The aims of this study were to prospectively assess the prevalence of sustained (lasting more than 30 s) new-onset supraventricular arrhythmia (NOSVA) during septic shock, identify the associated factors (including septic myocardial dysfunction), and evaluate its impact on hemodynamics and prognosis.
Patients with a diagnosis of septic shock were screened in a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital center in France with a continuous 12-lead EKG for the occurrence of NOSVA. Biological and clinical data (including septic myocardial dysfunction characterized by echocardiography) were collected. We also assessed the hemodynamic tolerance and prognosis of NOSVA.
Among the 71 septic shock episodes assessed during the study, NOSVA occurred in 30 [prevalence of 42 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 30–53 %]. Among all recorded factors, only renal failure (as assessed by renal SOFA score at day 1) was associated with NOSVA and this difference persisted by multivariable analysis (odds ratio of 1.29, 95 % CI 1.03–1.62, p = 0.03). There was a significant increase in norepinephrine dosage during the first hour after SVA onset. NOSVA was associated with longer catecholamine use during septic shock as compared with patients in sinus rhythm, whereas ICU mortality was identical between groups.
We found a high prevalence of sustained NOSVA during septic shock. NOSVA was not related to septic myocardial dysfunction, but rather to acute renal failure, raising the hypothesis of an acute renocardiac syndrome.
Arrhythmia; Sepsis; Shock; Myocardial dysfunction
Pulmonary abscess is a distinctly uncommon complication of pneumococcal pneumonia in immunocompetent adults that has recently been reported to occur following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We report herein the case of a 24-year-old patient with no predisposing risk factor who developed a lung abscess after NSAIDs exposure, further illustrating this potentially severe complication of NSAIDs use, especially in the absence of associated antibiotic therapy.
Patients with severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) are frequently hypercapnic, possibly because of associated underlying chronic lung disease (CLD). Since hypercapnia has been associated with outcome, we aimed to identify factors associated to hypercapnia and its role on outcome of patients with CPE and no underlying CLD.
Observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a 3-year period. After excluding patients with any CLD or obstructive sleep apneas, all patients treated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for severe CPE were included. Hypercapnia was defined as PaCO2 >45 mmHg and non-rapid favorable outcome was defined as the need for intubation or continuation of NIV for more than 48 h.
After excluding 60 patients with underlying CLD or sleep apneas, 112 patients were studied. The rates of intubation and of prolonged NIV were 6.3 % (n = 7) and 21.4 % (n = 24), respectively. Half of the patients (n = 56) had hypercapnia upon admission. Hypercapnic patients were older, more frequently obese, and were more likely to have a respiratory tract infection than non-hypercapnic patients. Hypercapnia had no influence on intubation rate or the need for prolonged NIV. However, patients with severe hypercapnia (PaCO2 >60 mmHg) needed longer durations of NIV and intensive care unit (ICU) stay than the others.
Among the patients admitted for severe CPE without CLD, half of them had hypercapnia at admission. Hypercapnic patients were older and more frequently obese but their outcome was similar compared to non-hypercapnic patients. Patients with severe hypercapnia needed longer durations of NIV than the others without increase in intubation rate.
Intensive care unit; Acute respiratory failure; Cardiogenic pulmonary edema; Non-invasive ventilation; Hypercapnia; Respiratory acidosis
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing worldwide, especially in ICUs, and have been associated with high mortality rates. However, unequivocally demonstrating causality of such infections to death is difficult in critically ill patients because of potential confounding and competing events. Here, we quantified the effects of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage on patient outcome in two Greek ICUs with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae endemicity.
Observational cohort study.
Two ICUs with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae endemicity.
Patients admitted to the ICU with an expected length of ICU stay of at least 3 days were included.
