Molecular targeted therapy is expected to be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, the gene amplification status of molecular targeted genes in ESCC remains largely unclear. The gene amplification of EGFR, HER2, FGFR2 and MET was examined using a real-time PCR-based copy number assay of 245 ESCC surgical specimens of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization analyses verified the results of the copy number assay. EGFR mutation was detected using the Scorpions-ARMS method. The EGFR status and drug sensitivity to an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor was then evaluated in vitro. Gene amplification of EGFR and HER2 was observed in 7% (16/244) and 11% (27/245) of the ESCC specimens. A multivariate analysis revealed that HER2 amplification was a significant predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with stage III post-operative ESCC. The L861Q type of EGFR mutation with hypersensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor was found in one of the eight ESCC cell lines and one del745 type of EGFR mutation was identified in 107 clinical samples. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time that FGFR2 amplification was observed in 4% (8/196) of the ESCC specimens. MET amplification was observed in 1% (2/196). In conclusion, the frequent gene amplification of EGFR, HER2 and FGFR2 and the presence of active EGFR mutations were observed in ESCC specimens. Our results strongly encourage the development of molecular targeted therapy for ESCC.
EGFR; HER2; FGFR2; MET; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.
Elucidation of the pathogenesis and effective treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine hair zinc concentrations for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females), and show considerable association with zinc deficiency. Histogram of hair zinc concentration was non-symmetric with tailing in lower range, and 584 subjects were found to have lower zinc concentrations than −2 standard deviation level of its reference range (86.3–193ppm). The incidence rate of zinc deficiency in infant group aged 0–3 year-old was estimated 43.5 % in male and 52.5 % in female. The lowest zinc concentration of 10.7 ppm was detected in a 2-year-old boy, corresponding to about 1/12 of the control mean level. These findings suggest that infantile zinc deficiency may epigenetically contribute to the pathogenesis of autism and nutritional approach may yield a novel hope for its treatment and prevention.
The objective of this metallomics study is to investigate comprehensively some relationships between cancer risk and minerals, including essential and toxic metals.
Twenty-four minerals including essential and toxic metals in scalp hair samples from 124 solid-cancer patients and 86 control subjects were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the association of cancer with minerals was statistically analyzed with multiple logistic regression analysis.
Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that several minerals are significantly correlated to cancer, positively or inversely. The most cancer-correlated mineral was iodine (I) with the highest correlation coefficient of r = 0.301, followed by arsenic (As; r = 0.267), zinc (Zn; r = 0.261), and sodium (Na; r = 0.190), with p < 0.01 for each case. In contrast, selenium (Se) was inversely correlated to cancer (r = −0.161, p < 0.05), followed by vanadium (V) (r = −0.128). Multiple linear regression value was highly significantly correlated with probability of cancer (R2 = 0.437, p < 0.0001), and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to be 0.918. In addition, using contingency table analysis and the chi-square test, the precision of discrimination for cancer was estimated to be 0.871 (chi-square = 99.1, p < 0.0001).
These findings suggest that some minerals such as arsenic, selenium, and probably iodine, zinc, sodium, and vanadium contribute to regulation of cancer and also that metallomics study using multiple logistic regression analysis is a useful tool for estimating cancer risk.
Cancer; Metallomics; Arsenic; Selenium; Multiple logistic regression analysis
Cortical surface evoked potentials (SEPs) are larger during sleep and characterize a sleep-like state in cortical columns. Since tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) may be involved in sleep regulation and is produced as a consequence of waking activity, we tested the hypothesis that direct application of TNF to the cortex will induce a sleep-like state within cortical columns and enhance SEP amplitudes. We found that microinjection of TNF onto the surface of the somatosensory cortex enhanced whisker stimulation-induced SEP amplitude relative to a control heat-inactivated TNF microinjection. We also determined if whisker stimulation enhanced endogenous TNF expression. TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was visualized after 2 h of bilateral deflection of a single whisker bilaterally. The number of TNF-IR cells increased in layers II–IV of the activated somatosensory barrel column. In two separate studies, unilateral deflection of multiple whiskers for 2 h increased the number of TNF-IR cells in layers II–V in columns that also exhibited enhanced Fos-IR. TNF-IR also colocalized with NeuN-IR suggesting that TNF expression was in neurons. Collectively these data are consistent with the hypotheses that TNF is produced in response to neural activity and in turn enhances the probability of a local sleep-like state as determined by increases in SEP amplitudes.
