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1.  Regional areas and widths of the midsagittal corpus callosum among HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapies 
Journal of neurovirology  2011;17(4):368-379.
Recent reports suggest that a growing number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons show signs of persistent cognitive impairment even in the context of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART). The basis for this finding remains poorly understood as there are only a limited number of studies examining the relationship between CNS injury, measures of disease severity, and cognitive function in the setting of stable disease. This study examined the effects of HIV infection on cerebral white matter using quantitative morphometry of the midsagittal corpus callosum (CC) in 216 chronically infected participants from the multisite HIV Neuroimaging Consortium study currently receiving cART and 139 controls. All participants underwent MRI assessment, and HIV-infected subjects also underwent measures of cognitive function and disease severity. The midsagittal slice of the CC was quantified using two semi-automated procedures. Group comparisons were accomplished using ANOVA, and the relationship between CC morphometry and clinical covariates (current CD4, nadir CD4, plasma and CSF HIV RNA, duration of HIV infection, age, and ADC stage) was assessed using linear regression models. HIV-infected patients showed significant reductions in both the area and linear widths for several regions of the CC. Significant relationships were found with ADC stage and nadir CD4 cell count, but no other clinical variables. Despite effective treatment, significant and possibly irreversible structural loss of the white matter persists in the setting of chronic HIV disease. A history of advanced immune suppression is a strong predictor of this complication and suggests that antiretroviral intervention at earlier stages of infection may be warranted.
doi:10.1007/s13365-011-0033-6
PMCID: PMC4309645  PMID: 21556960
HIV; Corpus callosum; Nadir CD4; White matter; CART
2.  Reliability and validity of MRI-based automated volumetry software relative to auto-assisted manual measurement of subcortical structures in HIV-infected patients from a multisite study 
NeuroImage  2010;51(4):1334-1344.
The automated volumetric output of FreeSurfer and Individual Brain Atlases using Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM), two widely used and well published software packages, was examined for accuracy and consistency relative to auto-assisted manual (AAM) tracings (i.e., manual correction of automated output) when measuring the caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus in the baseline scans of 120 HIV-infected patients (86.7% male, 47.3±6.3 y.o., mean HIV duration 12.0±6.3 years) from the NIH-funded HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC) cohort. The data was examined for accuracy and consistency relative to auto-assisted manual tracing, and construct validity was assessed by correlating automated and AAM volumetric measures with relevant clinical measures of HIV progression. When results were averaged across all patients in the eight structures examined, FreeSurfer achieved lower absolute volume difference in five, higher sensitivity in seven, and higher spatial overlap in all eight structures. Additionally, FreeSurfer results exhibited less variability in all measures. Output from both methods identified discrepant correlations with clinical measures of HIV progression relative to AAM segmented data. Overall, FreeSurfer proved more effective in the context of subcortical volumetry in HIV-patients, particularly in a multi-site cohort study such as this. These findings emphasize that regardless of the automated method used, visual inspection of segmentation output, along with manual correction if necessary, remains critical to ensuring the validity of reported results.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.033
PMCID: PMC2884380  PMID: 20338250
3.  Disrupted cerebral metabolite levels and lower nadir CD4 + counts are linked to brain volume deficits in 210 HIV-infected patients on stable treatment☆ 
NeuroImage : Clinical  2013;3:132-142.
Cognitive impairment and brain injury are common in people with HIV/AIDS, even when viral replication is effectively suppressed with combined antiretroviral therapies (cART). Metabolic and structural abnormalities may promote cognitive decline, but we know little about how these measures relate in people on stable cART. Here we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to reveal the 3D profile of regional brain volume variations in 210 HIV + patients scanned with whole-brain MRI at 1.5 T (mean age: 48.6 ± 8.4 years; all receiving cART). We identified brain regions where the degree of atrophy was related to HIV clinical measures and cerebral metabolite levels assessed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Regional brain volume reduction was linked to lower nadir CD4 + count, with a 1–2% white matter volume reduction for each 25-point reduction in nadir CD4 +. Even so, brain volume measured by TBM showed no detectable association with current CD4 + count, AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) stage, HIV RNA load in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), duration of HIV infection, antiretroviral CNS penetration-effectiveness (CPE) scores, or years on cART, after controlling for demographic factors, and for multiple comparisons. Elevated glutamate and glutamine (Glx) and lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the frontal white matter, basal ganglia, and mid frontal cortex — were associated with lower white matter, putamen and thalamus volumes, and ventricular and CSF space expansion. Reductions in brain volumes in the setting of chronic and stable disease are strongly linked to a history of immunosuppression, suggesting that delays in initiating cART may result in imminent and irreversible brain damage.