Measurements and Main Results:
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization was established through screening in perineum swabs obtained at admission and twice weekly and inoculated on chromogenic plates. Detection of carbapenemases was performed phenotypically, with confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for ICU mortality were evaluated using cause-specific hazard ratios and subdistribution hazard ratios, with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization as time-varying covariate. One thousand seven patients were included, 36 (3.6%) were colonized at admission, and 96 (9.5%) acquired carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization during ICU stay, and 301 (29.9%) died in ICU. Of 132 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 125 (94.7%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae and 74 harbored K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (56.1%), 54 metallo-β-lactamase (40.9%), and four both (3.0%). Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization was associated with a statistically significant increase of the subdistribution hazard ratio for ICU mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31–2.43), not explained by an increased daily hazard of dying (cause-specific hazard ratio for death = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74–1.41), but by an increased length of stay (cause-specific hazard ratio for discharge alive = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51–0.94). Other risk factors in the subdistribution hazard model were Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11–1.15), female gender (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02–1.62), presence of solid tumor (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15–2.06), hematopoietic malignancy (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.04–2.51), and immunodeficiency (subdistribution hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.27).
Patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have on average a 1.79 times higher hazard of dying in ICU than noncolonized patients, primarily because of an increased length of stay.
carbapenemase; Enterobacteriaceae; intensive care units; Klebsiella pneumonia; mortality; proportional hazards models
Transpulmonary bubble transit (TPBT) detected with contrast echocardiography is reported as a sign of intrapulmonary shunt during cirrhosis or exercise in healthy humans. However, its physiological meaning is not clear during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim was to determine the prevalence, significance, and prognosis of TPBT detection during ARDS.
This was a prospective observational study in an academic medical intensive care unit in France. Two hundred and sixteen consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS underwent transesophageal echocardiography with modified gelatine contrast. Moderate-to-large TPBT was defined as right-to-left passage of at least ten bubbles through a pulmonary vein more than three cardiac cycles after complete opacification of the right atrium. Patients with intra-cardiac shunt through patent foramen ovale were excluded.
The prevalence of moderate-to-large TPBT was 26% (including 42 patients with moderate and 15 with large TPBT). Patients with moderate-to-large TPBT had higher values of cardiac index and heart rate as compared to those without TPBT. There was no significant difference in PaO2/FIO2 ratio between groups, and TPBT was not influenced by end-expiratory positive pressure level in 93% of tested patients. Prevalence of septic shock was higher in the group with moderate-to-large TPBT. Patients with moderate-to-large TPBT had fewer ventilator-free days and intensive care unit-free days within the first 28 days, and higher in-hospital mortality as compared to others.
Moderate-to-large TPBT was detected with contrast echocardiography in 26% of patients with ARDS. This finding was associated with a hyperdynamic and septic state, but did not influence oxygenation.
Echocardiography; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Shunt
The current paradigm for antibiotic management in critically ill patients is to initiate broad-spectrum therapy followed by de-escalation based on microbiological results. Routine screening cultures may allow better targeting and reduce unnecessary exposure to antibiotics.
Sepsis involves a wide array of sources and microorganisms, only a fraction of
which are microbiologically documented. Culture-negative sepsis poses special
diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and microbiologists and further
questions the validity of sepsis definitions.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is helpful for diagnosing bacterial infections. The diagnostic utility of PCT has not been examined thoroughly in critically ill patients with suspected H1N1 influenza.
Clinical characteristics and PCT were prospectively assessed in 46 patients with pneumonia admitted to medical ICUs during the 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons. An individual patient data meta-analysis was performed by combining our data with data from five other studies on the diagnostic utility of PCT in ICU patients with suspected 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection identified by performing a systematic literature search.
PCT levels, measured within 24 hours of ICU admission, were significantly elevated in patients with bacterial pneumonia (isolated or coinfection with H1N1; n = 77) (median = 6.2 μg/L, interquartile range (IQR) = 0.9 to 20) than in patients with isolated H1N1 influenza pneumonia (n = 84; median = 0.56 μg/L, IQR = 0.18 to 3.33). The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of PCT was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64 to 0.80; P < 0.0001) for diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, but increased to 0.76 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.85; P < 0.0001) when patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and immune-compromising disorders were excluded. PCT at a cut-off of 0.5 μg/L had a sensitivity (95% CI) and a negative predictive value of 80.5% (69.9 to 88.7) and 73.2% (59.7 to 84.2) for diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, respectively, which increased to 85.5% (73.3 to 93.5) and 82.2% (68.0 to 92.0) in patients without hospital acquired pneumonia or immune-compromising disorder.
