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1.  Impact of a hospital-wide hand hygiene promotion strategy on healthcare-associated infections 
During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, high compliance in healthcare workers to hand hygiene was primarily driven by fear. However, the post-SARS period confirmed that this practice was not sustainable. At the Singapore General Hospital, a 1,600-bedded acute tertiary care hospital, the hand hygiene program was revised in early 2007 following Singapore's signing of the pledge to the World Health Organization (WHO) "Clean Care is Safer Care" program.
A multi-prong approach was used in designing the hand hygiene program. This included system change; training and education; evaluation and feedback; reminders in the workplace; and institutional safety climate. Hand hygiene compliance rate improved from 20% (in January 2007) to 61% (2010). Improvement was also seen annually in the compliance to each of the 5 moments as well as in all staff categories. Healthcare-associated MRSA infections were reduced from 0.6 (2007) to 0.3 (2010) per 1000 patient-days.
Leadership's support of the program evidenced through visible leadership presence, messaging and release of resources is the key factor in helping to make the program a true success. The hospital was recognised as a Global Hand Hygiene Expert Centre in January 2011. The WHO multi-prong interventions work in improving compliance and reducing healthcare associated infections.
PMCID: PMC3436662  PMID: 22958911
hand hygiene; healthcare-associated infections; system change
2.  Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in a tertiary hospital in Singapore, linked to an index patient with atypical presentation: epidemiological study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;328(7433):195.
Objective To describe an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a tertiary hospital in Singapore, linked to an index patient with atypical presentation, and the lessons learnt from it.
Design Descriptive study.
Setting A tertiary hospital in Singapore.
Participants Patients, healthcare workers, and visitors who contracted SARS in Singapore General Hospital.
Main outcome measures Probable SARS as defined by the World Health Organization.
Results The index patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, initially without changes to his chest radiograph. Altogether 24 healthcare workers, 15 patients, and 12 family members and visitors were infected. The incubation period ranged from three to eight days. Only 13 patients were isolated on their dates of onset.
Conclusions Atypical presentation of SARS infection must be taken into consideration when managing patients with a history of contact with SARS patients. The main gap in the containment strategy in this outbreak was the failure to identify the index patient as someone who had been discharged from a ward in another hospital that managed probable SARS cases. Strict infection control measures, a good surveillance system, early introduction of isolation procedures, and vigilant healthcare professionals are essential for controlling outbreaks.
PMCID: PMC318482  PMID: 14726369

Results 1-2 (2)