PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-19 (19)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Differential executive functioning performance by phase of bipolar disorder 
Bipolar disorders  2012;14(5):527-536.
Objective
This study examined the influence of illness phase on executive functioning performance using factor-derived cognitive scores in a cross-sectional design.
Methods
Healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 57), and euthymic (E-BD) (n = 117), depressed (D-BD) (n = 73), and hypomanic/mixed (HM/M-BD) (n = 26) patients with bipolar disorder (BD) were evaluated using executive functioning measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test–Parts A and B, Verbal Fluency, Parametric Go/No-Go, Stroop, and Digit Symbol) comprising Conceptual Reasoning and Set-Shifting (CRSS), Processing Speed with Interference Resolution (PSIR), Verbal Fluency and Processing Speed (VFPS), and Inhibitory Control (IC) factor scores.
Results
Two of the four executive functioning factors were significantly different between groups based upon phase of illness. The HM/M group was significantly worse than both of the other BD groups and the HC group in IC. The VFPS factor was sensitive to the active phase of BD, with the HM/M-BD and D-BD groups worse than HC. Extending our prior work, the PSIR factor, and now the CRSS factor were significantly worse in BD relative to HC, irrespective of phase of illness.
Conclusions
Phase of illness had differential cognitive profiles in executive functioning factors, even after considering and excluding the impact of clinical features, illness characteristics, medications, and demographics. Consolidating executive functioning tasks into reliable factor scores provides unique information to measure and define cognitive deficiencies throughout phases of BD, and to measure intermediate phenotypes in BD, and may aid in tracking and clarifying treatment focus.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01032.x
PMCID: PMC3773478  PMID: 22834461
bipolar disorder; cognition; executive function
2.  Intermediate Cognitive Phenotypes in Bipolar Disorder 
Journal of affective disorders  2009;122(3):285-293.
Background
Intermediate cognitive phenotypes (ICPs) are measurable and quantifiable states that may be objectively assessed in a standardized method, and can be integrated into association studies, including genetic, biochemical, clinical, and imaging based correlates. The present study used neuropsychological measures as ICPs, with factor scores in executive functioning, attention, memory, fine motor function, and emotion processing, similar to prior work in schizophrenia.
Methods
Healthy control subjects (HC, n=34) and euthymic (E, n=66), depressed (D, n=43), or hypomanic/mixed (HM, n=13) patients with bipolar disorder (BD) were assessed with neuropsychological tests. These were from eight domains consistent with previous literature; auditory memory, visual memory, processing speed with interference resolution, verbal fluency and processing speed, conceptual reasoning and set-shifting, inhibitory control, emotion processing, and fine motor dexterity.
Results
Of the eight factor scores, the HC group outperformed the E group in three (Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Visual Memory, Fine Motor Dexterity), the D group in seven (all except Inhibitory Control), and the HM group in four (Inhibitory Control, Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Fine Motor Dexterity, and Auditory Memory).
Limitations
The HM group was relatively small, thus effects of this phase of illness may have been underestimated. Effects of medication could not be fully controlled without a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Conclusions
Use of the factor scores can assist in determining ICPs for BD and related disorders, and may provide more specific targets for development of new treatments. We highlight strong ICPs (Processing Speed with Interference Resolution, Visual Memory, Fine Motor Dexterity) for further study, consistent with the existing literature.
doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.018
PMCID: PMC3773480  PMID: 19800130
Bipolar disorder; cognition; executive function; emotion; phenotype; intermediate phenotype; mania; depression
3.  Associations between suicide attempts and elevated bedtime salivary cortisol levels in bipolar disorder 
Journal of affective disorders  2011;136(3):350-358.
Background
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been reported in bipolar disorder and also in suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between suicidal behaviors and the HPA axis function in bipolar disorder, attending to and minimizing confounding factors. We compare HPA axis activity in bipolar individuals with and without suicidal behavior and unaffected healthy controls through measurement of salivary cortisol.
Method
Salivary cortisol was collected for three consecutive days in 29 controls, 80 bipolar individuals without a history of suicide and 56 bipolar individuals with a past history of suicide. Clinical factors that affect salivary cortisol were also examined.
Results
A past history of suicide was associated with a 7.4% higher bedtime salivary cortisol level in bipolar individuals. There was no statistical difference between non-suicidal bipolar individuals and controls in bedtime salivary cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol was not different between the three groups.
