-going research using other organs with special emphasis on the pancreas for both segmental pancreas and isolated islet transplantation. Anticipated and emerging benefits of hypothermic machine perfusion of organs are: i) maintaining the patency of the vascular bed, ii) providing nutrients and low demand oxygen to support reduced energy demands, iii) removal of metabolic by-products and toxins, iv) provision of access for administration of cytoprotective agents and/or immunomodulatory drugs, v) increase of available assays for organ viability assessment and tissue matching, vi) facilitation of a change from emergency to elective scheduled surgery with reduced costs and improved outcomes, vii) improved clinical outcomes as demonstrated by reduced PNF and DGF parameters, viii) improved stabilization or rescue of ECD kidneys or organs from NHBD that increase the size of the donor pool, ix) significant economic benefit for the transplant centers and reduced health care costs, and x) provision of a technology for ex vivo use of non-transplanted human organs for pharmaceutical development research.
Hypothermic Preservation; Machine perfusion preservation; Organ storage; Clinical transplant outcomes; Ischemia; Hypoxia
Magnetic isolation is a promising method for separating and concentrating pancreatic islets of Langerhans for transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes patients. We are developing a continuous magnetic islet sorter to overcome the restrictions of current purification methods that result in limited yield and viability. In Quadrupole Magnetic Sorting (QMS) islets are magnetized by infusing superparamagnetic microbeads into islets’ vasculature via arteries that serve the pancreas. The performance of the islet sorter depends on the resulting speed of the islets in an applied magnetic field, a property known as magnetophoretic mobility. Essential to the design and successful operation of the QMS is a method to measure the magnetophoretic mobilities of magnetically infused islets. We have adapted a Magnetic Particle Tracking Velocimeter (MPTV) to measure the magnetophoretic mobility of particles up to 1000 microns in diameter. Velocity measurements are performed in a well-characterized uniform magnetic energy gradient using video imaging followed by analysis of the video images with a computer algorithm that produces a histogram of absolute mobilities. MPTV was validated using magnetic agarose beads serving as islet surrogates and subjecting them to QMS. Mobility distributions of labeled porcine islets indicated that magnetized islets have sufficient mobility to be captured by the proposed sorting method, with this result confirmed in test isolations of magnetized islets.
Particle tracking velocimetry; magnetic flow sorter; pancreatic islets isolation; magnetic particles
Transplantation of pancreatic islets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus is widely anticipated to eventually provide a cure once a means for preventing rejection is found without reliance upon global immunosuppression. Long-term storage of islets is crucial for the organization of transplantation, islet banking, tissue matching, organ sharing, immuno-manipulation and multiple donor transplantation. Existing methods of cryopreservation involving freezing are known to be suboptimal providing only about 50% survival. The development of techniques for ice-free cryopreservation of mammalian tissues using both natural and synthetic ice blocking molecules, and the process of vitrification (formation of a glass as opposed to crystalline ice) has been a focus of research during recent years. These approaches have established in other tissues that vitrification can markedly improve survival by circumventing ice-induced injury. Here we review some of the underlying issues that impact the vitrification approach to islet cryopreservation and describe some initial studies to apply these new technologies to the long-term storage of pancreatic islets. These studies were designed to optimize both the pre-vitrification hypothermic exposure conditions using newly developed media and to compare new techniques for ice-free cryopreservation with conventional freezing protocols. Some practical constraints and feasible resolutions are discussed. Eventually the optimized techniques will be applied to clinical allografts and xenografts or genetically-modified islets designed to overcome immune responses in the diabetic host.
cryoprotectants; islet cryopreservation; islet banking; islet vitrification; pancreatic islets; rat islets; vitrification
Despite the widening use of combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART), neurocognitive impairment remains common among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Associations between HIV-related neuromedical variables and magnetic resonance imaging indices of brain structural integrity may provide insight into the neural bases for these symptoms. A diverse HIV+ sample (n=251) was studied through the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research initiative. Multi-channel image analysis produced volumes of ventricular and sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cortical and subcortical gray matter, total cerebral white matter, and abnormal white matter. Cross-sectional analyses employed a series of multiple linear regressions to model each structural volume as a function of severity of prior immunosuppression (CD4 nadir), current CD4 count, presence of detectable CSF HIV RNA, and presence of HCV antibodies; secondary analyses examined plasma HIV RNA, estimated duration of HIV infection, and cumulative exposure to ART. Lower CD4 nadir was related to most measures of the structural brain damage. Higher current CD4, unexpectedly, correlated with lower white and subcortical gray and increased CSF. Detectable CSF HIV RNA was related to less total white matter. HCV coinfection was associated with more abnormal white matter. Longer exposure to ART was associated with lower white matter and higher sulcal CSF. HIV neuromedical factors, including lower nadir, higher current CD4 levels, and detectable HIV RNA, were associated with white matter damage and variability in subcortical volumes. Brain structural integrity in HIV likely reflects dynamic effects of current immune status and HIV replication, superimposed on residual effects associated with severe prior immunosuppression.