In critically ill patients with pneumonia during the influenza season, PCT is a reasonably accurate marker for detection of bacterial pneumonia, particularly in patients with community-acquired disease and without immune-compromising disorders, but it might not be sufficient as a stand-alone marker for withholding antibiotic treatment.
Readmission of patients colonized with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB) is important in the nosocomial dynamics of AMRB. We assessed the duration of colonization after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) with highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae (HRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Data were obtained from a cluster-randomized trial in 13 ICUs in 8 European countries (MOSAR-ICU trial, 2008–2011). All patients were screened on admission and twice weekly for AMRB. All patients colonized with HRE, MRSA, or VRE and readmitted to the same ICU during the study period were included in the current analysis. Time between discharge and readmission was calculated, and the colonization status at readmission was assessed. Because of interval-censored data, a maximum likelihood analysis was used to calculate the survival function, taking censoring into account. A nonparametric two-sample test was used to test for differences in the survival curves.
The MOSAR-ICU trial included 14,390 patients, and a total of 64,997 cultures were taken from 8,974 patients admitted for at least 3 days. One hundred twenty-five unique patients had 141 episodes with AMRB colonization and at least 1 readmission. Thirty-two patients were colonized with two or more AMRBs. Median times until clearance were 4.8 months for all AMRB together, 1.4 months for HRE, <1 month for MRSA, and 1.5 months for VRE. There were no significant differences between the survival curves.
Fifty percent of the patients had lost colonization when readmitted 2 or more months after previous ICU discharge.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-014-3225-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria; ICU; Colonization; Survival function; Interval censored data
Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk areas for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, but no controlled study has tested the effect of rapid screening and isolation of carriers on transmission in settings with best-standard precautions. We assessed interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in European ICUs.
We did this study in three phases at 13 ICUs. After a 6 month baseline period (phase 1), we did an interrupted time series study of universal chlorhexidine body-washing combined with hand hygiene improvement for 6 months (phase 2), followed by a 12–15 month cluster randomised trial (phase 3). ICUs were randomly assigned by computer generated randomisation schedule to either conventional screening (chromogenic screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] and vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) or rapid screening (PCR testing for MRSA and VRE and chromogenic screening for highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae [HRE]); with contact precautions for identified carriers. The primary outcome was acquisition of resistant bacteria per 100 patient-days at risk, for which we calculated step changes and changes in trends after the introduction of each intervention. We assessed acquisition by microbiological surveillance and analysed it with a multilevel Poisson segmented regression model. We compared screening groups with a likelihood ratio test that combined step changes and changes to trend. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00976638.
Seven ICUs were assigned to rapid screening and six to conventional screening. Mean hand hygiene compliance improved from 52% in phase 1 to 69% in phase 2, and 77% in phase 3. Median proportions of patients receiving chlorhexidine body-washing increased from 0% to 100% at the start of phase 2. For trends in acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, weekly incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0·976 (0·954–0·999) for phase 2 and 1·015 (0·998–1·032) for phase 3. For step changes, weekly IRR was 0·955 (0·676–1·348) for phase 2 and 0·634 (0·349–1·153) for phase 3. The decrease in trend in phase 2 was largely caused by changes in acquisition of MRSA (weekly IRR 0·925, 95% CI 0·890–0·962). Acquisition was lower in the conventional screening group than in the rapid screening group, but did not differ significantly (p=0·06).
Improved hand hygiene plus unit-wide chlorhexidine body-washing reduced acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, particularly MRSA. In the context of a sustained high level of compliance to hand hygiene and chlorhexidine bathings, screening and isolation of carriers do not reduce acquisition rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria, whether or not screening is done with rapid testing or conventional testing.
We assessed rates and predictive factors of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) failure in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for non-hypercapnic acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF).
This is an observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a three-year period in a medical ICU of a university hospital.