Highlights
•We mapped the 3D pattern of brain abnormalities in 210 HIV patients on stable cART.•Brain atrophy was linked to MRS metabolite disturbances reflecting neuronal injury.•Lower nadir CD4 + count was associated with greater white matter atrophy.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.07.009
PMCID: PMC3791291  PMID: 24179857
Combined antiretroviral therapy; HIV; Magnetic resonance imaging; Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Tensor-based morphometry; Nadir CD4 +
4.  Hyperintense White Matter Lesions in 50 High-Altitude Pilots With Neurologic Decompression Sickness 
Introduction
Neurologic decompression sickness (NDCS) can affect high-altitude pilots, causing variable central nervous system symptoms. Five recent severe episodes prompted further investigation.
Methods
We report the hyperintense white matter (HWM) lesion imaging findings in 50 U-2 pilot volunteers, and compare 12 U-2 pilots who experienced clinical NDCS to 38 U-2 pilots who did not. The imaging data were collected using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and high-resolution (1-mm isotropic) three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence. Whole-brain and regional lesion volume and number were compared between groups.
Results
The NDCS group had significantly increased whole brain and insular volumes of HWM lesions. The intergroup difference in lesion numbers was not significant.
Conclusion
A clinical episode of NDCS was associated with a significant increase in HWM lesion volume, especially in the insula. We postulate this to be due to hypobaric exposure rather than hypoxia since all pilots were maintained on 100% oxygen throughout the flight. Further studies will be necessary to better understand the pathophysiology underlying these lesions.
PMCID: PMC3723460  PMID: 23316539
hyperintense white matter lesions; neurocognitive impairment; neurologic decompression sickness; high altitude; U-2 pilot
5.  Performances on the CogState and Standard Neuropsychological Batteries Among HIV Patients Without Dementia 
AIDS and behavior  2011;15(8):1902-1909.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent but challenging to diagnose particularly among non-demented individuals. To determine whether a brief computerized battery correlates with formal neurocognitive testing, we identified 46 HIV-infected persons who had undergone both formal neurocognitive testing and a brief computerized battery. Simple detection tests correlated best with formal neuropsychological testing. By multivariable regression model, 53% of the variance in the composite Global Deficit Score was accounted for by elements from the brief computerized tool (p<0.01). These data confirm previous correlation data with the computerized battery, yet illustrate remaining challenges for neurocognitive screening.
doi:10.1007/s10461-011-0033-9
PMCID: PMC3594991  PMID: 21877204
6.  Lower Cardiac Output Is Associated with Greater White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease 
OBJECTIVES
To preliminarily examine the association between cardiac output, a measure of systemic blood flow, and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging indices of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs).
DESIGN
Cross-sectional.
SETTING
University medical setting.
PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-six older adults without dementia with prevalent cardiovascular disease (aged 56–85).
MEASUREMENTS
Cardiac output, WMHs.
RESULTS
Partial correlations, adjusting for age and history of hypertension, yielded an inverse relationship between WMHs adjacent to subcortical nuclei and cardiac output (correlation coefficient = −0.48, P = .03); as cardiac output decreased, WMHs increased significantly. No significant associations were found between cardiac output and total WMHs or periventricular WMHs.