Limitations
The measure of salivary cortisol was a home based collection by the study subjects and the retrospective clinical data was primarily based on their historical account.
Conclusions
Bipolar individuals with a past history of suicidal behavior exhibit hyperactivity in the HPA axis. This biological marker remains significant regardless of demographic factors, mood state, severity and course of illness. This finding in bipolar disorder is consistent with the evidence for altered HPA axis functioning in suicide and mood disorders and is associated with a clinical subgroup of bipolar patients at elevated risk for suicide based on their history, and in need of further attention and study.
doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.027
PMCID: PMC3683957  PMID: 22154566
Bipolar; Suicide; Cortisol; HPA axis; Biomarker
4.  Modality-specific alterations in the perception of emotional stimuli in Bipolar Disorder compared to Healthy Controls and Major Depressive Disorder 
Objectives
Affect identification accuracy paradigms have increasingly been utilized to understand psychiatric illness including Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This investigation focused on perceptual accuracy in affect identification in both visual and auditory domains among patients with BD, relative to Healthy Controls (HC) and patients with MDD. Demographic and clinical variables, in addition to medications were also investigated.
Methods
The visual Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) and auditory Emotional Perception Test (EPT) were administered to adults with BD (n = 119) and MDD (n = 78) as well as HC (n = 66).
Results
Performance on the FEPT was significantly stronger than on the EPT irrespective of group. Performance on the EPT did not significantly differentiate the groups. On the FEPT, BD samples had the greatest difficulty relative to HC in identification of sad and fearful faces. BD participants also had greater difficulty identifying sad faces relative to MDD participants though not after controlling for severity of illness factors. For the BD (but not MDD) sample several clinical variables were also correlated with FEPT performance.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that disruptions in identification of negative emotions such as sadness and fear may be a characteristic trait of BD. However, this effect may be moderated by greater illness severity found in our BD sample.
doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2011.03.017
PMCID: PMC3660134  PMID: 21683948
Bipolar Disorder; Major Depressive Disorder; Affect perception
5.  Greater executive and visual memory dysfunction in comorbid bipolar disorder and substance use disorder 
Psychiatry research  2012;200(0):252-257.
Measures of cognitive dysfunction in Bipolar Disorder (BD) have identified state and trait dependent metrics. An influence of substance abuse (SUD) on BD has been suggested. This study investigates potential differential, additive, or interactive cognitive dysfunction in bipolar patients with or without a history of SUD. Two hundred fifty-six individuals with BD, 98 without SUD and 158 with SUD, and 97 Healthy Controls (HC) completed diagnostic interviews, neuropsychological testing, and symptom severity scales. The BD groups exhibited poorer performance than the HC group on most cognitive factors. The BD with SUD exhibited significantly poorer performance than BD without SUD in visual memory and conceptual reasoning/set-shifting. In addition, a significant interaction effect between substance use and depressive symptoms was found for auditory memory and emotion processing. BD patients with a history of SUD demonstrated worse visual memory and conceptual reasoning skills above and beyond the dysfunction observed in these domains among individuals with BD without SUD, suggesting greater impact on integrative, gestalt-driven processing domains. Future research might address longitudinal outcome as a function of BD, SUD, and combined BD/SUD to evaluate neural systems involved in risk for, and effects of, these illnesses.
doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.06.013
PMCID: PMC3650480  PMID: 22769049
Mood disorders; Alcohol; Dual diagnosis; Cognition; Neuropsychology
6.  DRD2 polymorphisms modulate reward and emotion processing, dopamine neurotransmission and openness to experience 
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission through D2 receptors (DRD2) has been implicated in the regulation of reward processing, cognition and the effects of drugs of abuse, and also has significant effects in responses to stressors and salient aversive stimuli. An examination of the influence of genetic variation across multiple psychophysical measures therefore appears critical to understand the neurobiology of DA-modulated complex personality traits and psychiatric illnesses. To examine interindividual variation in the function of DRD2 modulated mechanisms in healthy humans, we used a haplotype-based and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) investigation. Their effects were interrogated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during reward and emotional processing. We found that a haplotype block composed by two SNPs, rs4274224 and rs4581480, affected the hemodynamic responses of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during reward expectation and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortices (sgACC) during implicit emotional processing. Exploratory analysis within the significant haplotype block revealed the same functional effects only for the SNP rs4274224. Further analysis on rs4274224 using functional connectivity and positron emission tomography (PET) measures of DA D2/3 receptor mediated neurotransmission confirmed a gene effect on the functional connectivity of the DLPFC during reward anticipation and subcortical stress induced dopamine release. At a phenotypic trait level, significant effects of genotype were obtained for the NEO PI-R “Openness to Experience” and further correlated with neuroimaging data. Overall, these results show significant neurobiological effects of genotype variation in DRD2 on multiple functional domains, such as emotional, stress and reward processing. As such, it contributes to normal variation and potentially to vulnerability to psychopathology associated with those functions, such as risk for mood and substance use disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.01.010
PMCID: PMC3381848  PMID: 22424959
imaging; dopamine; DLPFC; reward; emotion
7.  Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing 
Neuropharmacology  2011;62(1):217-225.
Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.07.006
PMCID: PMC3196277  PMID: 21787793
HPA; cortisol; ACTH; emotion; affect; fMRI; Cushings
8.  Auditory Memory Decrements, Without Dissimulation, among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder 
Questions have been raised about whether poor performance on memory tasks by individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) might be the result of poor or variable effort or disease-related disruption of neural circuits supporting memory functions. The present study examined performance on a measure of task engagement and on an auditory memory task among 45 patients with MDD (M age = 47.82, SD = 19.55) relative to 32 healthy controls (HC; M age = 51.03, SD = 22.09). One-hundred percent of HC and MDD volunteers performed above the threshold for adequate effort on a formal measure of task engagement. The MDD subjects performed significantly more poorly than the HC subjects on an auditory learning and memory test. The present results suggest that auditory memory difficulties do occur among those with MDD and that decrements in performance in this group may be related to factors other than lack of effort.
doi:10.1093/arclin/acr041
PMCID: PMC3201698  PMID: 21593060
Depression; Malingering/symptom validity testing; Learning and memory
9.  Variation in the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 (CRHR1) Gene influences fMRI Signal Responses during Emotional Stimulus Processing 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2012;32(9):3253-3260.
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system coordinates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and has been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent reports suggest that GG-homozygous individuals of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs110402) in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene show behavioral and neuroendocrine evidence of stress vulnerability. The present study explores whether those observations extend to the neuronal processing of emotional stimuli in humans. CRHR1 was genotyped in 83 controls and preliminary sample of 16 unmedicated patients with MDD who completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while viewing blocks of positive, negative, and neutral words. In addition, potential mediating factors such as early life stress, sex, personality traits, and negative memory bias were examined. Robust differences in blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal were found in healthy controls (A allele carriers > GG-homozygotes) while viewing negative versus neutral words in the right middle temporal/angular gyrus. Among GG-homozygotes, BOLD signal in the subgenual cingulate was greater in MDD participants (n = 9) compared to controls (n = 33). Conversely, among A-carriers, BOLD signal was smaller in MDD (n = 7) compared to controls (n = 50) in the hypothalamus, bilateral amygdala, and left nucleus accumbens. Early life stress, personality traits, and levels of negative memory bias were associated with brain activity depending on genotype. Results from healthy controls and a preliminary sample of MDD participants show that CRHR1 SNP rs110402 moderates neural responses to emotional stimuli, suggesting a potential mechanism of vulnerability for the development of MDD.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5533-11.2012
PMCID: PMC3297975  PMID: 22378896
10.  Emotional processing, major depression, and functional genetic variation of neuropeptide Y 
Archives of general psychiatry  2011;68(2):158-166.
Context
Despite recent progress in describing the common neural circuitry of emotion and stress processing, the bases of individual variation are less well understood. Genetic variants that underlie psychiatric disease have proved particularly difficult to elucidate. Functional genetic variation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was recently identified as a source of individual differences in emotion. Low NPY levels have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD).
Objective
To determine whether low-expression NPY genotypes are associated with negative emotional processing at three levels of analysis.
Design
Cross-sectional, case-control.
Setting
Academic medical center.
Participants
Forty-four individuals with MDD and 137 healthy controls; 152 (84%) were classified by NPY genotype as low, intermediate, or high, according to previously established haplotype-based expression data.
Main Outcome Measures
Healthy subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing negative (versus neutral) words (n=58), and rated positive and negative affect during a pain-stress challenge (n=78). Genotype distribution was compared between 113 control and 39 MDD subjects.