HIV; MRI; Neuroimaging; Immunospupression
Procurement of donor pancreases for islet isolation and transplantation is not yet widely practiced due to concerns about post-mortem ischemia upon functional islet yields. Perfusion/preservation technology can help to circumvent ischemic injury and is applied in this study to porcine pancreata (Px) prior to islet isolation. Px harvested from adult pigs were assigned to one of three preservation treatment groups:G1) Fresh controls - processed immediately with minimum cold ischemia(<1h) G2) Static Cold Storage-flushed with cold UW-Viaspan and stored at 2–4ºC for 24h, and G3) Hypothermic Machine Perfusion (HMP)-perfused on a pulsatile LifePort® machine with KPS1 solution at 4–7ºC and low pressure(10mmHg) for 24h. Islet isolation was then accomplished using conventional methods and standard accepted product release criteria were used to assess islet yield and function. Islet yield was markedly different between the treatment groups and the increased yield in the HMP group over the static cold storage in UW-Viaspan was statistically significant (p<0.05). Functionally, the islets from each experimental group were equivalent and not significantly different to fresh controls (G1). Dithizone staining for islets showed a consistently more uniform digestion of the Px from G3 compared with G1 and G2, with greater separation of the tissue and less entrapped islets. HMP for 24h is well tolerated leading to moderate edema but no loss of function of the harvested islets. The edema appears to aid in enzymatic digestion producing a greater yield and purity of islets compared with Px subjected to 24h of static cold storage.
Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4=529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.
diffusion tensor imaging; HIV dementia; neuropsychological assessment
We explored the possible augmenting effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) history on HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) associated neurocognitive complications. HIV-infected participants with self-reported history of definite TBI were compared to HIV patients without TBI history. Groups were equated for relevant demographic and HIV-associated characteristics. The TBI group evidenced significantly greater deficits in executive functioning and working memory. N-acetylaspartate, a putative marker of neuronal integrity, was significantly lower in the frontal gray matter and basal ganglia brain regions of the TBI group. Together, these results suggest an additional brain impact of TBI over that from HIV alone. One clinical implication is that HIV patients with TBI history may need to be monitored more closely for increased risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder signs or symptoms.
Head injury; HIV associated neurocognitive disorder; Neuropsychological performance; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; N-acetylaspartate
Chemokines influence HIV neuropathogenesis by affecting the HIV life cycle, trafficking of macrophages into the nervous system, glial activation, and neuronal signaling and repair processes; however, knowledge of their relationship to in vivo measures of cerebral injury is limited. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a panel of chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cerebral metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals. One hundred seventy-one stored CSF specimens were assayed from HIV-infected individuals who were enrolled in two ACTG studies that evaluated the relationship between neuropsychological performance and cerebral metabolites. Concentrations of six chemokines (fractalkine, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and SDF-1) were measured and compared with cerebral metabolites individually and as composite neuronal, basal ganglia, and inflammatory patterns. IP-10 and MCP-1 were the chemokines most strongly associated with individual cerebral metabolites. Specifically, (1) higher IP-10 levels correlated with lower N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) ratios in the frontal white matter and higher MI/Cr ratios in all three brain regions considered and (2) higher MCP-1 levels correlated with lower NAA/Cr ratios in frontal white matter and the parietal cortex. IP-10, MCP-1, and IL-8 had the strongest associations with patterns of cerebral metabolites. In particular, higher levels of IP-10 correlated with lower neuronal pattern scores and higher basal ganglia and inflammatory pattern scores, the same pattern which has been associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Subgroup analysis indicated that the effects of IP-10 and IL-8 were influenced by effective antiretroviral therapy and that memantine treatment may mitigate the neuronal effects of IP-10. This study supports the role of chemokines in HAND and the validity of MRS as an assessment tool. In particular, the findings identify relationships between the immune response—particularly an interferon-inducible chemokine, IP-10—and cerebral metabolites and suggest that antiretroviral therapy and memantine modify the impact of the immune response on neurons.
