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1.  Prognostic significance of clinical factors and Akt activation in patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma 
SUMMARY
Purpose
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the world. BAC is a subset of NSCLC that has recently gained attention because of distinct biologic and clinical features, increased incidence, and enhanced responsiveness to new therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, prognostic features for BAC have not been well defined. Because activation of Akt is highly prevalent and a poor prognostic factor for other types of NSCLC, we assessed the prognostic significance of clinical features and Akt activation in patients with BAC.
Methods
46 cases of BAC in Iceland were classified according to WHO 1999 criteria. Akt activation was assessed using two phospho-specific antibodies against Akt (S473 and T308) in immunohistochemical analysis. Associations between ordered Akt levels and other dichotomous parameters were evaluated using an exact Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, with hazard ratios (HR) determined by Cox proportional hazard models. The Cox model was also used to assess the joint effect of multiple factors on survival when they are considered simultaneously.
Results
Age and histology (mucinous vs. non-mucinous) were not associated with survival. Activation of Akt was highly prevalent in BAC, with only 2 out of 46 patients exhibiting negative staining with either antibody. Moderate to high Akt activation was observed in 63% of cases and was associated with non-mucinous histology. Akt activation was not associated with differences in survival or smoking status. In contrast, Cox model analysis revealed that male gender (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.07-4.71, p=0.032), advanced stage (III or IV) (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.004-4.71, p=0.049), and smoking status (HR 6.89, 95% CI 1.49-31.88, p=0.013) were associated with a worse prognosis.
Conclusions
Male gender, advanced stage, and especially smoking status (but not Akt activation) are potentially important prognostic features for BAC. These features should be considered in the design and interpretation of clinical trials that enroll BAC patients.
doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.09.026
PMCID: PMC1847612  PMID: 17097759
bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; prognostic factor; NSCLC; Akt; smoking
2.  Effects of Renal Function on Pharmacokinetics of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Lung Cancer Patients 
Animal studies suggest that the kidney is involved in the elimination of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), which is used for patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Since anticancer drugs induce nephrotoxicity, it is important to clarify the role of the kidney in the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF in cancer patients. Our study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF and renal function in lung cancer patients compared to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with 25 lung cancer patients. Following chemotherapy using platinum-based compounds, a bolus 5 μg of rhG-CSF/kg of body weight was intravenously injected from the first day of leukopenia or neutropenia. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the concentration in serum-time data to a two-compartment model according to the population pharmacokinetics and the Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance (CLCR) was predicted by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. rhG-CSF clearance (CLG-CSF) correlated significantly with the ANC (r = 0.613; P < 0.001) and CLCR (r = 0.632; P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the combination of the ANC and CLCR accounted for 57.4% of the variation of CLG-CSF. In patients with an ANC of <1,000/μl, CLCR accounted for 72.9% of the variation of CLG-CSF (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that renal function and neutrophil counts correlate with CLG-CSF and that the role of renal function in eliminating rhG-CSF is important in lung cancer patients with neutropenia.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.1947-1951.2001
PMCID: PMC90583  PMID: 11408206
3.  Interactions of Ofloxacin and Erythromycin with the Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) in MRP-Overexpressing Human Leukemia Cells 
To investigate interactions between the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and antimicrobial agents, we examined the effects of 12 agents on vincristine sensitivity and efflux of the calcein acetoxy-methyl ester (calcein-AM) of a MRP substrate in MRP-overexpressing cells. Only ofloxacin and erythromycin enhanced sensitivity with increased intracellular vincristine accumulation and inhibited the calcein-AM efflux. Our findings suggest that the two agents are possible MRP substrates and may competitively inhibit MRP function as a drug efflux pump.
PMCID: PMC89936  PMID: 10817732
4.  Close Association between Clearance of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and G-CSF Receptor on Neutrophils in Cancer Patients 
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is used to counter chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Our previous study showed an inverse correlation between serum rhG-CSF levels and the number of circulating neutrophils in cancer patients (H. Takatani, H. Soda, M. Fukuda, M. Watanabe, A. Kinoshita, T. Nakamura, and M. Oka, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:988–991, 1996). The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between rhG-CSF clearance and G-CSF receptors on circulating neutrophils. In five cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, a bolus dose of rhG-CSF (5 μg/kg) was injected intravenously during defined phases of posttreatment neutropenia and neutrophilia. Serum rhG-CSF levels were measured by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay and analyzed by moment analysis. G-CSF receptors on neutrophils were detected by flow cytometry with biotinylated rhG-CSF. rhG-CSF clearance was significantly higher at neutrophilia than at neutropenia (1,497 ± 132 versus 995 ± 266 ml/h; P < 0.01). The percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils, reflecting the number of G-CSF receptors per cell, was low at neutropenia without rhG-CSF therapy (44.5% ± 22.1%) and high at neutrophilia with rhG-CSF therapy (73.0% ± 11.4%; P < 0.01). rhG-CSF clearance closely correlated with the percentage of G-CSF receptor-positive neutrophils (r2 = 0.91; P < 0.0001) and neutrophil count (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.005). Our results indicate that, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, rhG-CSF increases the number of G-CSF receptors per cell as well as circulating neutrophil counts, resulting in modulation of its own clearance.
PMCID: PMC89014  PMID: 9869559

Results 1-4 (4)