Results
Among healthy individuals, negatively valenced words activated medial prefrontal cortex. Activation within this region was inversely related to genotype-predicted NPY expression (p=0.029). Whole-brain regression of responses to negative words showed that rostral anterior cingulate cortex activated in the low-expression group and deactivated in the high-expression group (p<0.05). During the stress challenge, individuals with low-expression NPY genotypes reported more negative affective experience before and after pain (p=0.002). Low-expression NPY genotypes were over-represented in MDD after controlling for age and sex (p=0.004). Population stratification did not account for the results.
Conclusions
These findings support a model in which NPY genetic variation predisposes certain individuals to low NPY expression, thereby increasing neural responsivity to negative stimuli within key affective circuit elements, including medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These genetically influenced neural response patterns appear to mediate risk for some forms of MDD.
doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.197
PMCID: PMC3091621  PMID: 21300944
11.  Abnormal Left-Sided Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortical–Amygdala Connectivity during Happy and Fear Face Processing: A Potential Neural Mechanism of Female MDD 
Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical–amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion processing paradigm. Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females), and 19 healthy individuals, age, and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical–amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful, and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3-T scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with dynamic causal modeling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical–amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p = 0.04), and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC–amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p = 0.03). These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical–sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p = 0.008), and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC–amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p = 0.008; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical–amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that characterize female MDD.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00069
PMCID: PMC3233901  PMID: 22163223
major depressive disorder; effective connectivity; emotion regulation; dynamic causal modeling; amygdala; prefrontal cortex
12.  FMRI BOLD responses to negative stimuli in the prefrontal cortex are dependent on levels of recent negative life stress in major depressive disorder 
Psychiatry research  2010;183(3):202-208.
It is poorly understood how stressors modulate neurobiological mechanisms that may contribute to the heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Unmedicated patients diagnosed with MDD (n = 15) and individually matched healthy controls (n = 15) completed stress questionnaires and were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing emotional words. Significant effects of recent negative life stressors, but not early life stress/trauma, were observed on regional blood oxygen level dependent activity during presentation of negative words in patients with MDD. No significant effects of stress on brain activation to negative words were found in controls. In MDD patients, positive correlations were found bilaterally in orbitofrontal areas 11l/47/12m, which are involved in representing negatively-valenced stimuli. Negative correlations were also found in the right ventrolateral prefrontal area 45, subgenual cingulate area 25, and nucleus accumbens, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD. Negative memory bias was additionally positively associated with recent negative life stress and negatively associated with subgenual cingulate activation, suggesting a mechanism by which stress may contribute to these abnormalities. The severity of recent negative life stressors is an important modifier of neurobiological and cognitive function in MDD and may help explain heterogeneity in the disorder.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.12.002
PMCID: PMC2938037  PMID: 20685091
orbital; subgenual; ventrolateral; accumbens; memory; depression
13.  Gender Specific Disruptions in Emotion Processing in Younger Adults with Depression 
Depression and anxiety  2009;26(2):182-189.
Background
One of the principal theories regarding the biological basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) implicates a dysregulation of emotion processing circuitry. Gender differences in how emotions are processed and relative experience with emotion processing might help to explain some of the disparities in the prevalence of MDD between women and men. The current study sought to explore how gender and depression status relate to emotion processing.
Methods
This study employed a 2 (MDD status) × 2 (gender) factorial design to explore differences in classifications of posed facial emotional expressions (N = 151).
Results
For errors, there was an interaction between gender and depression status. Women with MDD made more errors than did non-depressed women and men with MDD, particularly for fearful and sad stimuli (ps < .02), which they were likely to misinterpret as angry (ps < .04). There was also an interaction of diagnosis and gender for response cost for negative stimuli, with significantly greater interference from negative faces present in women with MDD compared with non-depressed women (p = .01). Men with MDD, conversely, performed similarly to control men (p = .61).
Conclusions
These results provide novel and intriguing evidence that depression in younger adults (< 35 years) differentially disrupts emotion processing in women as compared to men. This interaction could be driven by neurobiological and social learning mechanisms, or interactions between them, and may underlie differences in the prevalence of depression in women and men.
doi:10.1002/da.20502
PMCID: PMC3013355  PMID: 18800371
psychiatric disorders; affect perception; sex differences
14.  Substance use, trait measures, and subjective response to nicotine in never-smokers stratified on parental smoking history and sex 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(9):1055-1066.
