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2.  A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Updates 
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
PMCID: PMC4223864  PMID: 25026611
3.  Mycobacterium neoaurum bacteremia in a hemodialysis patient 
Bacteremia due to Mycobacterium neoaurum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is described in a diabetic woman on hemodialysis. This is the first reported case of M neoaurum bacteremia in Canada. The organism initially grew on standard BacT/Alert SA aerobic blood cultures, and was subsequently positively identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The present case serves to reinforce the need for a high index of clinical suspicion of infections caused by unusual microorganisms in the context of an immunocompromised host
PMCID: PMC2094902  PMID: 18159425
16S rRNA sequencing; Hemodialysis infection; Mycobacterium neoaurum
5.  Catheter associated urinary tract infections 
Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.
PMCID: PMC4114799  PMID: 25075308
Urinary catheter; Bacteriuria; Urinary tract infection; Health care acquired infection; Indwelling urethral catheter
6.  Antimicrobial stewardship in long term care facilities: what is effective? 
Intense antimicrobial use in long term care facilities promotes the emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant organisms and leads to adverse effects such as C. difficile colitis. Guidelines recommend development of antimicrobial stewardship programs for these facilities to promote optimal antimicrobial use. However, the effectiveness of these programs or the contribution of any specific program component is not known. For this review, publications describing evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programs for long term care facilities were identified through a systematic literature search. Interventions included education, guidelines development, feedback to practitioners, and infectious disease consultation. The studies reviewed varied in types of facilities, interventions used, implementation, and evaluation. Comprehensive programs addressing all infections were reported to have improved antimicrobial use for at least some outcomes. Targeted programs for treatment of pneumonia were minimally effective, and only for indicators of uncertain relevance for stewardship. Programs focusing on specific aspects of treatment of urinary infection – limiting treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or prophylaxis of urinary infection – were reported to be effective. There were no reports of cost-effectiveness, and the sustainability of most of the programs is unclear. There is a need for further evaluation to characterize effective antimicrobial stewardship for long term care facilities.
PMCID: PMC3931475  PMID: 24521205
Long term care facility; Antimicrobial stewardship; Pneumonia; Urinary tract infection
7.  Surveillance Definitions of Infections in Long-Term Care Facilities: Revisiting the McGeer Criteria 
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978–980.)
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
PMCID: PMC3538836  PMID: 22961014
8.  Control of antimicrobial resistance in Canada: any lessons to learn? 
Over the past 15 years, repeated national meetings have developed recommendations for a Canadian antimicrobial resistance strategy. Despite this, in 2011 there is no comprehensive, integrated national program with appropriate governance and funding to address antimicrobial resistance.
The Public Health Agency of Canada supports a reference laboratory for diagnosis and characterization of selected resistant strains, targeted surveillance programs which monitor resistance trends for selected animal and human organisms, development of national infection control guidelines including for antimicrobial resistant organisms, and a few local pilot projects to address community acquired MRSA. Sporadic programs of variable intensity and quality are supported by some provinces, health regions and individual facilities but these are not comprehensive, standardized or integrated. Individual researchers and research groups, however, have published substantial information describing the prevalence and impact of resistance in Canada.
Current review of activities by the Public Health Agency of Canada and initiatives by the National Coordinating Centre for Infectious Diseases may move the country forward in developing an effective national approach to address antimicrobial resistance.
PMCID: PMC3436613  PMID: 22958241
antimicrobial resistance; Canada; antimicrobial stewardship
9.  Prognosis of West Nile virus associated acute flaccid paralysis: a case series 
Little is known about the long-term health related quality of life outcomes in patients with West Nile virus associated acute flaccid paralysis. We describe the quality of life scores of seven patients with acute flaccid paralysis who presented to hospital between 2003 and 2006, and were followed for up to two years.