barrel field; evoked response potentials; surface evoked potentials; local sleep; cortical columns; cytokine
Two patients with mucosal cancer of the periampullary region were treated with papillocholedochectomy,
which entails removal of the papilla of Vater and the whole length of the common bile duct. The neoplasm is dissected out through the plane between the duodenal circular and longitudinal muscles, deep to the sphincter of Oddi and the fibromuscular layer of the bile duct. Pathological examination showed that cancer was confined to the mucosal layer without stromal invasion, and that the operation achieved radical cure. For mucosal cancer, papillo-choledochectomy is
an alternative to pancreatoduodenectomy, provided that repeated frozen-section studies confirm the
completeness of excision.
Purpose: Exposure to heavy-ion radiation is considered a critical health risk on long-term space missions. The developing central nervous system (CNS) is a highly radiosensitive tissue; however, the biological effects of heavy-ion radiation, which are greater than those of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are not well studied, especially in vivo in intact organisms. Here, we examined the effects of iron-ions on the developing CNS using vertebrate organism, fish embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes).
Materials and methods: Medaka embryos at developmental stage 28 were irradiated with iron-ions at various doses of 0-1.5 Gy. At 24 h after irradiation, radiation-induced apoptosis was examined using an acridine orange (AO) assay and histo-logically. To estimate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), we quantified only characteristic AO-stained rosette-shaped apoptosis in the developing optic tectum (OT). At the time of hatching, morphological abnormalities in the irradiated brain were examined histologically.
Results: The dose-response curve utilizing an apoptotic index for the iron-ion irradiated embryos was much steeper than that for X-ray irradiated embryos, with RBE values of 3.7-4.2. Histological examinations of irradiated medaka brain at 24 h after irradiation showed AO-positive rosette-shaped clusters as aggregates of condensed nuclei, exhibiting a circular hole, mainly in the marginal area of the OT and in the retina. However, all of the irradiated embryos hatched normally without apparent histological abnormalities in their brains.
Conclusion: Our present study indicates that the medaka embryo is a useful model for evaluating neurocytotoxic effects on the developing CNS induced by exposure to heavy iron-ions relevant to the aerospace radiation environment.
High-LET radiation; apoptosis; embryonic brain; medaka; relative biological effectiveness (RBE)
The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for non-protein-coding RNA genes. In addition, among 72,027 uniquely mapped SNPs and insertions/deletions localized within human genes, 13,215 nonsynonymous SNPs, 315 nonsense SNPs, and 452 indels occurred in coding regions. Together with 25 polymorphic microsatellite repeats present in coding regions, they may alter protein structure, causing phenotypic effects or resulting in disease. The H-InvDB platform represents a substantial contribution to resources needed for the exploration of human biology and pathology.
An international team has systematically validated and annotated just over 21,000 human genes using full-length cDNA, thereby providing a valuable new resource for the human genetics community
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by reduced bone and increased risk of fracture. In postmenopausal women, osteoporosis results from bone loss attributable to estrogen deficiency. Osteoclast differentiation and activation is mediated by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), its receptor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), and a decoy receptor for RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG). The OPG/RANKL/RANK system plays a pivotal role in osteoclast biology. Currently, a fully human anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody named denosumab is being clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. This review describes recent advances in RANKL-related research, a story from bench to bedside. First, the discovery of the key factors, OPG/RANKL/RANK, revealed the molecular mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Second, we established three animal models: (1) a novel and rapid bone loss model by administration of glutathione-S transferase-RANKL fusion protein to mice; (2) a novel mouse model of hypercalcemia with anorexia by overexpression of soluble RANKL using an adenovirus vector; and (3) a novel mouse model of osteopetrosis by administration of a denosumab-like anti-mouse RANKL neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Lastly, anti-human RANKL monoclonal antibody has been successfully applied to the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders in many countries. This is a real example of applying basic science to clinical practice.