Among 113 patients receiving NIV for AHRF, 82 had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 31 had non-ARDS. Intubation rates significantly differed between ARDS and non-ARDS patients (61% versus 35%, P = 0.015) and according to clinical severity of ARDS: 31% in mild, 62% in moderate, and 84% in severe ARDS (P = 0.0016). In-ICU mortality rates were 13% in non-ARDS, and, respectively, 19%, 32% and 32% in mild, moderate and severe ARDS (P = 0.22). Among patients with moderate ARDS, NIV failure was lower among those having a PaO2/FiO2 >150 mmHg (45% vs. 74%, p = 0.04). NIV failure was associated with active cancer, shock, moderate/severe ARDS, lower Glasgow coma score and lower positive end-expiratory pressure level at NIV initiation. Among intubated patients, ICU mortality rate was 46% overall and did not differ according to the time to intubation.
With intubation rates below 35% in non-ARDS and mild ARDS, NIV stands as the first-line approach; NIV may be attempted in ARDS patients with a PaO2/FiO2 > 150. By contrast, 84% of severe ARDS required intubation and NIV did not appear beneficial in this subset of patients. However, the time to intubation had no influence on mortality.
To compare the effect of two strategies (enhanced hand hygiene vs meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonisation) alone and in combination on MRSA rates in surgical wards.
Prospective, controlled, interventional cohort study, with 6-month baseline, 12-month intervention and 6-month washout phases.
33 surgical wards of 10 hospitals in nine countries in Europe and Israel.
All patients admitted to the enrolled wards for more than 24 h.
The two strategies compared were (1) enhanced hand hygiene promotion and (2) universal MRSA screening with contact precautions and decolonisation (intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing) of MRSA carriers. Four hospitals were assigned to each intervention and two hospitals combined both strategies, using targeted MRSA screening.
Monthly rates of MRSA clinical cultures per 100 susceptible patients (primary outcome) and MRSA infections per 100 admissions (secondary outcome). Planned subgroup analysis for clean surgery wards was performed.
After adjusting for clustering and potential confounders, neither strategy when used alone was associated with significant changes in MRSA rates. Combining both strategies was associated with a reduction in the rate of MRSA clinical cultures of 12% per month (adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.98). In clean surgery wards, strategy 2 (MRSA screening, contact precautions and decolonisation) was associated with decreasing rates of MRSA clinical cultures (15% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) and MRSA infections (17% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99).
In surgical wards with relatively low MRSA prevalence, a combination of enhanced standard and MRSA-specific infection control approaches was required to reduce MRSA rates. Implementation of single interventions was not effective, except in clean surgery wards where MRSA screening coupled with contact precautions and decolonisation was associated with significant reductions in MRSA clinical culture and infection rates.
clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00685867
Infection Control < Infectious Diseases; Surgery
In the context of worldwide increasing antimicrobial resistance, good antimicrobial prescribing in more needed than ever; unfortunately, information available to clinicians often are insufficient to rely on. Biomarkers might provide help for decision-making and improve antibiotic management. The purpose of this expert panel review was to examine currently available literature on the potential role of biomarkers to improve antimicrobial prescribing, by answering three questions: 1) Which are the biomarkers available for this purpose?; 2) What is their potential role in the initiation of antibiotic therapy?; and 3) What is their role in the decision to stop antibiotic therapy? To answer these questions, studies reviewed were limited to recent clinical studies (<15 years), involving a substantial number of patients (>50) and restricted to controlled trials and meta-analyses for answering questions 2 and 3. With regard to the first question concerning routinely available biomarkers, which might be useful for antibiotic management of acute infections, these are currently limited to C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Other promising biomarkers that may prove useful in the near future but need to undergo more extensive clinical testing include sTREM-1, suPAR, ProADM, and Presepsin. New approaches to biomarkers of infections include point-of-care testing and genomics.
