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1.  Differential executive functioning performance by phase of bipolar disorder 
Bipolar disorders  2012;14(5):527-536.
Objective
This study examined the influence of illness phase on executive functioning performance using factor-derived cognitive scores in a cross-sectional design.
Methods
Healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 57), and euthymic (E-BD) (n = 117), depressed (D-BD) (n = 73), and hypomanic/mixed (HM/M-BD) (n = 26) patients with bipolar disorder (BD) were evaluated using executive functioning measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test–Parts A and B, Verbal Fluency, Parametric Go/No-Go, Stroop, and Digit Symbol) comprising Conceptual Reasoning and Set-Shifting (CRSS), Processing Speed with Interference Resolution (PSIR), Verbal Fluency and Processing Speed (VFPS), and Inhibitory Control (IC) factor scores.
Results
Two of the four executive functioning factors were significantly different between groups based upon phase of illness. The HM/M group was significantly worse than both of the other BD groups and the HC group in IC. The VFPS factor was sensitive to the active phase of BD, with the HM/M-BD and D-BD groups worse than HC. Extending our prior work, the PSIR factor, and now the CRSS factor were significantly worse in BD relative to HC, irrespective of phase of illness.
Conclusions
Phase of illness had differential cognitive profiles in executive functioning factors, even after considering and excluding the impact of clinical features, illness characteristics, medications, and demographics. Consolidating executive functioning tasks into reliable factor scores provides unique information to measure and define cognitive deficiencies throughout phases of BD, and to measure intermediate phenotypes in BD, and may aid in tracking and clarifying treatment focus.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01032.x
PMCID: PMC3773478  PMID: 22834461
bipolar disorder; cognition; executive function
2.  Auditory Memory Decrements, Without Dissimulation, among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder 
Questions have been raised about whether poor performance on memory tasks by individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) might be the result of poor or variable effort or disease-related disruption of neural circuits supporting memory functions. The present study examined performance on a measure of task engagement and on an auditory memory task among 45 patients with MDD (M age = 47.82, SD = 19.55) relative to 32 healthy controls (HC; M age = 51.03, SD = 22.09). One-hundred percent of HC and MDD volunteers performed above the threshold for adequate effort on a formal measure of task engagement. The MDD subjects performed significantly more poorly than the HC subjects on an auditory learning and memory test. The present results suggest that auditory memory difficulties do occur among those with MDD and that decrements in performance in this group may be related to factors other than lack of effort.
doi:10.1093/arclin/acr041
PMCID: PMC3201698  PMID: 21593060
Depression; Malingering/symptom validity testing; Learning and memory

Results 1-2 (2)