Osteoclast; Osteoblast; Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; Denosumab; Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB; Osteoprotegerin
Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knockout of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders.
Arp2/3; actin polymerization; ArpC3; synapse; psychiatric disorders; schizophrenia
The mechanism of quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium remains poorly understood due to difficulties with in vitro culture, especially of clinical isolates. In this study, to confirm the association between mutations in topoisomerases and antimicrobial susceptibilities to quinolones, ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant strains were selected using the cultivable type strain ATCC 33530. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant strains harbored mutations in topoisomerase IV: Gly81Cys in ParC, Pro261Thr in ParC, or Asn466Lys in ParE. The MICs of all quinolones tested against the mutant strains were 2- to 16-fold higher than those against the wild-type strain. No cross-resistance was observed with macrolides or tetracyclines. We determined the inhibitory activities of quinolones against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in order to investigate the correlation between antimicrobial susceptibility and inhibitory activity against the target enzymes, considered the primary targets of quinolones. Furthermore, using enzymatic analysis, we confirmed that Gly81Cys in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) contributed to quinolone resistance. This is the first study to isolate quinolone-resistant mutant strains of M. genitalium harboring substitutions in the parC or parE gene in vitro and to measure the inhibitory activities against the purified topoisomerases of M. genitalium.
Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM). rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States.
Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice.
Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism.
Extracellular histones cause massive thromboembolism associated with consumptive coagulopathy, which is diagnostically indistinguishable from DIC. rTM binds to histones and neutralizes the prothrombotic action of histones. This may contribute to the effectiveness of rTM against DIC.
Tax1-binding protein 1 (Tax1bp1) negatively regulates NF-κB by editing the ubiquitylation of target molecules by its catalytic partner A20. Genetically engineered TAX1BP1-deficient (KO) mice develop age-dependent inflammatory constitutions in multiple organs manifested as valvulitis or dermatitis and succumb to premature death. Laser capture dissection and gene expression microarray analysis on the mitral valves of TAX1BP1-KO mice (8 and 16 week old) revealed 588 gene transcription alterations from the wild type. SAA3 (serum amyloid A3), CHI3L1, HP, IL1B and SPP1/OPN were induced 1,180-, 361-, 187-, 122- and 101-fold respectively. WIF1 (Wnt inhibitory factor 1) exhibited 11-fold reduction. Intense Saa3 staining and significant I-κBα reduction were reconfirmed and massive infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and edema formation were seen in the area. Antibiotics-induced ‘germ free’ status or the additional MyD88 deficiency significantly ameliorated TAX1BP1-KO mice's inflammatory lesions. These pathological conditions, as we named ‘pseudo-infective endocarditis’ were boosted by the commensal microbiota who are usually harmless by their nature. This experimental outcome raises a novel mechanistic linkage between endothelial inflammation caused by the ubiquitin remodeling immune regulators and fatal cardiac dysfunction.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an islet substance serving as an intra-islet amplifier of glucose induced insulin secretion similar to exendin-4. It has been reported that systemic administration of PACAP maintained beta-cell mass, delayed the onset of hyperglycemia and protected beta cells from glucose toxicity. Moreover, PACAP increases glucose-stimulated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the possibility of PACAP use in human islet transplantation.
Human islets were cultured in the presence or absence of PACAP (10−12M) for 48 hours. Beta-cell viability by FACS, cellular composition analysis by iCys/LSC and glucose stimulated insulin secretion were assessed. In vivo, islets were transplanted beneath the kidney capsule of Streptozotocin induced diabetic immunodeficient mice. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was also performed in presence or absence with PACAP (Peptide International; 1.3 nmol/kg).