Infection; Sepsis; Emergency medicine; Biomarkers; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein; sTREM-1; suPAR; proADM; Presepsin
Biomarker-guided initiation of antibiotic therapy has been studied in four conditions: acute pancreatitis, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), meningitis, and sepsis in the ICU. In pancreatitis with suspected infected necrosis, initiating antibiotics best relies on fine-needle aspiration and demonstration of infected material. We suggest that PCT be measured to help predict infection; however, available data are insufficient to decide on initiating antibiotics based on PCT levels. In adult patients suspected of community-acquired LRTI, we suggest withholding antibiotic therapy when the serum PCT level is low (<0.25 ng/mL); in patients having nosocomial LRTI, data are insufficient to recommend initiating therapy based on a single PCT level or even repeated measurements. For children with suspected bacterial meningitis, we recommend using a decision rule as an aid to therapeutic decisions, such as the Bacterial Meningitis Score or the Meningitest®; a single PCT level ≥0.5 ng/mL also may be used, but false-negatives may occur. In adults with suspected bacterial meningitis, we suggest integrating serum PCT measurements in a clinical decision rule to help distinguish between viral and bacterial meningitis, using a 0.5 ng/mL threshold. For ICU patients suspected of community-acquired infection, we do not recommend using a threshold serum PCT value to help the decision to initiate antibiotic therapy; data are insufficient to recommend using PCT serum kinetics for the decision to initiate antibiotic therapy in patients suspected of ICU-acquired infection. In children, CRP can probably be used to help discontinue therapy, although the evidence is limited. In adults, antibiotic discontinuation can be based on an algorithm using repeated PCT measurements. In non-immunocompromised out- or in- patients treated for RTI, antibiotics can be discontinued if the PCT level at day 3 is < 0.25 ng/mL or has decreased by >80-90%, whether or not microbiological documentation has been obtained. For ICU patients who have nonbacteremic sepsis from a known site of infection, antibiotics can be stopped if the PCT level at day 3 is < 0.5 ng/mL or has decreased by >80% relative to the highest level recorded, irrespective of the severity of the infectious episode; in bacteremic patients, a minimal duration of therapy of 5 days is recommended.
Infection; Sepsis; Emergency medicine; Biomarkers; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein; Pancreatitis; Meningitis; Pneumonia
We present a case of vascular purpura revealing an intra-cardiac left-sided thrombus complicating an end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Vascular purpura main etiologies encompass the wide specturm of vasculitides and microvascular-occlusion syndromes. Among them, cardiac embolism represents an unusal but potentially severe etology.
Cardiogenic shock; cardiomyopathy; dilated; leukocytoclastic; purpura; vasculitis
The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs.
We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden.
Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas.
The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) is increasingly common in hospitals, with potentially serious consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of antibiotic prescription patterns on the selection of CA-MRSA within hospitals, in a context of competition with other circulating staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and hospital-associated methicillin-resistant (HA-MRSA) strains. We developed a computerized agent-based model of S. aureus transmission in a hospital ward in which CA-MRSA, MSSA, and HA-MRSA strains may cocirculate. We investigated a wide range of antibiotic prescription patterns in both intensive care units (ICUs) and general wards, and we studied how differences in antibiotic exposure may explain observed variations in the success of CA-MRSA invasion in the hospitals of several European countries and of the United States. Model predictions underlined the influence of antibiotic prescription patterns on CA-MRSA spread in hospitals, especially in the ICU, where the endemic prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage can range from 3% to 20%, depending on the simulated prescription pattern. Large antibiotic exposure with drugs effective against MSSA but not MRSA was found to promote invasion by CA-MRSA. We also found that, should CA-MRSA acquire fluoroquinolone resistance, a major increase in CA-MRSA prevalence could ensue in hospitals worldwide. Controlling the spread of highly community-prevalent CA-MRSA within hospitals is a challenge. This study demonstrates that antibiotic exposure strategies could participate in this control. This is all the more important in wards such as ICUs, which may play the role of incubators, promoting CA-MRSA selection in hospitals.
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest public health care institution in France (38 hospitals, 23,000 beds, serving 11.6 millions inhabitants) launched in 1993 a long term programme to control and survey multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR).
AP-HP MDR programme consisted in successive waves of actions: bundle measures to survey and control cross transmission of MRSA and extended-spectrum betalactamase producing enterobacteria (ESBL) in 1993, large campaign to promote the use of alcohol-based hand rub solution (ABHRS) in 2001, specific strategy to quickly control the spread of emerging MDR (vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, VRE; carbapenemase producing enterobacteria, CPE) in 2006, large campaign to decrease antibiotics consumption in 2006.