CONCLUSION
These preliminary data suggest that systemic blood flow, measured according to cardiac output, is inversely associated with WMHs adjacent to the subcortical nuclei. Cerebrovascular degeneration and the chronicity of hypoperfusion may exacerbate the susceptibility of white matter integrity to alterations in blood flow in older adults.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01226.x
PMCID: PMC2721459  PMID: 17608877
systemic perfusion; aging; cardiovascular disease; MRI
7.  Recent Clinical History and Cognitive Dysfunction for Attention and Executive Function among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients 
This study examined the association between recent trends in CD4 and viral loads and cognitive test performance with the expectation that recent history could predict cognitive performance. Eighty-three human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with a mean CD4 count of 428 copies/ml were examined in this study (62% with undetectable plasma viral load [PVL]). We investigated the relationships between nadir CD4 cell count, 1-year trends in immunologic function/PVLs, and cognitive performance across several domains using linear regression models. Nadir CD4 cell count was predictive of current executive function (p = .004). One year clinical history for CD4 cell counts and/or PVLs were predictive of executive function, attention/working memory, and learning/memory measures (p < .05). Models that combined recent clinical history trends and nadir CD4 cell counts suggested that recent clinical trends were more important in predicting current cognitive performance for all domains except executive function. This research suggests that recent CD4 and viral load history is an important predictor of current cognitive function across several cognitive domains. If validated, clinical variables and cognitive dysfunction models may improve our understanding of the dynamic relationships between disease evolution and progression and CNS involvement.
doi:10.1093/arclin/acr065
PMCID: PMC3243921  PMID: 21873325
HIV; Cognition; Neuropsychology; Executive function; Recent clinical history
8.  Neuroimaging Signatures and Cognitive Correlates of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screen in a Nonclinical Elderly Sample 
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screen was developed as a brief instrument to identify mild cognitive impairment and dementia among older individuals. To date, limited information is available regarding the neuroimaging signatures associated with performance on the scale, or the relationship between the MoCA and more comprehensive cognitive screening measures. The present study examined performances on the MoCA among 111 non-clinical older adults (ages 51–85) enrolled in a prospective study of cognitive aging. Participants were administered the MoCA, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). A subset of participants (N = 69) underwent structural 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define the volumes of total frontal gray matter, total hippocampus, T2-weighted subcortical hyperintensities (SH), and total brain volume. The results revealed significant correlations between the total score on the MoCA and total score on the RBANS and MMSE, though the strength of the correlations was more robust between the MoCA and the RBANS. Modest correlations between individual subscales of the MoCA and neuroimaging variables were evident, but no patterns of shared variance emerged between the MoCA total score and neuroimaging indices. In contrast, total brain volume correlated significantly with total score on the RBANS. These results suggest that additional studies are needed to define the significance of MoCA scores relative to brain integrity among an older population.
doi:10.1093/arclin/acr017
PMCID: PMC3142949  PMID: 21642663
Mild cognitive impairment; Neuroimaging (structural)
9.  Stochastic Tractography Study of Inferior Frontal Gyrus Anatomical Connectivity in Schizophrenia 
NeuroImage  2011;55(4):1657-1664.
Background
Abnormalities within language-related anatomical structures have been associated with clinical symptoms and with language and memory deficits in schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest disruptions in functional connectivity within the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) network in schizophrenia. However, due to technical challenges, anatomical connectivity abnormalities within this network and their involvement in clinical and cognitive deficits have not been studied.
Material and Methods
Diffusion and anatomical scans were obtained from 23 chronic schizophrenia patients and 23 matched controls. The IFG was automatically segmented, and its white matter connections extracted and measured with newly-developed stochastic tractography tools. Correlations between anatomical structures and measures of semantic processing were also performed.
Results
White Matter connections between the IFG and posterior brain regions followed two distinct pathways: dorsal and ventral. Both demonstrated left lateralization, but ventral pathway abnormalities were only found in schizophrenia. IFG volumes also showed left lateralization and abnormalities in schizophrenia. Further, despite similar laterality and abnormality patterns, IFG volumes and white matter connectivity were not correlated with each other in either group. Interestingly, measures of semantic processing correlated with white matter connectivity in schizophrenia and with gray matter volumes in controls. Finally, hallucinations were best predicted by both gray matter and white matter measures together.