Case presentations
Between 2003 and 2006, 157 symptomatic patients with West Nile virus were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of West Nile virus in Canada. Seven patients (4%) had acute flaccid paralysis. The first patient was a 55-year-old man who presented with left upper extremity weakness. The second patient was a 54-year-old man who presented with bilateral upper extremity weakness. The third patient was a 66-year-old woman who developed bilateral upper and lower extremity weakness. The fourth patient was a 67-year-old man who presented with right lower extremity weakness. The fifth patient was a 60-year-old woman who developed bilateral lower extremity weakness. The sixth patient was a 71-year-old man with a history of Parkinson's disease and acute onset bilateral lower extremity weakness. The seventh patient was a 52-year-old man who presented with right lower extremity weakness. All were Caucasian. Patients were followed for a mean of 1.1 years. At the end of follow-up the mean score on the Physical Component Summary of the Short-Form 36 scale had only slightly increased to 39. In contrast, mean score on the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 36 scale at the end of follow-up had normalized to 50.
Despite the poor physical prognosis for patients with acute flaccid paralysis, the mental health outcomes are generally favorable.
PMCID: PMC3177918  PMID: 21854567
11.  ESBL genotypes in fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli urinary isolates in Manitoba 
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are increasingly common in nosocomial and community settings. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone (FQ) and even multidrug resistance (MDR) appear to be associated with certain ESBL genotypes. The purpose of the present study was to determine which ESBL genotypes are associated with FQ and MDR in E coli urinary isolates in Manitoba.
The authors determined the antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic similarity and ESBL genotype of 27 FQ-resistant and seven FQ-susceptible, ESBL-producing urinary isolates submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratories of two teaching hospitals between October 2000 and April 2005. Susceptibilities to beta-lactams, FQs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), doxycycline (DOX), gentamicin (GM) and tigecycline were determined by microbroth dilution; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine genetic relatedness, and ESBL genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.
Of 34 ESBL-producing organisms, 27 (79.4%) were found to be ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistant, 27 (79.4%) were SXT resistant, eight (23.5%) were GM resistant and 29 (85.3%) were DOX resistant. Twenty-three (67.6%) had MDR, with concomitant resistance to CIP and SXT; 16 had concomitant resistance to CIP, SXT and DOX; and seven (20.6%) had MDR, with concomitant resistance to CIP, SXT, DOX and GM. All isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Of 27 FQ-resistant ESBL-producing organisms, seven (25.9%) were genotype CTX-M-14, 19 (70.4%) were genotype CTX-M-15 and one (3.7%) was genotype CTX-M-24. Among the seven FQ-susceptible strains, three (42.8%) expressed SHV-type enzymes, three (42.8%) expressed TEM-type enzymes and one (14.3%) expressed CTX-M-9. CTX-M-15 was the most common MDR-associated genotype. Of a total of 19 strains, 18 (94.7%) were resistant to FQs and SXT; 15 (78.9%) were resistant to FQs, SXT and DOX; and five (26.3%) were resistant to FQs, SXT, DOX and GM. PFGE analysis revealed genetic similarity within CTX-M-15-producing isolates only.
CTX-M-15 in E coli is strongly associated with an MDR phenotype compared with other genotypes. CTX-M-14 is associated with FQ resistance only. PFGE suggests clonality of CTX-M-15-producing isolates within and among hospitals.
PMCID: PMC2533543  PMID: 18923714
CTX-M-15; ESBL; Escherichia coli; Fluoroquinolone-resistant; Molecular epidemiology; Multidrug-resistant
13.  Soft Tissue Infection Caused by a Novel Pigmented, Rapidly Growing Mycobacterium Species 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(6):2779-2782.
Molecular techniques are playing an important role in the diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This case report describes a chronic soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent patient caused by a previously undescribed pigmented, rapidly growing Mycobacterium species, emphasizing the importance of clinical suspicion and effective laboratory techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of infection.
PMCID: PMC156523  PMID: 12791930
15.  Viruses without borders 
PMCID: PMC2094757  PMID: 18159276
16.  Low prevalence of VRE gastrointestinal colonization of hospitalized patients in Manitoba tertiary care and community hospitals 
To determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bowel colonization in hospitalized patients in Manitoba who had stool specimens collected for Clostridium difficile toxin and/or culture testing.
