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1.  Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum 
Objective
To study the production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 isolated from marine sediments and its broad spectrum of inhibition against fish pathogens.
Methods
The selected strain was used in production, purification and characterized of bacteriocin. In addition, purified bacteriocin was tested for its antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens.
Results
In the present study, the bacteriocin production was found to be higher at 35 °C, pH 6.0 and was purified to 4.74 fold with 55. 38 U/mg of specific activity with the yield of 28.92%. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin was estimated as 21 kDa. The purified bacteriocin exhibited complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity when treated with proteinase K, pronase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin and papain. The purified bacteriocin exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.
Conclusions
It is concluded that the ability of bacteriocin in inhibiting a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria is of potential interest for food safety and may have future applications in food preservative.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C537
PMCID: PMC4025332  PMID: 25183102
Lactobacillus murinus; Bacteriocin; Purification; Antibacterial; Pathogen
2.  Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants 
Objective
To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model.
Methods
Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug.
Results
Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection.
Conclusions
The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1037
PMCID: PMC4025343  PMID: 25183065
Shrimps; Litopenaeus vannamei; Anti-WSSV; Marine plants; MP07X; White spot syndrome virus
3.  Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants 
Objective
To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model.
Methods
Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug.
Results
Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection.
Conclusions
The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1042
PMCID: PMC4025350  PMID: 25183066
Shrimps; Litopenaeus vannamei; Anti–WSSV; Terrestrial plants; TP22C; White spot syndrome virus
4.  Harmful metals concentration in sediments and fishes of biologically important estuary, Bay of Bengal 
Study on the accumulation level of heavy metals was conducted on sediment and fishes from estuaries of Bay of Bengal. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the results were compared to permissible limits of WHO/USEPA. The accumulation patterns of Fe and Cd were found predominantly in all samples tested when correlated with other metals. It was found that the concentration of metals such as Cd (3.90 ± 0.25 μg/g), Cr (0.44 ± 0.05 μg/g), Ni (0.33 ± 0.01 μg/g), and Mn (1.1 ± 0.11 μg/g) were exceeding the permissible limit, whereas Fe, Co, Pb, and Zn were found within the limit of WHO/USEPA at station 1. In station 2, Cd (16.5 ± 0.4 μg/g), Mn (0.67 ± 0.11 μg/g), and Cr (0.80 ± 0.01 μg/g) were exceeding the permissible limit, whereas Fe, Co, Pb, Ni, and Zn were found within the limit. This study emphasizes that Cd and Mn levels in both stations, are far higher than the acceptable values set by WHO/USEPA and may therefore present human health hazards. It is therefore mandatory to carry out extensive research to evaluate the possible environmental risk factors in the vicinity of both estuaries with respect to heavy metals.
doi:10.1186/2052-336X-11-33
PMCID: PMC3880047  PMID: 24355110
Environment; Estuary; Fishes; Health; Metal; Accumulation
5.  Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria 
Objective
To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium.
Methods
Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
Results
Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL.
Conclusions
The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.
doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60071-7
PMCID: PMC4027308
Actinobacteria; Brine shrimp lethality; Uppanar estuary
6.  Mangrove plant, Rhizophora mucronata (Lamk, 1804) mediated one pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens 
Aquatic Biosystems  2012;8:11.
Background
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, time-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. This paper reports the one pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf bud extract of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora mucronata and their antimicrobial effects against aquatic pathogens. Highly stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating the mangrove leaf bud extract with aqueous silver nitrate solution at 15 psi pressure and 121°C for 5 minutes.
Results
The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, at 426 nm. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the face-centered cubic geometry of AgNPs. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for biosynthesis of AgNPs from the leaf bud extract. The size and shape of the well-dispersed AgNPs were documented with the help of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) with a diameter ranged from 4 to 26 nm. However a maximum number of particles were observed at 4 nm in size. The antibacterial effects of AgNPs were studied against aquatic pathogens Proteus spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium spp., isolated from infected marine ornamental fish, Dascyllus trimaculatus.
Conclusion
This study reveals that the biosynthesized AgNPs using the leaf bud extract of a mangrove plant (R. mucronata) were found equally potent to synthetic antibiotics. The size of the inhibition zone increases when the concentration of the AgNPs increased and varies according to species.
doi:10.1186/2046-9063-8-11
PMCID: PMC3411493  PMID: 22608057
Silver nanoparticles; Rhizophora mucronata; One pot green synthesis; Antimicrobial; Aquatic pathogens
7.  Toxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Suaeda monoica on Hep-2 Cell Line 
Recently there has been fabulous excitement in the nano-biotechnological area for the study of nanoparticles synthesis using some natural biological system, which has led the growth advanced nanomaterials. This intention made us to assess the biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from the leaf of Suaeda monoica (S.monoica) using 1 mM silver nitrate. The leaf extract of S.monoica incubated with 1 mM silver nitrate solution and characterized by UV- spectrometer and AFM. The effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles on Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma cell line was evaluated by the MTT colorimetric technique. As a result we observed gradual change in the colour of extract from greenish to brown. The synthesized silver nanoparticles confirmed by UV at 430 nm and spherical shape identified in the range of 31 nm under AFM. The effect of silver nanoparticles on Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma cell line exhibits a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested and the viability of Hep-2 cells decreased to 50 % (IC50) at the concentration of 500 nM. Further findings will be determined the exact mechanisms of this cost effective Nano-treatments.
PMCID: PMC3558200  PMID: 23407847
Cytotoxicity test; Nanomaterials; Plant leaves; Silver nanoparticles
8.  Purification and characterization of chitinase from Alcaligenes faecalis AU02 by utilizing marine wastes and its antioxidant activity 
Annals of Microbiology  2011;61(4):801-807.
Marine waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of chitinase on marine waste, with the subsequent use of the same marine waste for the extraction of antioxidants. A chitinase-producing bacterium isolated from seafood effluent was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis AU02. Optimal chitinase production was obtained in culture conditions of 37°C for 72 h in 100 ml medium containing 1% shrimp and crab shell powder (1:1) (w/v), 0.1% K2HPO4, and 0.05% MgSO4·7H2O. The molecular weight of chitinase was determined by SDS-PAGE to be 36 kDa. The optimum pH, temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of chitinase were about 8, 37°C, 5–12, and 40–80°C, respectively. The antioxidant activity of A. faecalis AU02 culture supernatant was determined through scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as 84%, and the antioxidant compound was characterized by TLC and its FT-IR spectrum. The present study proposed that marine wastes can be utilized to generate a high-value-added product and that pharmacological studies can extend its use to the field of medicine.
doi:10.1007/s13213-011-0198-5
PMCID: PMC3213332  PMID: 22131949
Chitinase; Marine waste; Alcaligenes faecalis; Antioxidant

Results 1-8 (8)