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1.  Neuroimaging Correlates of Everyday Action in Dementia 
Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology  2013;35(9):10.1080/13803395.2013.844773.
The everyday, functional impairments associated with dementia remain poorly understood from a neuropsychological perspective. This study investigated relations between brain structure volumes and two measures of everyday action – caregiver questionnaire and direct assessment – in 57 participants with dementia. Results showed that caregiver ratings reflecting more functional impairment were strongly associated with smaller volumes of deep white matter. Direct assessment of everyday task performance in a subsample revealed relations between unique neurological substrates and discrete everyday action error types. Findings emphasize differences in functional assessment methods and highlight the role of white matter in functional deficits in dementia.
doi:10.1080/13803395.2013.844773
PMCID: PMC3882061  PMID: 24131088
dementia; everyday action; executive control; episodic memory; white matter alterations
2.  Is the N-Back Task a Valid Neuropsychological Measure for Assessing Working Memory? 
The n-back is a putative working memory task frequently used in neuroimaging research; however, literature addressing n-back use in clinical neuropsychological evaluation is sparse. We examined convergent validity of the n-back with an established measure of working memory, digit span backward. The relationship between n-back performance and scores on measures of processing speed was also examined, as was the ability of the n-back to detect potential between-groups differences in control and Parkinson's disease (PD) groups. Results revealed no correlation between n-back performance and digit span backward. N-back accuracy significantly correlated with a measure of processing speed (Trail Making Test Part A) at the 2-back load. Relative to controls, PD patients performed less accurately on the n-back and showed a trend toward slower reaction times, but did not differ on any of the neuropsychological measures. Results suggest the n-back is not a pure measure of working memory, but may be able to detect subtle differences in cognitive functioning between PD patients and controls.
doi:10.1093/arclin/acp063
PMCID: PMC2770861  PMID: 19767297
Working memory; Executive function; Information processing speed; Parkinson's disease; Neuropsychology
3.  Entorhinal cortex volume in older adults: Reliability and validity considerations for three published measurement protocols 
Measuring the entorhinal cortex (ERC) is challenging due to lateral border discrimination from the perirhinal cortex. From a sample of 39 nondemented older adults who completed volumetric image scans and verbal memory indices, we examined reliability and validity concerns for three ERC protocols with different lateral boundary guidelines (i.e., Goncharova, Dickerson, Stoub, & deToledo-Morrell, 2001; Honeycutt et al., 1998; Insausti et al., 1998). We used three novice raters to assess inter-rater reliability on a subset of scans (216 total ERCs), with the entire dataset measured by one rater with strong intra-rater reliability on each technique (234 total ERCs). We found moderate to strong inter-rater reliability for two techniques with consistent ERC lateral boundary endpoints (Goncharova, Honeycutt), with negligible to moderate reliability for the technique requiring consideration of collateral sulcal depth (Insausti). Left ERC and story memory associations were moderate and positive for two techniques designed to exclude the perirhinal cortex (Insausti, Goncharova), with the Insausti technique continuing to explain 10% of memory score variance after additionally controlling for depression symptom severity. Right ERC-story memory associations were nonexistent after excluding an outlier. Researchers are encouraged to consider challenges of rater training for ERC techniques and how lateral boundary endpoints may impact structure-function associations. (JINS, 2010, 1–10.)
doi:10.1017/S135561771000072X
PMCID: PMC3070302  PMID: 20937164
Insausti; Goncharova; Memory; Paragraph memory; Story memory; Alzheimer
4.  Subcortical vascular dementia: Integrating neuropsychological and neuroradiologic data 
Neurology  2005;65(3):376-382.
Background
Research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia are based on radiologic evidence of vascular pathology and greater impairment on tests of executive control than memory. The relationship(s) between neuroradiological evidence of subcortical vascular disease and neuropsychological impairments has not been specified.
Objective
To define these research criteria, the authors rated the severity of MRI white matter abnormalities (WMAs) and neuropsychological data from patients with dementia.
Methods
Sixty-nine outpatients who met the criteria for dementia were studied with neuropsychological tests that assessed executive (mental) control, declarative memory, visuoconstruction (clock drawing), and language (semantic category fluency). MRI-WMAs were rated using a leukoaraiosis (LA) scale (range 0 to 40).
Results
First, regression analyses demonstrated that neuropsychological measures accounted for 60.7% of the variance in WMA severity (47.3% of this variance attributable to executive/visuoconstructive test performance, 13.4% attributable to memory/language test performance). Second, patients were grouped according to the severity of WMAs (i.e., low, moderate, and severe white matter groups). Only patients with mild WMA (mean LA = 3.61 ± 2.63, approximately 2.4 to 15.6% of the subcortical white matter) presented with greater impairment on memory/language tests vs executive control/visuoconstructive tests, a neuropsychological profile typically associated with Alzheimer disease. Patients with moderate WMA (mean LA = 12.76 ± 2.49, approximately 25.6 to 38.1% of the subcortical white matter) presented with equal impairment on executive/visuoconstructional vs memory/language tests. Patients with severe WMA (mean LA = 21.76 ± 2.97, approximately 46.9 to 62.4% of the subcortical white matter) displayed a profile of greater executive/visuoconstructional impairment relative to memory/language disabilities.
Conclusion
A profile of equal impairment on tests of executive control and memory along with radiologic evidence involving about one-fourth of the cerebral white matter as measured by the Leukoaraiosis Scale may be sufficient for a diagnosis of subcortical vascular dementia.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000168877.06011.15
PMCID: PMC2746450  PMID: 16087901

Results 1-4 (4)