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1.  From intermittent antibiotic point prevalence surveys to quality improvement: experience in Scottish hospitals 
In 2008, the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) was established to coordinate a national antimicrobial stewardship programme. In 2009 SAPG led participation in a European point prevalence survey (PPS) of hospital antibiotic use. We describe how SAPG used this baseline PPS as the foundation for implementation of measures for improvement in antibiotic prescribing.
In 2009 data for the baseline PPS were collected in accordance with the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC] protocol. This informed the development of two quality prescribing indicators: compliance with antibiotic policy in acute admission units and duration of surgical prophylaxis. From December 2009 clinicians collected these data on a monthly basis. The prescribing indicators were reviewed and further modified in March 2011. Data for the follow up PPS in September 2011 were collected as part of a national PPS of healthcare associated infection and antimicrobial use developed using ECDC protocols.
In the baseline PPS data were collected in 22 (56%) acute hospitals. The frequency of recording the reason for treatment in medical notes was similar in Scotland (75.9%) and Europe (75.7%). Compliance with policy (81.0%) was also similar to Europe (82.5%) but duration of surgical prophylaxis <24hr (68.6%), was higher than in Europe (48.1%, OR: 0.41, p<0.001). Following the development and implementation of the prescribing indicators monthly measurement and data feedback in admission units illustrated improvement in indication documented of ≥90% and compliance with antibiotic prescribing policy increasing from 76% to 90%. The initial prescribing indicator in surgical prophylaxis was less successful in providing consistent national data as there was local discretion on which procedures to include. Following a review and a focus on colorectal surgery the mean proportion receiving single dose prophylaxis exceeded the target of 95% and the mean proportion compliant with policy was 83%. In the follow up PPS of 2011 indication documented (86.8%) and policy compliant (82.8%) were higher than in baseline PPS.
The baseline PPS identified priorities for quality improvement. SAPG has demonstrated that implementation of regularly reviewed national prescribing indicators, acceptable to clinicians, implemented through regular systematic measurement can drive improvement in quality of antibiotic use in key clinical areas. However, our data also show that the ESAC PPS method may underestimate the proportion of surgical prophylaxis with duration <24hr.
PMCID: PMC3573889  PMID: 23320479
Antimicrobial stewardship; Quality improvement; Prescribing indicators; Point prevalence survey; Antibiotic; Hospital prescribing; Surgical prophylaxis
2.  Antimicrobial stewardship in Scotland: impact of a national programme 
The Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) was established by the Scottish Government in 2008 to lead the first national initiative to actively address antimicrobial stewardship. Healthcare associated infection (HAI) is a priority in Scotland and the work of SAPG contributes to the national HAI Delivery Plan. SAPG's early work has focused on restricting the use of antibiotics associated with a high risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and development of national prescribing indicators to support reduction of CDI.
Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group has developed prescribing indicators for hospital and primary care, which are measured and reported in all 14 NHS board areas. Improvement in compliance with the indicators has been demonstrated with resultant reductions in CDI rates and no adverse effect on mortality or antimicrobial resistance patterns.
The establishment of a Scottish national antimicrobial stewardship programme has made a significant contribution to the HAI agenda, particularly in relation to CDI. The programme is supported by local antimicrobial teams, a national framework for education, surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance and sharing of data for improvement. Antimicrobial stewardship has been integrated with other national programmes on patient safety and quality improvement.
PMCID: PMC3436612  PMID: 22958296
Antimicrobial stewardship; Clostridium difficile infection; prescribing indicators; quality improvement
3.  Long-term morbidities associated with vocal cord paralysis after surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants 
Determine associations between left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) and poor respiratory, feeding, and/or developmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants following surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
Study design:
ELBW infants who underwent PDA ligation between January 2004 and December 2006 were identified. We compared infants with and without LVCP following ligation to determine relationships between LVCP and respiratory morbidities, feeding and growth difficulties, and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 month follow-up. Student's t test, Fisher exact test, and multivariable regression analyses were used to determine associations.
60 ELBW infants with a mean gestational age of 25 weeks and mean birth weight of 725 g had a PDA surgically closed. Twenty-two of 55 survivors (40%) were diagnosed with LVCP post-operatively. Infants with LVCP were significantly more likely to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (82% vs. 39%, p = 0.002), reactive airway disease (86% vs. 33%, p<0.0001), or need for gastrostomy tube (63% vs. 6%, p<0.0001).
LVCP as a complication of surgical ductal ligation in ELBW infants is associated with persistent respiratory and feeding problems. Direct laryngoscopy should be considered for all infants who experience persistent respiratory and/or feeding difficulties following PDA ligation.
PMCID: PMC2878380  PMID: 19759545
infant, premature; ductus arteriosus, patent; growth & development; infant nutrition disorders; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; asthma
4.  Vocal fold paralysis following surgical ductal closure in extremely low birth weight infants: A case series of feeding and respiratory complications 
Surgical closure of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) continues to be frequent among Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants, despite improvements in the medical management of PDA’s and rising questions about its pathophysiologic role. Among other possible complications of this surgical intervention, left vocal fold paralysis (LVFP) has been reported. Only more recently, however, neonatologists are realizing the frequency and impact of this complication on chronic respiratory and feeding difficulties in the ELBW population. In this case series, we describe the clinical course of three sets of multiple births, for which at least one infant underwent surgical closure of his PDA and subsequently developed feeding and/or respiratory difficulties due to LVFP, and compare them to their respective siblings who did not sustain this complication.
PMCID: PMC2864228  PMID: 18974752
Patent Ductus Arteriosus; Vocal cord paralysis; Infant, Premature; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Feeding

Results 1-4 (4)