Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-9 (9)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Brief Report: Effect of CMV and HIV Transcription on CD57 and PD-1 T-Cell Expression During Suppressive ART 
Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.
HIV-infected men who have sex with men are nearly universally coinfected with cytomegalovirus (CMV). In this study of 45 HIV-infected men who have sex with men virologically suppressed on ART, we found that presence of seminal CMV DNA shedding and higher levels of systemic cellular HIV RNA transcription were both independently associated with increased PD-1 expression on circulating CD4+ T cells, but not with higher levels of senescent (CD57+) T cells. In addition, greater HIV RNA transcription was associated with lower CD57 expression on CD8 T cells. Although causality cannot be inferred from this retrospective study, these results suggest that asymptomatic CMV replication and residual cellular HIV transcription may contribute to persistent immune dysregulation during suppressive ART.
PMCID: PMC4868660  PMID: 26818740
CMV; immune exhaustion; immune senescence; PD-1; CD57
2.  Self-Predictions of Prospective Memory in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: Evidence of a Metamemory Deficit 
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM; “remembering to remember”), conferring risk of daily functioning declines. However, self-perceptions of PM functioning are not reliably associated with PM performance in HIV, suggesting a possible deficit in awareness of PM abilities (meta-PM). Our study examined meta-PM in HAND and its correlates using self-predictions of laboratory-based PM performance. Performance-based PM abilities, self-reported prediction of PM performance, and PM complaints in everyday life were assessed in 49 individuals with HAND, 93 HIV+ without HAND (HIV+ noHAND), and 121 seronegative adults (HIV−). After controlling for group-level differences, HAND was associated with a greater number of PM symptoms in everyday life and worse PM performance when compared with both HIV+ noHAND and HIV− samples. Although HAND individuals reported somewhat lower predictions regarding their laboratory PM performance relative to the other study groups, they nevertheless exhibited significantly greater inaccurate overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Within the HAND group, overconfidence in time-based meta-PM was associated with executive dysfunction and antiretroviral (ARV) nonadherence. HAND individuals evidenced a moderate deficit in awareness of PM functioning characterized by overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Overconfidence in PM may result in absence of compensatory strategy use, and lead to increased errors in daily functioning (e.g., ARV nonadherence).
PMCID: PMC4296161  PMID: 25404005
Executive functions; Metacognition; Everyday functioning
3.  Methamphetamine Use in HIV-infected Individuals Affects T-cell Function and Viral Outcome during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:13179.
We investigated the associations between methamphetamine (meth) use, immune function, and the dynamics of HIV and cytomegalovirus [CMV] in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected ART-suppressed subjects. Self-reported meth use was associated with increased CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation (Ki67+, p < 0.005), CD4+ T-cell activation (CD45RA–CD38+, p = 0.005) and exhaustion (PD-1+, p = 0.0004) in blood, compared to non-meth users. Meth use was also associated with a trend towards higher blood HIV DNA levels (p = 0.09) and more frequent shedding of CMV in seminal plasma (p = 0.002). To explore possible mechanisms, we compared ex vivo spontaneous and antigen-specific proliferation in PBMC collected from subjects with and without positive meth detection in urine (Utox+ vs. Utox-). Despite higher levels of spontaneous proliferation, lymphocytes from Utox+ meth users had a significantly lower proliferative capacity after stimulation with a number of pathogens (CMV, candida, mycobacterium, toxoplasma, HIV, p < 0.04 in all cases), compared to Utox- participants. Our findings suggest that meth users have greater proliferation and exhaustion of the immune system. Meth use is also associated with a loss of control of CMV replication, which could be related to loss of immune response to pathogens. Future studies should consider meth use as a potential modulator of T-cell responses.
PMCID: PMC4547398  PMID: 26299251
4.  Shallow Encoding and Forgetting Are Associated with Dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults Living with HIV Infection 
Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence.
PMCID: PMC4000232  PMID: 24695591
Aging; Disability; Everyday functioning; Learning and memory
5.  Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) CD8+ T-Cells That Express Interferon-Gamma Contribute to HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0116526.
HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect cognition and everyday functioning despite anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Previous studies focused on mechanisms related to monocyte/macrophage mediated inflammation. However, in the ART era, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of CD8+ T-cells in CNS pathogenesis.
