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1.  A Functional Approach To Uncover the Low-Temperature Adaptation Strategies of the Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(14):4210-4219.
Low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) technology is underpinned by a diverse microbial community. The methanogenic archaea represent a key functional group in these consortia, undertaking CO2 reduction as well as acetate and methylated C1 metabolism with subsequent biogas (40 to 60% CH4 and 30 to 50% CO2) formation. However, the cold adaptation strategies, which allow methanogens to function efficiently in LTAD, remain unclear. Here, a pure-culture proteomic approach was employed to study the functional characteristics of Methanosarcina barkeri (optimum growth temperature, 37°C), which has been detected in LTAD bioreactors. Two experimental approaches were undertaken. The first approach aimed to characterize a low-temperature shock response (LTSR) of M. barkeri DSMZ 800T grown at 37°C with a temperature drop to 15°C, while the second experimental approach aimed to examine the low-temperature adaptation strategies (LTAS) of the same strain when it was grown at 15°C. The latter experiment employed cell viability and growth measurements (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]), which directly compared M. barkeri cells grown at 15°C with those grown at 37°C. During the LTSR experiment, a total of 127 proteins were detected in 37°C and 15°C samples, with 20 proteins differentially expressed with respect to temperature, while in the LTAS experiment 39% of proteins identified were differentially expressed between phases of growth. Functional categories included methanogenesis, cellular information processing, and chaperones. By applying a polyphasic approach (proteomics and growth studies), insights into the low-temperature adaptation capacity of this mesophilically characterized methanogen were obtained which suggest that the metabolically diverse Methanosarcinaceae could be functionally relevant for LTAD systems.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03787-12
PMCID: PMC3697506  PMID: 23645201
2.  The quantitative proteomic response of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to phosphate acclimation 
Aquatic Biosystems  2013;9:5.
Background
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a critical nutrient for all life and is periodically limiting in marine and freshwater provinces, yet little is understood how organisms acclimate to fluctuations in Pi within their environment. To investigate whole cell adaptation, we grew Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a model freshwater cyanobacterium, in 3%, and 0.3% inorganic phosphate (Pi) media. The cells were allowed to acclimate over 60 days, and cells were harvested for quantitative high throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics using the iTRAQ™ labelling technology.
Results
In total, 120 proteins were identified, and 52 proteins were considered differentially abundant compared to the control. Alkaline phosphatase (APase) activities correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with observed relative PhoA abundances. PstS1 and PstS2 were both observed, yet PstS1 was not differentially more abundant than the control. Phycobilisome protein abundances appeared to be coordinated, and are significantly less abundant in 0.3% Pi than 3% Pi cultures. Also, the central metabolic cell function appears to have shifted towards the production of (NADPH) reducing energy and nucleotide sugars.
Conclusions
This acclimation response bears strong similarity to the previously reported response to nitrogen deprivation within Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. However, it also demonstrates some characteristics of desiccation stress, such as the regulation of fatty acids and increased abundance of rehydrin in the 3% Pi culture.
doi:10.1186/2046-9063-9-5
PMCID: PMC3600050  PMID: 23442353
Cyanobacteria; iTRAQ; Phosphate acclimation; Phycobilisome; Pentose phosphate pathway; Ribose sugars; Synechocystis
3.  Comparative quantitative proteomics of prochlorococcus ecotypes to a decrease in environmental phosphate concentrations 
Aquatic Biosystems  2012;8:7.
Background
The well-lit surface waters of oligotrophic gyres significantly contribute to global primary production. Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are a major fraction of photosynthetic organisms within these areas. Labile phosphate is considered a limiting nutrient in some oligotrophic regions such as the Caribbean Sea, and as such it is crucial to understand the physiological response of primary producers such as Prochlorococcus to fluctuations in the availability of this critical nutrient.
Results
Prochlorococcus strains representing both high light (HL) (MIT9312) and low light (LL) (NATL2A and SS120) ecotypes were grown identically in phosphate depleted media (10 μM Pi). The three strains displayed marked differences in cellular protein expression, as determined by high throughput large scale quantitative proteomic analysis. The only strain to demonstrate a significantly different growth rate under reduced phosphate conditions was MIT9312. Additionally, there was a significant increase in phosphate-related proteins such as PhoE (> 15 fold increase) and a depression of the Rubisco protein RbcL abundance in this strain, whereas there appeared to be no significant change within the LL strain SS120.
Conclusions
This differential response between ecotypes highlights the relative importance of phosphate availability to each strain and from these results we draw the conclusion that the expression of phosphate acquisition mechanisms are activated at strain specific phosphate concentrations.
doi:10.1186/2046-9063-8-7
PMCID: PMC3349580  PMID: 22480396
Prochlorococcus; PstS; PhoA; PhoE; Growth; Phosphate
4.  An Enzymatic Route to Selenazolines 
Chembiochem  2013;14(5):564-567.
doi:10.1002/cbic.201300037
PMCID: PMC3625746  PMID: 23483642
biochemistry; biosynthesis; patellamides; selenazolines

Results 1-4 (4)