Introduction
Male and female never-smokers stratified on parental history of smoking were tested for possible differences in susceptibility to the hedonic effects of nicotine.
Methods
We recruited nicotine-exposed never-smokers with two never-smoking biological parents (PH−) or two ever-smoking biological parents (PH+). After completing a baseline assessment battery focusing on conditions or behaviors associated with smoking, participants were tested for subjective and hedonic effects in response to administration of three different nicotine doses (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg) via nasal spray. Physiological and biochemical reactivity also was monitored.
Results
PH+ were significantly more likely to report having experienced a “buzz” upon early smoking experimentation and to have histories of alcohol abuse and alcoholism; they also scored higher on disordered eating. In response to nicotine dosing, PH+ reported an increase in depressed mood, compared with a minimal response in PH−, in keeping with our expectation that nicotine would have more pronounced effects in PH+. Regardless of parental history, women reported experiencing greater anxiety in response to the highest nicotine dose, compared with men.
Discussion
Further exploration in larger samples, using more stringent selection criteria, a wider range of measures, and a less aversive dosing method, may provide a full test of the possible utility of the parental history model for illuminating biobehavioral mechanisms underlying response to nicotine. Also important would be broadening the scope of inquiry to include comparisons with ever-smokers to determine what protected PH+ from becoming smokers, despite the presence of factors that might be expected to decrease resilience and increase susceptibility.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp099
PMCID: PMC2725008  PMID: 19633275
15.  Frontal and Limbic Activation During Inhibitory Control Predicts Treatment Response in Major Depressive Disorder 
Biological psychiatry  2007;62(11):1272-1280.
Background
Inhibitory control or regulatory difficulties have been explored in major depressive disorder (MDD) but typically in the context of affectively salient information. Inhibitory control is addressed specifically by using a task devoid of affectively-laden stimuli, to disentangle the effects of altered affect and altered inhibitory processes in MDD.
Methods:
Twenty MDD and 22 control volunteer participants matched by age and gender completed a contextual inhibitory control task, the Parametric Go/No-go (PGNG) task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The PGNG includes three levels of difficulty, a typical continuous performance task and two progressively more difficult versions including Go/No-go hit and rejection trials. After this test, 15 of 20 MDD patients completed a full 10-week treatment with s-citalopram.
Results:
There was a significant interaction among response time (control subjects better), hits (control subjects better), and rejections (patients better). The MDD participants had greater activation compared with the control group in frontal and anterior temporal areas during correct rejections (inhibition). Activation during successful inhibitory events in bilateral inferior frontal and left amygdala, insula, and nucleus accumbens and during unsuccessful inhibition (commission errors) in rostral anterior cingulate predicted post-treatment improvement in depression symptoms.
Conclusions:
The imaging findings suggest that in MDD subjects, greater neural activation in frontal, limbic, and temporal regions during correct rejection of lures is necessary to achieve behavioral performance equivalent to control subjects. Greater activation in similar regions was further predictive of better treatment response in MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.02.019
PMCID: PMC2860742  PMID: 17585888
Depression; executive functioning; fMRI; imaging; inhibitory control; mood disorders; SSRIs; treatment response
16.  Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype Predicts Human Serotonin 1A Receptor Availability In Vivo 
The serotonergic system, including the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Current data shows substantial inter-individual variation in the regional concentration of this receptor site, the source of which is unclear. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism, and polymorphic variation in the X-linked MAO-A gene influences its expression. We hypothesized that polymorphism in the MAO-A gene would be associated with sex-specific variation in 5-HT1A receptor expression. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]WAY-100635 to quantify 5-HT1A receptors in a group of 31 healthy and un-medicated depressed individuals. The same individuals were genotyped for an upstream variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the MAO-A gene. Analysis of variance of 5-HT1A receptor availability demonstrated a significant effect of MAO-A genotype in the raphe nuclei, medial and inferior temporal cortex, insula, medial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate (p<0.05). The effect persisted when age, race, body mass index, and diagnosis were included in the model. Genotypes with greater putative MAO-A activity were associated with greater 5-HT1A receptor availability in women, but not in men. Genotype predicted a substantial 42-74% of the variance in receptor availability in women, depending on the brain region (p<0.05). Depression diagnosis was not associated with MAO-A genotype or 5-HT1A receptor availability in these regions. These results demonstrate a sex-specific interaction between two key molecules of the human serotonergic system, and suggest a neurobiological basis for sexual dimorphism in serotonin-modulated phenotypes.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2391-08.2008
PMCID: PMC2613649  PMID: 18971477
sex difference; polymorphism; positron emission tomography; serotonin; serotonergic 1A receptor; monoamine oxidase; imaging; genetics; human; depression
17.  Comparability of functional MRI response in young and old during inhibition 
Neuroreport  2004;15(1):129-133.