Following this programme, the ABHRS consumption dramatically increased, the antibiotic consumption decreased by 10%, the incidence of MRSA, including MRSA bacteraemia, decreased by 2/3, all VRE and CPE events were rapidly controlled. However, the incidence of ESBL, mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, that remained low and stable until 2003 increased markedly afterwards, justifying adapting our programme in the future.
A sustained and coordinated strategy can lead to control multidrug resistant bacteria at the level of a large multihospital institution.
antibiotic resistance control; carbapenemase producing enterobacteria; CPE; vancomycin resistant enterococci; VRE; MRSA; quality programme; healthcare associated infections; HAI
Recent publications suggest potential benefits from statins as a preventive or adjuvant therapy in sepsis. Whether ongoing statin therapy should be continued or discontinued in patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) for sepsis is open to question.
We retrospectively compared patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in whom statin therapy had been discontinued or continued. The primary endpoint was the number of organ failure-free days at day 14. Secondary end-points included hospital mortality and safety. The association of statin continuation with outcome was evaluated for crude analysis and after propensity score matching and adjustment. We also measured plasma atorvastatin concentrations in a separate set of ICU septic patients continuing the drug.
Patients in whom statin therapy had been continued in the ICU (n = 44) had significantly more organ failure-free days (11 [6-14] vs. 6 [0-12], mean difference of 2.34, 95%CI from 0.47 to 5.21, P = 0.03) as compared to others (n = 32). However, there were important imbalances between groups, with more hospital-acquired infections, more need for surgery before ICU admission, and a trend towards more septic shock at ICU admission in the discontinuation group. The significant association of statin continuation with organ failure free days found in the crude analysis did not persist after propensity-matching or multivariable adjustment: beta coefficients [95% CI] of 2.37 [-0.96 to 5.70] (P = 0.20) and 2.24 [-0.43 to 4.91] (P = 0.11) respectively. We found particularly high pre-dose and post-dose atorvastatin concentrations in ICU septic patients continuing the drug.
Continuing statin therapy in ICU septic patients was not associated with reduction in the severity of organ failure after matching and adjustment. In addition, the very high plasma concentrations achieved during continuation of statin treatment advocates some caution.
statin; discontinuation; blood concentration; sepsis
Oral antiseptic agents should be part of a multifaceted preventive care package
To identify risk factors for early (< three days) intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and not requiring immediate ICU admission, and to stratify the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3.
Using the original data from four North American and European prospective multicentre cohort studies of patients with CAP, we derived and validated a prediction rule for ICU admission on days 1 to 3 of emergency department (ED) presentation, for patients presenting with no obvious reason for immediate ICU admission (not requiring immediate respiratory or circulatory support).
A total of 6560 patients were included (4593 and 1967 in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively), 303 (4.6%) of whom were admitted to an ICU on days 1 to 3. The Risk of Early Admission to ICU index (REA-ICU index) comprised 11 criteria independently associated with ICU admission: male gender, age younger than 80 years, comorbid conditions, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute or higher, heart rate of 125 beats/minute or higher, multilobar infiltrate or pleural effusion, white blood cell count less than 3 or 20 G/L or above, hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation < 90% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mmHg), blood urea nitrogen of 11 mmol/L or higher, pH less than 7.35 and sodium less than 130 mEq/L. The REA-ICU index stratified patients into four risk classes with a risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 ranging from 0.7 to 31%. The area under the curve was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78 to 0.83) in the overall population.
The REA-ICU index accurately stratifies the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 for patients presenting to the ED with CAP and no obvious indication for immediate ICU admission and therefore may assist orientation decisions.
Brachyspira pilosicoli is the etiologic agent of human and animal intestinal spirochetosis and is rarely implicated as a cause of bacteremia. Here, we describe the case of a B. pilosicoli spirochetemia in a 53-year-old male patient suffering from cardiogenic shock. This fastidious bacterium was isolated from blood, likely after translocation from the intestinal tract. Blood cultures were positive after 5 days of incubation (one day after the patient's death), highlighting the problem of the recovery of such type of fastidious bacterium. Identification was achieved by molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing). A review of the English literature found only 8 cases of bacteremia caused by B. pilosicoli, mostly in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. Finally, difficulties in rapid and accurate diagnosis of B. pilosicoli bloodstream infections, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of human clinical isolates, and therapeutic options are discussed.