Conclusions
Our results suggest abnormalities within the ventral IFG network in schizophrenia, with white matter abnormalities better predicting semantic deficits. The lack of a statistical relationship between coexisting gray and white matter deficits might suggest their different origin and the necessity for a multimodal approach in future schizophrenia studies.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.047
PMCID: PMC3073419  PMID: 21256966
diffusion tensor imaging; schizophrenia; stochastic tractography; language network; inferior frontal gyrus; fractional anisotropy
10.  The Role of Medical Imaging in Defining CNS Abnormalities Associated with HIV-Infection and Opportunistic Infections 
Summary
In this review of the current literature, we examine the role of medical imaging in providing new and relevant information on central nervous system (CNS) injury associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and various clinical manifestations of this injury. Common imaging modalities used to examine CNS injury in HIV infection include structural magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and positron emissions tomography. Clinical implications for the findings are discussed for each of these modalities individually and collectively. In addition, the direction for future studies is suggested in an attempt to provide possible methods that might answer the many questions that remain to be answered on the evolution and progression of CNS injury in the context of HIV infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0010-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0010-4
PMCID: PMC3075743  PMID: 21274690
HIV; MRI; DTI; PET; MRS; cognition
11.  Neuroimaging and Cardiac Correlates of Cognitive Function among Patients with Cardiac Disease 
In the present study, we examined the relationships between whole brain volume (WBV), subcortical hyperintensities (SH), indices of cardiac disease and cognitive function in nondemented cardiac patients with evidence of mild cerebrovascular disease. A total of 27 individuals with evidence of cardiac disease underwent neuropsychological examination, neuroimaging, and cardiac assessment. Cognition was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS). WBV and SH were quantified using a semi-automated thresholding program based on MRI. Correlational analyses revealed that WBV predicted performance on the overall DRS score, the attention subscale and the initiation/perseveration scale. SH were significantly associated with performance on the attention subscale, and the initiation/perseveration subscale. Regression analyses revealed that SH accounted for most of the variance in the initiation/perseveration scale, whereas WBV accounted for most of the variance in the attention scale. The only cardiac structural or functional variable related to the neurological indices was aortic diameter, which was strongly related to both neuroimaging variables, as well as performances on the DRS attention and initiation/perseveration subscales. Our results highlight the importance of overall brain parenchyma in determining cognitive status among patients at risk for cognitive decline and suggest that select indices of structural cardiac morphology may be related to the early phases of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive status.
doi:10.1159/000086803
PMCID: PMC3222237  PMID: 16006761
Cardiac disease; MRI; Cognition; Neuropsychology; Subcortical hyperintensities
12.  Blood pressure variability and white matter hyperintensities in older adults with cardiovascular disease 
Blood pressure  2005;14(6):353-358.
The present study examined the relationship between multiple blood pressure (BP) indices and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in a sample of 39 older adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Resting BP was measured using an automated monitor every 10 min for 2 h. WMH were quantified on FLAIR images and separate indices were generated for neocortical, periventricular and subcortical brain regions. Correlation analyses revealed systolic BP variability was related to neocortical and total WMH. A function of systolic BP variability and average diastolic pressure showed the strongest relationships, including significant correlation to neocortical, subcortical and total WMH. No BP index was related to WMH in periventricular regions. Exploratory analyses showed only the function of systolic BP variability and average diastolic pressure predicted total WMH, whereas as age, CVD conditions and psychosocial factors did not. These findings demonstrate BP variability is an important contributor to WMH in older adults with CVD and suggests it may have differential relationships to WMH in different brain regions. Additional studies are needed to examine the role of autoregulatory systems in the development of WMH, particularly those using beat-to-beat measures of BP.
doi:10.1080/08037050500364117
PMCID: PMC3215278  PMID: 16403689
Blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; cerebrovascular disease
13.  Quantitative Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Metrics are Associated with Cognitive Performance Among HIV-Infected Patients 
Brain imaging and behavior  2010;4(1):68-79.