To investigate the relationship between T-cell responses and neurocognitive impairment (NCI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell intracellular cytokine (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and lytic marker (CD107a) expression were assessed in HIV infected subjects who underwent comprehensive neurocognitive (NC) evaluation and either initiated or changed ART.
Data were collected from 31 participants at 70 visits. The frequency of cytokine expressing T-cells in CSF was significantly higher than in peripheral blood for CD4+T-cells: TNFα, IL-2, IFNγ and CD8+T-cells: IL-2 and IFNγ. Analysis of T-cell activity and NCI as a function of CSF HIV RNA levels suggested a general association between NCI, high CSF CD8+ (but not CD4+T-cell) cytokine expression and CSF HIV RNA <103 copies/ml (p<0.0001). Specifically, CSF CD8+ T-cell IFNγ expression correlated with severity of NCI (r = 0.57, p = 0.004). Multivariable analyses indicated that CSF CD8+T-cell IFNγ and myeloid activation (CD163) contributed equally and independently to cognitive status and a composite variable produced the strongest correlation with NCI (r = 0.83, p = 0.0001). In contrast, CD8+ cytolytic activity (CD107a expression) was negatively correlated with NCI (p = 0.05) but was dependent on CD4 levels >400/μl and low CSF HIV RNA levels (<103 copies/ml). In our longitudinal analysis of 16 subjects, higher CSF CD8+IFNγ expression at baseline predicted NC decline at follow-up (p = 0.02). Severity of NCI at follow-up correlated with level of residual HIV RNA in CSF.
Presence of IFNγ expressing CD8+ T-cells, absence of cytolytic CD8+ T-cells, high myeloid activation, and failure of ART to suppress HIV replication in CSF contribute to increased risk of HAND.
PMCID: PMC4342256  PMID: 25719800
6.  The Influence of HLA on HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in Anhui, China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e32303.
HLA-DR*04 was identified as a predictor of HIV-Associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), low CD4 T-cell responses to HIV, and low plasma HIV RNA levels in a U.S. cohort. We hypothesized that low CD4 T-cell activation leads to poor immune control of HIV in the CNS, predisposing to HAND, but also provided fewer target (activated CD4 T-cells) for HIV replication. To assess the consistency of these HLA Class II associations in a new cohort and extend analysis to HLA Class I, HLA types, neurocognitive, and virologic status were examined in a cohort of former plasma donors in China.
178 HIV infected individuals in Anhui China, were HLA typed and underwent neurocognitive evaluations (using locally standardized norms), neuromedical, treatment and virologic assessments at baseline and at 12 months.
HLA DR*04 was associated with a higher rate of baseline neurocognitive impairment (p = 0.04), neurocognitive decline (p = 0.04), and lower levels of HIV RNA in plasma (p = 0.05). HLA Class I alleles (B*27,57,58,A*03,33) that specify a CD8 T-cell response to conserved HIV sequences were neuroprotective, associated with less impairment at baseline (p = 0.037), at month 012 (p = 0.013) and less neurocognitive decline (p = 0.023) in the interval. Consistent with the theory that effective CD8 T-cell responses require CD4 T-cell support, the HLA DR*04 allele reduced the neuroprotective effect of the Class I alleles. The presence of HLA-DR*04 and the Alzheimer associated allele ApoE4 in the same individual had a synergistic negative effect on cognition (p = 0.003).
Despite major background differences between U.S. and Anhui China cohorts, HLA DR*04 predicted neurocognitive impairment and lower plasma HIV RNA levels in both populations. HLA Class I alleles associated with CD8 T-cell control of HIV were associated with protection from HAND, but protection was reduced in the presence of HLA-DR*04.