There were significant improvements in terms of beta cell viability and cellular composition between islets cultured with or without PACAP (respectively; P<0.05). Moreover, glucose stimulated insulin secretion significantly improved in islets cultured with PACAP, compared to controls, respectively; P<0.05). Treatment of recipient mice with PACAP resulted in beneficial effects on insulin secretion (PACAP vs. control, l3.2 vs. 1.9 mU/l), in IVGTT. However, no significant difference in glucose level between the two groups was observed.
Our study indicated that PACAP significantly improved beta cell viability and survival during culture, and increased insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. However, blood glucose levels in vivo after an IVGTT did not significantly improve probably due to increased glucagon secretion from alpha cells. PACAP supplementation to culture medium could be of assistance in improving clinical islet transplantation outcomes.
The mechanisms of stage-specific gene regulation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are largely unclear, with only a small number of specific regulatory transcription factors (AP2 family) having been identified. In particular, the transcription factors that function in the intraerythrocytic stage remain to be elucidated. Previously, as a model case for stage-specific transcription in the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic stage, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of pf1-cys-prx, a trophozoite/schizont-specific gene, and suggested that some nuclear factors bind specifically to the cis-element of pf1-cys-prx and enhance transcription. In the present study, we purified nuclear factors from parasite nuclear extract by 5 steps of chromatography, and identified a factor termed PREBP. PREBP is not included in the AP2 family, and is a novel protein with four K-homology (KH) domains. The KH domain is known to be found in RNA-binding or single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. PREBP is well conserved in Plasmodium species and partially conserved in phylum Apicomplexa. To evaluate the effects of PREBP overexpression, we used a transient overexpression and luciferase assay combined approach. Overexpression of PREBP markedly enhanced luciferase expression under the control of the pf1-cys-prx cis-element. These results provide the first evidence of a novel transcription factor that activates the gene expression in the malaria parasite intraerythrocytic stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the evolution of specific transcription machinery in Plasmodium and other eukaryotes.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) has been linked to mutations in the thin filament regulatory protein cardiac troponin I (cTnI). As the pathogenesis of RCM from genotype to clinical phenotype is not fully understood, transgenic (Tg) mice were generated with cardiac specific expression of an RCM-linked missense mutation (R193H) in cTnI. R193H Tg mouse hearts with 15% stoichiometric replacement had smaller hearts and significantly elevated end diastolic pressures (EDP) in vivo. Using a unique carbon microfiber-based assay, membrane intact R193H adult cardiac myocytes generated higher passive tensions across a range of physiologic sarcomere lengths resulting in significant Ca2+ independent cellular diastolic tone that was manifest in vivo as elevated organ-level EDP. Sarcomere relaxation and Ca2+ decay was uncoupled in isolated R193H Tg adult myocytes due to the increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity of tension, decreased passive compliance of the sarcomere, and adaptive in vivo changes in which phospholamban (PLN) content was decreased. Further evidence of Ca2+ and mechanical uncoupling in R193H Tg myocytes was demonstrated by the biphasic response of relaxation to increased pacing frequency verses the negative staircase seen with Ca2+ decay. In comparison, non-transgenic myocyte relaxation closely paralleled the accelerated Ca2+ decay. Ca2+ transient amplitude was also significantly blunted in R193H Tg myocytes despite normal mechanical shortening resulting in myocyte hypercontractility when compared to non-transgenics. These results identify for the first time that a single point mutation in cTnI, R193H, directly causes elevated EDP due to a myocyte intrinsic loss of compliance independent of Ca2+ cycling or altered cardiac morphology. The compound influence of impaired relaxation and elevated EDP represents a clinically severe form of diastolic dysfunction similar to the hemodynamic state documented in RCM patients.
restrictive cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; cardiac troponin I
Here, we report on a rare case of a giant invasive sacral schwannoma. The patient was a 58-year-old woman who had a 6-year history of non-specific buttock pain. Histological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of cellular schwannoma. The following numerical aberration was detected using the GTG-banding method for karyotypes: 47,XX,-14,+18,+22. Cytogenetic studies of schwannomas have indicated a complete or partial loss of chromosome 22 as the most common abnormality, but this case is cytogenetically rare because of the recurrence of trisomy 22.