CSF; Chemokines; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; HIV; Brain
The HIV epidemic in China has been increasing exponentially, yet there have been no studies of the neurobehavioral effects of HIV infection in that country. Most neuroAIDS research has been conducted in Western countries using Western neuropsychological (NP) methods, and it is unclear whether these testing methods are appropriate for use in China. Twenty-eight HIV seropositive (HIV+) and twenty-three HIV seronegative (HIV−) individuals with comparable gender, age, and education distributions were recruited in Beijing and the rural Anhui province in China. Thirty-nine HIV+ and thirty-one HIV− individuals were selected from a larger U.S. cohort recruited at the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, in San Diego, to be matched to the Chinese sample for age, disease status, and treatment variables. The NP test battery used with the U.S. and China cohorts included instruments widely used to study HIV infection in the United States. It consisted of 14 individual test measures, each assigned to one of seven ability areas thought to be especially vulnerable to effects of HIV on the brain (i.e., verbal fluency, abstraction/executive function, speed of information processing, working memory, learning, delayed recall, and motor function). To explore the cross-cultural equivalence and validity of the NP measures, we compared our Chinese and U.S. samples on the individual tests, as well as mean scaled scores for the total battery and seven ability domains. On each NP test measure, the mean of the Chinese HIV+ group was worse than that of the HIV−group. A series of 2 × 2 analyses of variance involving HIV+ and HIV− groups from both countries revealed highly significant HIV effects on the Global and all Domain mean scaled scores. Country effects appeared on two of the individual ability areas, at least partly due to education differences between the two countries. Importantly, the absence of HIV-by-Country interactions suggests that the NP effects of HIV are similar in the two countries. The NP test battery that was chosen and adapted for use in this study of HIV in China appears to have good cross-cultural equivalence, but appropriate Chinese norms will be needed to identify disease-related impairment in individual Chinese people. To inform the development of such norms, a much larger study of demographic effects will be needed, especially considering the wide range of education in that country.
HIV/AIDS; Neuropsychological functioning; Cognition; China; Cross-cultural assessment; Everyday functioning
A new imaging device, termed a “cryomacroscope”, was used to observe macrofractures in the cryoprotectant cocktails DP6 and VS55. Details of the design and construction of the cryomacroscope were presented in Part I of this report, which focused on describing the apparatus and observations of crystallization. Part I and the current paper (Part II) describe events that occur as 1 mℓ of cryoprotectant contained in a glass vial is cooled from room temperature down to cryogenic temperatures (∼ −135°C). The presence of cracking, as well as patterns in their position and orientation, are found to be dependent on the cooling rate and on the specific cryoprotectant cocktail. Cracks, if present, disappear upon rewarming, although they appear to be sites for later preferential crystallization. Computations which predict temperatures and mechanical stresses are used to explain observations of cracking. In conjunction with these reports, additional photos of cryomacroscopy of vitrification, crystallization, and fracture formation are available at http://www.me.cmu.edu/faculty1/rabin/CryomacroscopyImages01.htm.
Cryomacroscopy; vitrification; thermal stress; fracture; VS55; DP6
A new imaging device, termed a “cryomacroscope”, is presented in this report. This device is designed to assist in exploring thermal and mechanical effects associated with large-scale vitrification and crystallization, with the current setup aimed at the range of 50 μm to 2 cm. The cryomacroscope is not intended as a substitute for the cryomicroscope, but as a complementary tool for the cryobiologist. A combination of cryomacroscopy and cryomicroscopy is suggested as a basis for multi-scale cryobiology studies. This report presents initial results on vitrification, crystallization, and fracture formation in the cryoprotectant cocktails DP6 and VS55. These results show some inconsistency in the tendency to form crystals, based on critical cooling and rewarming rates measured by means of a differential scanning calorimetric device (DSC) in parallel studies. This research is in its early stages, and comparative studies on biological materials are currently underway. Part II of this report (the companion paper) presents results for fracture formation in the cryoprotectant and discusses the mechanical stresses which promote these fractures. In conjunction with these reports, additional photos of cryomacroscopy of vitrification, crystallization, and fracture formation are available at http://www.me.cmu.edu/faculty1/rabin/CryomacroscopyImages01.htm.