Two tertiary care and five community hospitals in Winnipeg and three rural Manitoba community hospitals participated in this study. From January 1 to December 31, 1997 stool specimens, one per patient, submitted to hospital microbiology laboratories for C difficile toxin and/or culture testing were screened for VRE on colistin-nalidixic acid-vancomycin (6 μg/mL) (CNAV) agar plates. The study was divided into six, eight-week intervals. Stool specimens received in the first two weeks of each eight week interval were screened for VRE.
A total of 1408 stool specimens were submitted over the 48-week study period. Sixty-seven (4.8%) patients with VRE colonization of their lower gastrointestinal tract were identified. Three of the 67 (4.5%) VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium, with the remaining 64 (95.5%) were Enterococcus gallinarum. The three vancomycin-resistant E faecium -VREF- (from two different Winnipeg hospitals) demonstrated the vanA genotype, and were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and ampicillin. All three VREF isolates also demonstrated high level resistance to both gentamicin and streptomycin but were susceptible to quinuprisitin/dalfopristin and LY333328.
VRE colonization in hospitalized patients in Manitoba is infrequent and most commonly due to E gallinarum. The prevalence of VREF colonization in the patients studied was 0.2% (three of 1408).
PMCID: PMC2094745  PMID: 18159264
Manitoba; Prevalence; Vancomycin-resistant enterococci
18.  Ciprofloxacin or imipenem use correlates with resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
To investigate the relationship between ciprofloxacin or imipenem use and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A retrospective review of monthly antimicrobial susceptibility reports for ciprofloxacin (1988 to 1995) and imipenem (1987 to 1995) against P aeruginosa and hospital antimicrobial use records at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Data were entered into a relational database, R:Base 4.5++, collated, transferred to a spreadsheet and subjected to linear regression analysis. The relationship between ciprofloxacin or imipenem use and resistance was assessed using a Pearson correlation.
Ciprofloxacin-resistant P aeruginosa increased from 1.0% of all isolates in 1988 to 10.0% in 1995. A significant (P=0.05) correlation was demonstrated between the amount of ciprofloxacin use and prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant P aeruginosa (r=0.73, P=0.05). Imipenem-resistant P aeruginosa increased from 1.0% of isolates in 1987 to a maximum of 10.4% in 1991, and subsequently decreased to 5.4% in 1995. Imipenem use and the prevalence of imipenem-resistant P aeruginosa were significantly correlated (r=0.85, P=0.014).
Ciprofloxacin use was directly associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, and imipenem use was directly associated with imipenem resistance in P aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC3250873  PMID: 22346558
Ciprofloxacin; Imipenem; Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
19.  Candida albicans epididymo-orchitis and fungemia in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia 
The fourth reported case of candidal epididymo-orchitis in the literature and the first reported case successfully cured with only low dose amphotericin B is described. A 75-year-old male with chronic myelogenous leukemia presented with acute testicular and epididymal swelling and pain. Subsequent investigations suggested the diagnosis of epididymo-orchitis due to Candida albicans. This was successfully treated with intravenous amphotericin B (total dose of 500 mg). Based on the three previous case reports and the current case several characteristic features that increased the suspicion of this entity were identified. These features include an immunocompromised state, candiduria, specific epididymal ultrasonographic appearance, as well as typical clinical features of epididymo-orchitis.
PMCID: PMC3327419  PMID: 22514460
Amphotericin B; Candida albicans; Epididymitis
20.  Low prevalence of gastrointestinal colonization with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in high risk units in a Canadian tertiary care centre 
To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among patients receiving care in high risk units in a Canadian tertiary care centre.
Prevalence study over a four-month period in 1995 with rectal swab or freshly passed stool specimen collected from each patient included in study. Standardized record data extraction for selected patient variables was used.
Units at high risk for antimicrobial-resistant organisms at the Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, including neonatal (NICU), pediatric (PICU), surgical (SICU) and medical intensive care units (MICU), central dialysis unit (CDU), and the in-patient oncology ward (ONC).