There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t=2.13, p= 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range=0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r≥0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance.
doi:10.1007/s11682-009-9086-z
PMCID: PMC2909656  PMID: 20503115
HIV; DTI; Neuropsychological performance; Tractography
14.  Atlas-derived perfusion correlates of white matter hyperintensities in patients with reduced cardiac output 
Neurobiology of aging  2009;32(1):133-139.
Reduced cardiac output is associated with increased white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and executive dysfunction in older adults, which may be secondary to relations between systemic and cerebral perfusion. This study preliminarily describes the regional distribution of cerebral WMH in the context of a normal cerebral perfusion atlas and aims to determine if these variables are associated with reduced cardiac output. Thirty-two participants (72 ± 8 years old, 38% female) with cardiovascular risk factors or disease underwent structural MRI acquisition at 1.5 T using a standard imaging protocol that included FLAIR sequences. WMH distribution was examined in common anatomical space using voxel-based morphometry and as a function of normal cerebral perfusion patterns by overlaying a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) atlas. Doppler echocardiogram data was used to dichotomize the participants on the basis of low (n = 9) and normal (n = 23) cardiac output. Global WMH count and volume did not differ between the low and normal cardiac output groups; however, atlas-derived SPECT perfusion values in regions of hyperintensities were reduced in the low versus normal cardiac output group (p < 0.001). Our preliminary data suggest that participants with low cardiac output have WMH in regions of relatively reduced perfusion, while normal cardiac output participants have WMH in regions with relatively higher regional perfusion. This spatial perfusion distribution difference for areas of WMH may occur in the context of reduced systemic perfusion, which subsequently impacts cerebral perfusion and contributes to subclinical or clinical microvascular damage.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.01.011
PMCID: PMC2889176  PMID: 19269713
Cardiovascular disease; SPECT; MRI; Perfusion; Cardiac output; White matter hyperintensities
15.  Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease 
Artery research  2008;2(1):35-43.
Background
We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses.
Methods
Eighty-eight independent, community-dwelling older adults (70.02+7.67 years) with mild to severe CVD were recruited. Enrollees were thoroughly screened to exclude neurological disease and dementia. Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) brachial artery responses were assessed using 2-d ultrasound. Cognitive functioning was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular flow dynamics and specific domains of neurocognitive function.
Results
Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent brachial artery responses both correlated with neurocognitive testing indices. The strongest independent relationship was between endothelial function and measures of attention-executive functioning.
Conclusions
Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular responsiveness correlate with neurocognitive performance among older CVD patients, particularly in the attention-executive domain. While further study is needed to substantiate causal relationships, our data demonstrate that brachial responses serve as important markers of risk for common neurocognitive changes. Learning and behavior-modifying therapeutic strategies that compensate for such common, insidious neurocognitive limitations will likely improve caregiving efficacy.
doi:10.1016/j.artres.2008.01.001
PMCID: PMC3004172  PMID: 21179381
Cardiovascular Disease; vascular function; age; endothelium; neurocognitive performance
16.  Subjective Cognitive Complaints Relate to White Matter Hyperintensities and Future Cognitive Decline in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease 
Objective
Elderly patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often report cognitive difficulties including reduced cognitive processing speed and attention. On cross-sectional examination, such reports relate more closely to mood than to objective measures of cognitive performance, thus questioning the validity of subjective cognitive complaints as a marker of neurodegenerative processes. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, depression, and performance on objective tests of global cognition in patients with CVD.
Participants and Methods
Forty-seven CVD patients (ages 55 to 85 years) completed a measure of perceived cognitive dysfunction (Cognitive Difficulties Scale), a medical history questionnaire, the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and 12 months later. Baseline brain imaging was available on a small sub-sample (n = 17).
Results
Hierarchical linear regression revealed that increased report of cognitive difficulties at baseline was significantly associated with poorer DRS performance at follow-up (F(3, 43) = 4.45, p = .008, CDS partial r = −.30, p = .048), independent of age, education, baseline DRS and BDI scores. Greater perceived cognitive dysfunction at baseline also related to higher level of white matter lesions (r = .53, df = 15, p = .028).
