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2.  Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a hospital and the role of hydrogen peroxide decontamination: an interrupted time series analysis 
BMJ Open  2014;4(4):e004522.
The impact of surface disinfection versus detergent cleaning on healthcare associated infection rates remains unresolved. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) decontamination against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Single centred retrospective before and after study design.
Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia.
Patients with MRSA infection or colonisation.
Rooms occupied by patients with MRSA infection or colonisation were cleaned following discharge with either detergent or HP.
Main outcome measures
MRSA room contamination following cleaning; new MRSA acquisition in patients.
Over 3600 discharge cleans were completed, with more than 32 600 environmental swabs processed. MRSA was isolated from 24.7% rooms following detergent cleaning and from 18.8% of rooms after HP (p<0.001). The incidence of MRSA acquisition reduced from 9.0 to 5.3 per 10 000 patient days in detergent and disinfectant arms, respectively (p<0.001).
Use of HP disinfection led to a decrease in residual MRSA contamination in patient rooms compared with detergent. It may also have encouraged the reduction in patient MRSA acquisition despite several confounders including staff feedback on terminal cleaning, additional MRSA screening and quicker laboratory methods. Infection control is best served by concurrent interventions targeting both the patient and healthcare environment.
PMCID: PMC3996814  PMID: 24747791
3.  Australian graduating nurses’ knowledge, intentions and beliefs on infection prevention and control: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Nursing  2014;13:43.
In recent year, national bodies have been actively addressing the increasing concern on the spread of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The current study measures the knowledge, intentions and beliefs of third-year Australian nursing students on key infection prevention and control (IPC) concepts.
A cross-sectional study of final-year undergraduate nursing students from Schools of Nursing at six Australian universities was undertaken. Students were asked to participate in an anonymous survey. The survey explored knowledge of standard precautions and transmission based precautions. In addition intentions and beliefs towards IPC were explored.
349 students from six universities completed the study. 59.8% (95% CI 58.8–60.8%) of questions were answered correctly. Significantly more standard precaution questions were correctly answered than transmission-based precaution questions (p < 0.001). No association was found between self-reported compliance with IPC activities and gender or age. Certain infection control issues were correlated with the percentage of correctly answered transmission-based precaution questions. The participants were most likely to seek infection control information from an infection control professional.
Knowledge on transmission-based precautions was substandard. As transmission-based precautions are the foundation of IPC for serious organisms and infections, education institutions should reflect on the content and style of educational delivery on this topic.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-014-0043-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4266973  PMID: 25516721
4.  Mortality and Clostridium difficile infection: a review 
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Around the world, the incidence and severity of CDI appears to be increasing, particularly in the northern hemisphere. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate and describe mortality in hospitalised patients with CDI.
A search of the literature between 1 January 2005 and 30 April 2011 focusing on mortality and CDI in hospitalised patients was conducted using electronic databases. Papers were reviewed and analysed individually and themes were combined using integrative methods.
All cause mortality at 30 days varied from 9% to 38%. Three studies report attributable mortality at 30 days, varying from 5.7% to 6.9%. In hospital mortality ranged from 8% to 37.2%
All cause 30 day mortality appeared to be high, with 15 studies indicating a mortality of 15% or greater. Findings support the notion that CDI is a serious infection and measures to prevent and control CDI are needed. Future studies investigating the mortality of CDI in settings outside of Europe and North America are needed. Similarly, future studies should include data on patient co-morbidities.
PMCID: PMC3533881  PMID: 22958425
Clostridium difficile infection; Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea; Mortality; Death
5.  Prolongation of length of stay and Clostridium difficile infection: a review of the methods used to examine length of stay due to healthcare associated infections 
It is believed that Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) contributes to a prolongation of length of stay (LOS). Recent literature suggests that models previously used to determine LOS due to infection have overestimated LOS, compared to newer statistical models. The purpose of this review is to understand the impact that CDI has on LOS and in doing so, describe the methodological approaches used.
First, to investigate and describe the reported prolongation of LOS in hospitalised patients with CDI. Second, to describe the methodologies used for determining excess LOS.
An integrative review method was used. Papers were reviewed and analysed individually and themes were combined using integrative methods.
Findings from all studies suggested that CDI contributes to a longer LOS in hospital. In studies that compared persons with and without CDI, the difference in the LOS between the two groups ranged from 2.8days to 16.1days. Potential limitations with data analysis were identified, given that no study fully addressed the issue of a time-dependent bias when examining the LOS. Recent literature suggests that a multi-state model should be used to manage the issue of time-dependent bias.
Studies examining LOS attributed to CDI varied considerably in design and data collected. Future studies examining LOS related to CDI and other healthcare associated infections should consider capturing the timing of infection in order to be able to employ a multi-state model for data analysis.
PMCID: PMC3436661  PMID: 22958238
Clostridium difficile infection; Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea; Cost; Healthcare associated infection; Length of stay; Time dependent bias

Results 1-5 (5)