When using fMRI to study age-related cognitive changes, it is important to establish the integrity of the hemodynamic response because, potentially, it can be affected by age and disease. However, there have been few attempts to document such integrity and no attempts using higher cognitive rather than perceptual or motor tasks. We used fMRI with 28 healthy young and older adults on an inhibitory control task. Although older and young adults differed in task performance and activation patterns, they had comparable hemodynamic responses. We conclude that activation during cognitive inhibition, which was predominantly increased in elders, was not due to vascular confounds or specific changes in hemodynamic coupling.
doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000093293.85057.d6
PMCID: PMC2078238  PMID: 15106844
Aging; Cognition; Event-related fMRI; Inhibition; Hemodynamic coupling; Recruitment
18.  An evaluation of distinct volumetric and functional MRI contributions toward understanding age and task performance: A study in the basal ganglia 
Brain research  2007;1135(1):58-68.
Prior work by our group and others has implicated the basal ganglia as important in age-related differences in tasks involving motor response control. The present study used structural and functional MRI approaches to analyze this region of interest (ROI) toward better understanding the contributions of structural and functional MRI measures to understanding age-related and task performance-related cognitive differences. Eleven healthy elders were compared with 11 healthy younger adults while they completed the “go” portion of a complex Go/No-go task. Separate ROI’s in the bilateral caudate (C) and putamen/globus pallidus (PGp) were studied based upon previous findings of age-related functional MRI differences in basal ganglia for this portion of the task. Structural volumes and functional activation (in percent area under the curve during correct responses) were independently extracted for these ROI’s. Results showed that age correlated with ROI volume in bilateral PGp and C, while multiple task performance measures correlated with functional activation in the left PGp. The Go/No-go task measures were also significantly correlated with traditional attention and executive functioning measures. Importantly, fMRI activation and volumes from each ROI were not significantly inter-correlated. These findings suggest that structural and functional MRI make unique contributions to the study of performance changes in aging.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.068
PMCID: PMC2078239  PMID: 17210145
Aging; fMRI; Imaging; Executive functioning; Attention Response execution; Motor skill
19.  C9ORF72 expansion in a family with bipolar disorder 
Bipolar Disorders  2013;15(3):326-332.
Objective
To investigate the role in bipolar disorder of the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion responsible for frontotemporal lobe dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Methods
Eighty-nine subjects from a previously described panel of individuals with bipolar disorder ascertained for genetic studies were screened to detect expansion of the C9ORF72 repeat. One two-generation family with bipolar disorder and an expanded repeat was characterized in depth using molecular diagnostics, imaging, histopathology, and neurological and neuropsychological evaluation.
Results
One proband, with the typical clinical presentation of bipolar disorder, carried an expanded C9ORF72 allele of heterogeneous length between 14 and 20 kilobases (kb) as assessed by Southern blot. The expanded allele was inherited from a parent with atypical, late onset clinical features of bipolar disorder, who subsequently progressed to frontotemporal lobe dementia. The expansion in peripheral blood of the parent ranged from 8.5 to 20 kb. Cultured lymphoblastoid cells from this parent exhibited a homogeneous expansion of only 8.5 kb.
Conclusions
The disease course in the two generations described here demonstrates that expansion of the C9ORF72 may be associated with a form of bipolar disorder that presents clinically with classic phenomenology and progression to neurodegenerative disease. The frequency in our bipolar disorder cohort was only 1%, indicating that C9ORF72 is not a major contributor to bipolar disorder. DNA from cultured cells may be biased towards shorter repeats and nonrepresentative of the endogenous C9ORF72 expansion.
doi:10.1111/bdi.12063
PMCID: PMC3660726  PMID: 23551834
atypical bipolar; C9ORF72; repeat expansion

Results 1-19 (19)