To provide an update to the original Surviving Sepsis Campaign clinical management guidelines, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock,” published in 2004.
Modified Delphi method with a consensus conference of 55 international experts, several subsequent meetings of subgroups and key individuals, teleconferences, and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee. This process was conducted independently of any industry funding.
We used the GRADE system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations. A strong recommendation  indicates that an intervention's desirable effects clearly outweigh its undesirable effects (risk, burden, cost), or clearly do not. Weak recommendations  indicate that the tradeoff between desirable and undesirable effects is less clear. The grade of strong or weak is considered of greater clinical importance than a difference in letter level of quality of evidence. In areas without complete agreement, a formal process of resolution was developed and applied. Recommendations are grouped into those directly targeting severe sepsis, recommendations targeting general care of the critically ill patient that are considered high priority in severe sepsis, and pediatric considerations.
Key recommendations, listed by category, include: early goal-directed resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 hrs after recognition (1C); blood cultures prior to antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm potential source of infection (1C); administration of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy within 1 hr of diagnosis of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1D); reassessment of antibiotic therapy with microbiology and clinical data to narrow coverage, when appropriate (1C); a usual 7–10 days of antibiotic therapy guided by clinical response (1D); source control with attention to the balance of risks and benefits of the chosen method (1C); administration of either crystalloid or colloid fluid resuscitation (1B); fluid challenge to restore mean circulating filling pressure (1C); reduction in rate of fluid administration with rising filing pressures and no improvement in tissue perfusion (1D); vasopressor preference for norepinephrine or dopamine to maintain an initial target of mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mm Hg (1C); dobutamine inotropic therapy when cardiac output remains low despite fluid resuscitation and combined inotropic/vasopressor therapy (1C); stress-dose steroid therapy given only in septic shock after blood pressure is identified to be poorly responsive to fluid and vasopressor therapy (2C); recombinant activated protein C in patients with severe sepsis and clinical assessment of high risk for death (2B except 2C for post-operative patients). In the absence of tissue hypoperfusion, coronary artery disease, or acute hemorrhage, target a hemoglobin of 7–9 g/dL (1B); a low tidal volume (1B) and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure strategy (1C) for acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); application of at least a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure in acute lung injury (1C); head of bed elevation in mechanically ventilated patients unless contraindicated (1B); avoiding routine use of pulmonary artery catheters in ALI/ARDS (1A); to decrease days of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, a conservative fluid strategy for patients with established ALI/ARDS who are not in shock (1C); protocols for weaning and sedation/analgesia (1B); using either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation with daily interruptions or lightening (1B); avoidance of neuromuscular blockers, if at all possible (1B); institution of glycemic control (1B) targeting a blood glucose < 150 mg/dL after initial stabilization ( 2C ); equivalency of continuous veno-veno hemofiltration or intermittent hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (1A); use of stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent upper GI bleeding using H2 blockers (1A) or proton pump inhibitors (1B); and consideration of limitation of support where appropriate (1D).
Recommendations specific to pediatric severe sepsis include: greater use of physical examination therapeutic end points (2C); dopamine as the first drug of choice for hypotension (2C); steroids only in children with suspected or proven adrenal insufficiency (2C); a recommendation against the use of recombinant activated protein C in children (1B).
There was strong agreement among a large cohort of international experts regarding many level 1 recommendations for the best current care of patients with severe sepsis. Evidenced-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the first step toward improved outcomes for this important group of critically ill patients.
Sepsis; Severe sepsis; Septic shock; Sepsis syndrome; Infection; GRADE; Guidelines; Evidence-based medicine; Surviving Sepsis Campaign; Sepsis bundles
An elderly patient dies from septic shock in the intensive care unit. This is perhaps not an unusual scenario, but in this case the sepsis happens to have been due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, possibly related to a catheter, and possibly transmitted from a patient in a neighbouring room by less than adequate compliance with infection control procedures. The family decides to sue. We present how experts from four different countries assess the medicolegal issues involved in this case.
infection control procedures; medicolegal; MRSA; transmission