Conclusions
Self-reported cognitive difficulties may reflect early changes in cognitive aging that are difficult to detect using global cognitive screening measures at a single time point. Yet, these perceived difficulties relate to objectively measured cognitive decline over time. Thus, they may provide important clinical information about early neurodegenerative processes that should be carefully monitored.
doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181b208ef
PMCID: PMC2813459  PMID: 20104055
Subjective Cognitive Complaints; Cognition; Cardiovascular Diseases; Dementia Ratings Scale; White Matter Hyperintensities
17.  Category and letter verbal fluency across the adult lifespan: relationship to EEG theta power 
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age, sex, and education on category and letter verbal fluency task performance. A secondary goal was to examine whether resting EEG theta power in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes impacts age-associated decline in verbal fluency task performance. A large sample (N=471) of healthy, normal participants, age 21–82, was assessed for letter fluency (i.e., FAS), and for category fluency (i.e., Animal Naming), and with a 32-channel EEG system for ‘eyes-open’ resting theta power. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined using analyses of variance. Correlation analyses were used to test the impact of theta power on age and fluency performance by controlling for the effects of theta when examining the relationship between the other two variables. The results indicated that performance on both fluency tests declined linearly with age, but that the rate of decline was greater for category fluency. These age changes were not associated with education level, and there were no sex differences. While theta power was negatively associated with age and positively associated with Animal Naming performance, it did not moderate the relationship between the two. The differential age-associated decline between category and letter fluency suggests separate neurobiological substrates underlying the two domains of performance, which is not related to theta activity.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2004.12.006
PMCID: PMC2758771  PMID: 15939182
Normal aging; Category fluency; Letter fluency; EEG; Theta
18.  Regional White Matter Signal Abnormalities and Cognitive Correlates Among Geriatric Patients with Treated Cardiovascular Disease 
Brain imaging and behavior  2008;2(3):200-206.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between regional white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) and cognitive functioning among individuals being treated for cardiovascular risk factors and/or clinical events. Forty-one participants with cardiovascular disease underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and MRI. Total WMSAs were quantified using a semi-automated thresholding technique. Unique to this study, total WMSA volume was divided into three separate anatomically related regions: WMSA in the periventricular (PERIWMSA) region, WMSA adjacent to subcortical nuclei (SUBWMSA), and WMSA in the deep white matter (DEEPWMSA). A ratio of these measures to total cerebral brain volume was compared to cognitive measures assessing attention, executive functioning, psychomotor speed, immediate and delayed memory, language, and visuospatial functioning. PERIWMSA, SUBWMSA, and total WMSA were significantly associated with performance on measures of attention/processing speed. No other significant relationships between WMSA and cognition were noted. Secondary analyses suggested that PERIWMSA volume was increased in individuals with clinical evidence of atherosclerosis. These results emphasize the utility of studying the associations between regional WMSA and cognitive/functional performance in patients undergoing cardiovascular treatment.
doi:10.1007/s11682-008-9032-5
PMCID: PMC2753539  PMID: 19789657
Cardiovascular disease; MRI; Hyperintensities; Cognition
19.  C-reactive protein, but not homocysteine, is related to cognitive dysfunction in older adults with cardiovascular disease 
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent studies implicate homocysteine (HCY) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in this increased risk, as both are associated with cognitive dysfunction in demented and non-demented patients. However, it remains unclear whether they confer added risk in older adults with CVD. A total of 126 older CVD patients underwent blood and neuropsychological evaluation as part of a prospective examination of the neurocognitive consequences of CVD. A subset of these participants (n = 37) also underwent neuroimaging to quantify the degree of white matter disease. After adjusting for demographic and medical factors, no significant relationship emerged between HCY and cognitive performance. In contrast, CRP showed significant independent relationships to test performance, including global cognitive performance, attention/psychomotor function, executive function, memory, and visuospatial abilities. Neither HCY nor CRP was related to extent of white matter disease or whole brain volume on magnetic resonance imaging. Further study is needed to identify mechanisms by which inflammatory processes impact on cognitive function and to determine whether reducing circulating levels of inflammatory markers results in improved cognition.
doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2005.08.010
PMCID: PMC2748307  PMID: 16723232
Homocysteine; C-reactive protein; Cognition
20.  Relation of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Cognitive Dysfunction in Adults >55 Years of Age With Cardiovascular Disease 
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with cognitive deficits long before the onset of stroke or dementia. Recent work has extended these findings and shown that patients with congestive heart failure also exhibit reduced cognitive performance. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used to help diagnose heart failure, but no study has examined whether BNP predicts cognitive dysfunction in older patients with CVD. BNP values and performance on the Dementia Rating Scale were assessed in 56 older adults with documented CVD. Forty-eight percent of the participants were women, and their average age was 70 ± 8 years. All participants had Mini-Mental State Examination scores greater than the cutoff for dementia and no histories of neurologic or severe psychiatric disorders. The average BNP level was 122 ± 202 pg/ml. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that log-transformed BNP levels predicted Dementia Rating Scale total score after adjusting for possible demographic and medical confounders (ΔR2 = 0.09, F[1, 44] = 6.14, p = 0.017). Partial correlation analysis adjusting for these possible confounders showed a particularly strong relation to the conceptualization subtest (r = −0.44, p = 0.002), a measure of verbal and nonverbal abstraction abilities. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide the first evidence for an independent relation between BNP and cognitive dysfunction in older adults with CVD.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.02.062
PMCID: PMC2748274  PMID: 16893713
21.  Endothelial Function and White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease 
Background and Purpose
The presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain MRI is common among elderly individuals. Previous research suggests that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased white matter hyperintensities. Examining the role of direct physiological measures of vascular function will help to clarify the vascular mechanisms related to white matter hyperintensities. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilatation and white matter hyperintensity volume.
Methods
Twenty-five older adults with a range of cardiovascular diseases underwent brain MRI and completed assessments of blood vessel integrity using endothelial-dependent and independent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. A semi-automated pixel-based method was used to quantify total brain volume and white matter hyperintensity volume, with white matter hyperintensity volume corrected for total brain volume. The association between measures of flow-mediated dilation and log-transformed white matter hyperintensities was examined.
Results
Correlation analysis revealed that endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was significantly and inversely associated with white matter hyperintensity volume. In contrast, endothelial-independent vasodilatation was not associated with white matter hyperintensities. Neither endothelial-dependent nor endothelial-independent vasodilatation was associated with total brain volume.
Conclusions
These data provide preliminary evidence that the integrity of the vascular endothelium is associated with white matter hyperintensities in older adults with cardiovascular disease. Impaired vascular function may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of white matter hyperintensities in the brain. Additional longitudinal research combining measures of vessel function, neuroimaging and cognition will be helpful in clarifying this potential mechanism.
doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000254517.04275.3f
PMCID: PMC2748266  PMID: 17204686
cardiovascular disease; endothelium; magnetic resonance; white matter disease
22.  Quantitative Tractography Metrics of White Matter Integrity in Diffusion-Tensor MRI 
NeuroImage  2008;42(2):568-581.
