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1.  Effects of Renal Function on Pharmacokinetics of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Lung Cancer Patients 
Animal studies suggest that the kidney is involved in the elimination of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), which is used for patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Since anticancer drugs induce nephrotoxicity, it is important to clarify the role of the kidney in the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF in cancer patients. Our study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF and renal function in lung cancer patients compared to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with 25 lung cancer patients. Following chemotherapy using platinum-based compounds, a bolus 5 μg of rhG-CSF/kg of body weight was intravenously injected from the first day of leukopenia or neutropenia. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the concentration in serum-time data to a two-compartment model according to the population pharmacokinetics and the Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance (CLCR) was predicted by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. rhG-CSF clearance (CLG-CSF) correlated significantly with the ANC (r = 0.613; P < 0.001) and CLCR (r = 0.632; P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the combination of the ANC and CLCR accounted for 57.4% of the variation of CLG-CSF. In patients with an ANC of <1,000/μl, CLCR accounted for 72.9% of the variation of CLG-CSF (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that renal function and neutrophil counts correlate with CLG-CSF and that the role of renal function in eliminating rhG-CSF is important in lung cancer patients with neutropenia.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.1947-1951.2001
PMCID: PMC90583  PMID: 11408206
2.  Interactions of Ofloxacin and Erythromycin with the Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) in MRP-Overexpressing Human Leukemia Cells 
To investigate interactions between the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and antimicrobial agents, we examined the effects of 12 agents on vincristine sensitivity and efflux of the calcein acetoxy-methyl ester (calcein-AM) of a MRP substrate in MRP-overexpressing cells. Only ofloxacin and erythromycin enhanced sensitivity with increased intracellular vincristine accumulation and inhibited the calcein-AM efflux. Our findings suggest that the two agents are possible MRP substrates and may competitively inhibit MRP function as a drug efflux pump.
PMCID: PMC89936  PMID: 10817732
3.  Close Association between Clearance of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and G-CSF Receptor on Neutrophils in Cancer Patients 
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is used to counter chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Our previous study showed an inverse correlation between serum rhG-CSF levels and the number of circulating neutrophils in cancer patients (H. Takatani, H. Soda, M. Fukuda, M. Watanabe, A. Kinoshita, T. Nakamura, and M. Oka, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:988–991, 1996). The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between rhG-CSF clearance and G-CSF receptors on circulating neutrophils. In five cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, a bolus dose of rhG-CSF (5 μg/kg) was injected intravenously during defined phases of posttreatment neutropenia and neutrophilia. Serum rhG-CSF levels were measured by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay and analyzed by moment analysis. G-CSF receptors on neutrophils were detected by flow cytometry with biotinylated rhG-CSF. rhG-CSF clearance was significantly higher at neutrophilia than at neutropenia (1,497 ± 132 versus 995 ± 266 ml/h; P < 0.01). The percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils, reflecting the number of G-CSF receptors per cell, was low at neutropenia without rhG-CSF therapy (44.5% ± 22.1%) and high at neutrophilia with rhG-CSF therapy (73.0% ± 11.4%; P < 0.01). rhG-CSF clearance closely correlated with the percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils (r2 = 0.91; P < 0.0001) and neutrophil count (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.005). Our results indicate that, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, rhG-CSF increases the number of G-CSF receptors per cell as well as circulating neutrophil counts, resulting in modulation of its own clearance.
PMCID: PMC89014  PMID: 9869559

Results 1-3 (3)