One hundred and fifty-seven patients admitted to the high risk care units for at least 72 h were screened. Ward distribution was NICU 13 (8.3%), PICU nine (5.7%), SICU 24 (15.3%), MICU 19 (12.1%), CDU 62 (39.5%) and ONC 30 (19.1%). Fifty-one of 157 (32.5%) patients had urinary drainage devices, 108 (68.8%) had invasive vascular devices, and 57 (36.3%) had had a surgical procedure within the month before specimen collection. In the month before sampling, 114 (72.6%) had received antimicrobial therapy, including 21 (13.3%) who had received vancomycin, and 81 (51.5%) were receiving antimicrobials, seven (10.8%) vancomycin, on the day of sampling.
Antimicrobial susceptibilities were performed on 371 bacterial isolates. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven (10.8%) enterococci were resistant to ampicillin, none of which were β-lactamase producers, 19 (18.6%) and five (4.9%) demonstrated high level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively. One (0.7%) Escherichia coli was resistant to ciprofloxacin and another to gentamicin. Six (20.7%) Enterobacter cloacae samples were resistant to cefotaxime. One (2.4%) Klebsiella species was resistant to ciprofloxacin and another to cefotaxime. Two (16.6%) Citrobacter species were resistant to cefotaxime. One of 11 (9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was resistant to ceftazidime; none were resistant to piperacillin, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or imipenem.
The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing the gastrointestinal tract in patients in these high risk units is low. The reasons for this low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance require further exploration.
PMCID: PMC3327421  PMID: 22514455
Antimicrobial resistance; Dialysis unit; Enterococcus species; Intensive care unit; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
21.  Antibody response in seropositive multiple sclerosis patients vaccinated with attenuated live varicella zoster virus 
To determine the safety and effectiveness of live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (OKA/Merck) on 50 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), based on the hypothesis that VZV might be the antigen or antigen mimic of MS plus the fact that repeated high antigen doses have produced ‘antigen paralysis’ in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice.
Fifty patients were randomly selected without controls. They were assessed clinically at entry and on four other occasions over 14 months. Enhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at entry and at six and 12 months post entry. All were vaccinated after initial assessment and again six weeks later.
All clinical and laboratory assessments were performed at the Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, in the out-patient department. All MRI examinations were performed at the St Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Both are tertiary care hospitals.
Fifty randomly selected patients with chronic progressive MS, age 18 to 60 years, and a disability status scale of 2.0 or greater were included. Forty-five patients completed the study.
Two vaccinations with attenuated live VZV six weeks apart.
All patients were VZV seropositive at entry and all showed an increased antibody level following vaccination. No one was harmed by the vaccine. There may have been some changes in the MS of 15 patients.
It may be reasonable and safe to challenge the process of MS using large doses of the immunogenic proteins of the VZV to induce ‘immune paralysis’.
PMCID: PMC3327422  PMID: 22514454
Multiple sclerosis; Serum varicella antibodies; Varicella vaccine
22.  Sequential antibiotic therapy: Effective cost management and patient care 
The escalating costs associated with antimicrobial chemotherapy have become of increasing concern to physicians, pharmacists and patients alike. A number of strategies have been developed to address this problem. This article focuses specifically on sequential antibiotic therapy (sat), which is the strategy of converting patients from intravenous to oral medication regardless of whether the same or a different class of drug is used. Advantages of sat include economic benefits, patient benefits and benefits to the health care provider. Potential disadvantages are cost to the consumer and the risk of therapeutic failure. A critical review of the published literature shows that evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the role of sat. However, it is also clear that further studies are necessary to determine the optimal time for intravenous to oral changeover and to identify the variables that may interfere with the use of oral drugs. Procedures necessary for the implementation of a sat program in the hospital setting are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC3327940  PMID: 22550411
Cost effectiveness; Intravenous antibiotic therapy; Oral antibiotic therapy; Quality of life; Sequential antibiotic therapy
23.  Vaginal Infections 
Canadian Family Physician  1989;35:1323-1326.
Vaginal infections are among the most common complaints for which women see their physicians. The patient complains primarily of vaginal discharge or pruritus. Optimal management of these infections requires a careful history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment to determine the pathogen. Specific therapy is available for the three important causes of vaginal infection: yeast vulvovaginitis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Concomitant sexually transmitted diseases should be excluded in women with complaints suggestive of vaginal infection.
PMCID: PMC2280409  PMID: 21248968
gynecology; infectious diseases; vaginal infections

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