We present new quantitative diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based metrics for assessing cerebral white matter integrity. These metrics extend prior work in this area. Tractography models of cerebral white matter were produced from each subject's DTI data. The models are a set of curves (e.g., “streamtubes”) derived from DTI data that represent the underlying topography of the cerebral white matter. Nine metrics were calculated in whole brain tractography models and in three “tracts-of-interest” (TOI): transcallosal fibers, and the left and right cingulum bundles. The metrics included the number of streamtubes and several metrics based on the summed length of streamtubes in including some that were weighted by scalar anisotropy metrics and normalized for estimated intracranial volume. We then tested whether patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (i.e., vascular cognitive impairment or VCI) vs. healthy controls (HC) differed on the metrics. The metrics were significantly lower in the VCI group in whole brain and in transcallosal TOI but not in the left or right cingulum bundles. The metrics correlated significantly with cognitive functions known to be impacted by white matter abnormalities (e.g., processing speed) but not with those more impacted by cortical disease (e.g., naming). These new metrics help bridge the gap between DTI tractography and scalar analytical methods and provide a potential means for examining group differences in white matter integrity in specific tracts-of-interest.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.05.022
PMCID: PMC2745947  PMID: 18617421
23.  Vascular and cognitive functions associated with cardiovascular disease in the elderly 
This study examines the relationship between systemic vascular function, neurocognitive performance, and structural brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among geriatric outpatients with treated, stable cardiovascular disease and no history of neurological illness (n = 88, ages 56–85 years). Vascular function was assessed by cardiac ejection fraction and output, sequential systolic and diastolic blood pressures, flow mediated brachial artery reactivity (BAR), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI were quantified and examined relative to cognitive and vascular function. Principal component analysis revealed two primary vascular components: one associated with cardiac function, the other with atherosclerotic burden/endothelial dysfunction. Both factors were significantly associated with cognitive function and WMH volume. Reduced systolic variability and increased IMT were most strongly related to reduced attention, executive function, and information-processing speed. These findings suggest the possibility that systemic vascular indices may provide proxy measures of cerebrovascular dysfunction and reinforce the importance of achieving greater understanding of interaction between systemic vascular disease and brain dysfunction among elderly people with cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1080/13803390802014594
PMCID: PMC2739675  PMID: 18608677
Cardiovascular disease; Cerebrovascular disease; White matter hyperintensities; Magnetic resonance imaging; Flow mediated dilatation intima lamina thickness; Blood pressure variability; Cardiac output; Cognition; Attention; Executive function; Psychomotor function
24.  Subcortical hyperintensities impact cognitive function among a select subset of healthy elderly 
Previous studies have examined the impact of subcortical hyperintensities (SH), a proxy measure of cerebrovascular disease, on the cognitive abilities of otherwise healthy older adults. However, there remains a limited understanding as to what extent this MRI marker of pathological processes explains the decline in specific cognitive functions that occur nearly ubiquitously with advanced age, especially in relation to other age-related imaging markers. In the present study we compared cognitive abilities between a sample of 53 older healthy adults (age range = 50–79) and a sample of 53 younger adults (age range = 21–40). As expected, the older group performed significantly worse on most cognitive measures compared to the younger group. Frontal volume and total grey matter volume were also significantly reduced among the older individuals compared to the younger individuals. SH volume was consistently associated with cognitive function in older adults, though, this relationship was evident only for a relatively small subset of older individuals with the most severe SH. These data suggest that the relationship between SH and cognition in the elderly is driven by a subset of individuals who may be in the earliest stages of vascular cognitive impairment. Further, the findings suggest that cognitive aging is largely determined by factors other than SH for most older adults.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.02.004
PMCID: PMC2733246  PMID: 15941646
Subcortical hyperintensities; Cognition; Elderly; MRI
25.  Apathy is Associated With Volume of the Nucleus Accumbens in Patients Infected With HIV 
Apathy refers to a reduction in self-initiated behavior, and it is commonly reported by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It remains unclear whether apathy among HIV patients reflects a direct effect of the virus on subcortical brain circuits or a secondary neuropsychiatric symptom. In the present study we examined the relationship between ratings of apathy and quantitative analysis of the nucleus accumbens (NA), a subcortical brain structure that regulates initiation of behavioral activation. Twelve HIV-positive individuals without dementia were administered the Marin Apathy Scale and underwent neuroimaging. Voxel-based quantification of the nucleus accumbens was completed using a segmentation protocol. Results of our study revealed that increased ratings of apathy were significantly correlated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens. By contrast, ratings of depression were unrelated to either apathy or nucleus accumbens volume. These findings provide preliminary evidence that apathy reflects direct involvement of the central nervous system in patients with HIV.
doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17.2.167
PMCID: PMC2725432  PMID: 15939969

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