Cryomacroscopy; cryomicroscopy; vitrification; crystallization; recrystallization; devitrification; thermal stress; fracture; VS55; DP6
According to the multi-process theory of prospective memory (ProM), time-based tasks rely more heavily on strategic processes dependent on prefrontal systems than do event-based tasks. Given the prominent frontostriatal pathophysiology of HIV infection, one would expect HIV-infected individuals to demonstrate greater deficits in time-based versus event-based ProM. However, the two prior studies examining this question have produced variable results. We evaluated this hypothesis in 143 individuals with HIV infection and 43 demographically similar seronegative adults (HIV−) who completed the research version of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test, which yields parallel subscales of time- and event-based ProM. Results showed main effects of HIV serostatus and cue type, but no interaction between serostatus and cue. Planned pair-wise comparisons showed a significant effect of HIV on time-based ProM and a trend-level effect on event-based ProM that was driven primarily by the subset of participants with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Nevertheless, time-based ProM was more strongly correlated with measures of executive functions, attention/working memory, and verbal fluency in HIV-infected persons. Although HIV-associated deficits in time- and event-based ProM appear to be of comparable severity, the cognitive architecture of time-based ProM may be more strongly influenced by strategic monitoring and retrieval processes.
AIDS dementia complex; Episodic memory; Executive functions; Neuropsychological assessment
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders remain common despite use of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ongoing viral replication due to poor distribution of antivirals into the CNS may increase risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This study's objective was to determine penetration of a commonly prescribed antiretroviral drug, efavirenz, into CSF.
CHARTER is an ongoing, North American, multicentre, observational study to determine the effects of ART on HIV-associated neurological disease. Single random plasma and CSF samples were drawn within 1 h of each other from subjects taking efavirenz between September 2003 and July 2007. Samples were assayed by HPLC or HPLC/mass spectrometry with detection limits of 39 ng/mL (plasma) and <0.1 ng/mL (CSF).
Eighty participants (age 44 ± 8 years; 79 ± 15 kg; 20 females) had samples drawn 12.5 ± 5.4 h post-dose. The median efavirenz concentrations after a median of 7 months [interquartile range (IQR) 2–17] of therapy were 2145 ng/mL in plasma (IQR 1384–4423) and 13.9 ng/mL in CSF (IQR 4.1–21.2). The CSF/plasma concentration ratio from paired samples drawn within 1 h of each other was 0.005 (IQR 0.0026–0.0076; n = 69). The CSF/IC50 ratio was 26 (IQR 8–41) using the published IC50 for wild-type HIV (0.51 ng/mL). Two CSF samples had concentrations below the efavirenz IC50 for wild-type HIV.
Efavirenz concentrations in the CSF are only 0.5% of plasma concentrations but exceed the wild-type IC50 in nearly all individuals. Since CSF drug concentrations reflect those in brain interstitial fluids, efavirenz reaches therapeutic concentrations in brain tissue.
CNS; pharmacology; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported. Because large HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV−) groups have not been studied with similar methods in the pre-CART and CART eras, it is unclear whether CART has changed the prevalence, nature, and clinical correlates of HAND. We used comparable methods of subject screening and assessments to classify neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in large groups of HIV + and HIV − participants from the pre-CART era (1988–1995; N = 857) and CART era (2000–2007; N = 937). Impairment rate increased with successive disease stages (CDC stages A, B, and C) in both eras: 25%, 42%, and 52% in pre-CART era and 36%, 40%, and 45% in CART era. In the medically asymptomatic stage (CDC-A), NCI was significantly more common in the CART era. Low nadir CD4 predicted NCI in both eras, whereas degree of current immunosuppression, estimated duration of infection, and viral suppression in CSF (on treatment) were related to impairment only pre-CART. Pattern of NCI also differed: pre-CART had more impairment in motor skills, cognitive speed, and verbal fluency, whereas CART era involved more memory (learning) and executive function impairment. High rates of mild NCI persist at all stages of HIV infection, despite improved viral suppression and immune reconstitution with CART. The consistent association of NCI with nadir CD4 across eras suggests that earlier treatment to prevent severe immunosuppression may also help prevent HAND. Clinical trials targeting HAND prevention should specifically examine timing of ART initiation.
HIV; Combination antiretroviral therapy; HIV dementia