Sacrum; Neurilemmoma; Cytogenetics
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiaiting cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential and high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs of ovarian cancer have been isolated by side population (SP) analysis, ALDEFLUOR assay and using cell surface markers. However, these approaches are not definitive markers for CSCs/CICs, and it is necessary to refine recent methods for identifying more highly purified CSCs/CICs. In this study, we analyzed SP cells and aldehyde dehydrogenese bright (ALDHBr) cells from ovarian cancer cells. Both SP cells and ALDHBr cells exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability and higher expression level of a stem cell marker, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), than those of main population (MP) cells and ALDHLow cells, respectively. We analyzed an SP and ALDHBr overlapping population (SP/ALDHBr), and the SP/ALDHBr population exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability than that of SP cells or ALDHBr cells, enabling initiation of tumor with as few as 102 cells. Furthermore, SP/ADLHBr population showed higher sphere-forming ability, cisplatin resistance, adipocyte differentiation ability and expression of SOX2 than those of SP/ALDHLow, MP/ALDHBr and MP/ALDHLow cells. Gene knockdown of SOX2 suppressed the tumor-initiation of ovarian cancer cells. An SP/ALDHBr population was detected in several gynecological cancer cells with ratios of 0.1% for HEC—1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cells to 1% for MCAS ovary mucinous adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, use of the SP and ALDHBr overlapping population is a promising approach to isolate highly purified CSCs/CICs and SOX2 might be a novel functional marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs.
A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy) was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl) was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum), but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.
Chronic pancreatitis; Pancreatic ascites; Pseudocyst
Ionizing radiation (IR)-enhanced tumor invasiveness is emerging as a contributor to the limited benefit of radiotherapy; however, its mechanism is still unclear. We previously showed that subcloned lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (P cells), which survived 10 Gy IR (IR cells), acquired high invasiveness in vitro. Here, we tried to identify the mechanism by which IR cells increase their invasiveness by examining altered gene expression and signaling pathways in IR cells compared with those in P cells. To simulate the microenvironment in vivo, cells were embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen type I gel, in which the IR cells were elongated, while the P cells were spherical. The integrin expression pattern was surveyed, and expression levels of the integrin α2 and β1 subunits were significantly elevated in IR cells. Knockdown of α2 expression or functional blockade of integrin α2β1 resulted in a round morphology of IR cells, and abrogated their invasion in the collagen matrix, suggesting the molecule’s essential role in cell spread and invasion in 3D collagen. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also presented enhanced expression and activation in IR cells. Treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PD168393, decreased the ratio of elongated cells and cell invasiveness. Signaling molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and Akt, exhibited higher activation in IR cells. Inhibition of Akt activation by treating with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 decreased IR cell invasion, whereas inhibition of Erk1/2 activation by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 did not. Our results show that integrin α2β1 and EGFR cooperatively promote higher invasiveness of IR-survived lung cancer cells, mediated in part by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and might serve as alternative targets in combination with radiotherapy.
α-Synucleinopathies are a subgroup of neurodegenerative diseases including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pathologically, these disorders can be characterized by the presence of intraneuronal aggregates composed mainly of α-synuclein (αSyn), which are called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Recent report showed that more than 90% of αSyn aggregates are present in the form of very small deposits in presynaptic terminals of the affected neurons in DLB. However, the mechanisms responsible for presynaptic accumulation of abnormal αSyn remain unclear. In this article, we review recent findings on the involvement of presynaptic dysfunction in the initiation of neuronal dysfunctional changes. This review highlights that the presynaptic failure can be a potential trigger of the dying-back neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases.
Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. Immunostain for S-100 protein, in addition to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), is described to be useful in the diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma with immunostain for S-100 protein which was useful in diagnoses of recurrent and metastatic lesions. The primary lesion in the left inguinal region was excised, but it recurred on the same site 14 months after the resection. The recurrent lesion showed epithelioid melanocytic findings. Three months later, metastasis to the lungs was found. Since these recurrent and metastatic lesions were dedifferentiated, typical histologic findings of eccrine porocarcinoma disappeared in biopsied specimens. Nevertheless, scattered immunoreactive cells for S-100 protein were maintained in these dedifferentiated lesions. S-100 protein positive cells could be an aid to diagnose, even if histologic findings of recurrent and metastatic lesions have changed by dedifferentiation.
Eccrine porocarcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; S100 proteins
The requirement for an extracapsular resection is indicated for malignant bone tumors that have disseminated intracapsularly. Extracapsular resections are often performed for malignant tumors arising from the knee joint, but there are relatively few studies that have described an extracapsular resection of a tumor arising from the hip joint. The present study describes a case of extracapsular wide resection of the hip joint using rotational acetabular osteotomy. The patient was a 17-year-old female and the diagnosis was an osteoblastic osteosarcoma with a pathological fracture of the femoral neck. The joint was reconstructed using an allograft-implant composite graft and total hip arthroplasty. Although the patient presented a slight Trendelenburg gait, no recurrence or metastases were identified during a follow-up period of 3 years. The clinical features and surgical procedure of the case are described.
extracapsular resection; total hip arthroplasty; osteosarcoma
In-room cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging is a promising method to reduce setup errors, especially in organs such as the bladder that often have large intrafractional variations due to organ movement. CBCT image quality is limited by low contrast and imaging artifacts, but few data have been reported about inter-observer variability of bladder boundary delineation on CBCT. The aim of this work was to analyze and evaluate the inter-observer contouring uncertainties of bladder boundary delineation on CBCT images in a prospective fashion.
Five radiation oncologists contoured 10 bladders using the CBCT datasets of consecutive 10 patients (including 4 females) who were irradiated to the pelvic region. Prostates were also contoured in male patients. Patients who had had prostatectomy were excluded. The coefficient of variation (COV), conformity index (CIgen), and coordinates of center-of-mass (COM) of the bladder and prostate were calculated for each patient.
The mean COV for the bladder and prostate was 0.08 and 0.20, respectively. The mean CIgen of the bladder and prostate was 0.81 and 0.66, respectively. The root mean square (RMS) of the inter-observer standard deviation (σ) of the COM displacement in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction was 0.79, 0.87 and 0.54 for the bladder and 0.63, 0.99 and 1.72 for the prostate. Regarding the mean COV and CIgen for the bladder, the differences between males and females were not significant.
Inter-observer variability for bladder delineation on CBCT images was substantially small regardless of gender. We believe that our results support the applicability of CBCT in adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer; Image guided radiotherapy; Cone beam CT; Inter-observer variability
A solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas has distinct histopathological features. A solid pattern of growth with pseudopapillary structures that result from degeneration is observed. On rare occasions, the tumor may vary from being entirely solid to completely cystic. The present study describes two unique cases of SPN. A 25-year-old male presented with a pancreatic tumor showing a predominantly solid pattern with no degenerative change, although the pre-operative cytological specimens that were obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed pseudopapillary structures. The second case was of an 11-year-old female who presented with a pancreatic tumor with prominent degeneration. Nests and cords of the remaining neoplastic cells were located only at the periphery, with perineural invasion. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor cells in the two cases were positive for CD10 and β-catenin and negative for trypsin. An awareness of the broad morphological variability of SPN and an immunohistochemical panel that includes CD10, β-catenin and trypsin are useful for establishing an accurate diagnosis.
solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm; cytology; CD10; β-catenin; trypsin