PMCID: PMC3365058  PMID: 22693541
7.  Are Time- and Event-based Prospective Memory Comparably Affected in HIV Infection?† 
According to the multi-process theory of prospective memory (ProM), time-based tasks rely more heavily on strategic processes dependent on prefrontal systems than do event-based tasks. Given the prominent frontostriatal pathophysiology of HIV infection, one would expect HIV-infected individuals to demonstrate greater deficits in time-based versus event-based ProM. However, the two prior studies examining this question have produced variable results. We evaluated this hypothesis in 143 individuals with HIV infection and 43 demographically similar seronegative adults (HIV−) who completed the research version of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test, which yields parallel subscales of time- and event-based ProM. Results showed main effects of HIV serostatus and cue type, but no interaction between serostatus and cue. Planned pair-wise comparisons showed a significant effect of HIV on time-based ProM and a trend-level effect on event-based ProM that was driven primarily by the subset of participants with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Nevertheless, time-based ProM was more strongly correlated with measures of executive functions, attention/working memory, and verbal fluency in HIV-infected persons. Although HIV-associated deficits in time- and event-based ProM appear to be of comparable severity, the cognitive architecture of time-based ProM may be more strongly influenced by strategic monitoring and retrieval processes.
PMCID: PMC3081684  PMID: 21459901
AIDS dementia complex; Episodic memory; Executive functions; Neuropsychological assessment
8.  195APOE ε4 and MBL-2 O/O Genotypes are Associated with Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Plasma Donors from Anhui Province, China 
AIDS (London, England)  2010;24(10):1471-1479.
Host genetic factors are important determinants for risk of HIV-1 infection and disease progression. This study examined associations of host genetic variants and neurocognitive impairment in Chinese subjects infected through contaminated blood products.
201 HIV-infected subjects from Anhui, China had neuropsychological (NP) tests at baseline and 12 months. DNA was genotyped for APOE ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles, MBL2-A/O,CCR5-wt/Δ32, CCR5-59029-G/A, CCR2-180-G/A, SDF-1-G/A, IL4-589-C/T, MCP-1-2518-A/G, CX3CR1-745-G/A, -849-C/T polymorphisms and CCL3L1 copy number variants (CNVs) using real-time PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
The cohort was 61% males, mean education: 5.5 years, AIDS diagnosis: 113(55%), on antiretrovirals: 114(56%), mean baseline CD4+ count: 349/mm3 and mean log10 RNA 4.09. At baseline, 37% had global NP impairment increasing to 44% after 12 months. Of 43 subjects with the APOE ε4 allele, 58% were cognitively impaired versus 31% without the ε4 allele (P=0.001, OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.54, 6.18). The mean GDS for ε4 positive participants on antiretrovirals for 12 months was 0.88 (0.55) versus 0.63 (.54) for ε4 negatives (P = 0.053, 95%CI: -0.004, 0.51). For MBL2, 52% of subjects with the O/O genotype declined in cognitive function over 12 months versus 23% with A/A (OR = 3.62. 95% CI: 1.46, 9.03; P=0.004). No associations were observed for the other genetic variants.
The APOE ε4 allele was associated with increased risk for cognitive deficits, while the MBL2 O/O genotype was associated with increased risk for progressive cognitive decline in Chinese subjects infected with HIV through contaminated blood products.
PMCID: PMC3063510  PMID: 20442634
APOE; MBL-2; HIV; cognitive impairment; host genetics; China
9.  Serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha, Soluble Type II TNF Receptor, and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Individuals with Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(1):298-303.
To characterize changes in serum cytokine levels in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, the levels of IL-1α (interleukin-1α), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), soluble type II TNF receptor (sTNF-RII), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in serum were measured in two cohorts of HIV-1-infected persons with MAC bacteremia. The first cohort was part of a MAC prophylaxis study. Patients with bacteremia were matched with controls without bacteremia. Elevated IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, sTNF-RII, and TGF-β levels were noted at baseline for all subjects, a result consistent with advanced HIV-1 disease. IL-1α was not detected. No differences in cytokine levels in serum were noted at baseline and at the time of bacteremia between patients with MAC and controls. In the second cohort, subjects had serum samples collected at the time of MAC bacteremia and thereafter while on macrolide therapy. Serum samples at time of bacteremia were collected from HIV-1-infected persons at a time when neither highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) nor MAC prophylaxis was used routinely. MAC treatment resulted in decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, which were evident for IL-6 by 4 to 6 weeks and for TNF-α by 8 to 16 weeks. Thus, antibiotic treatment for MAC results in decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum in HIV-1-infected persons who are not on HAART.
PMCID: PMC87718  PMID: 11136787

Results 1-9 (9)