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author:("sibilla, Yves")
1.  Discovery of New Membrane-Associated Proteins Overexpressed in Small-Cell Lung Cancer 
Introduction
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer, with no early detection strategy or targeted therapy currently available. We hypothesized that difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) may identify membrane-associated proteins (MAPs) specific to SCLC, advance our understanding of SCLC biology, and discover new biomarkers of SCLC.
Methods
MAP lysates were prepared from three SCLCs, three non–small-cell lung cancers, and three immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell lines and coanalyzed by DIGE. Subsequent protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Candidate biomarkers were validated by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Results
Principal component analysis on the global DIGE data set demonstrated that the four replicates derived from each of the nine cell lines clustered closely, as did samples within the same histological group. One hundred thirty-seven proteins were differentially expressed in SCLC compared with non–small-cell lung cancer and immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells. These proteins were overrepresented in cellular/tissue morphology networks. Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, guanine nucleotide–binding protein alpha-q, laminin receptor 1, pontin, and stathmin 1 were selected as candidate biomarkers among MAPs overexpressed in SCLC. Overexpression of all candidates but RSSA in SCLC was verified by WB and/or IHC on tissue microarrays. These proteins were significantly associated with SCLC histology and survival in univariables analyses.
Conclusion
DIGE analysis of a membrane-associated subproteome discovered overexpression of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, guanine nucleotide–binding protein alpha-q, RUVB1, and stathmin 1 in SCLC. Results were verified by WB and/or IHC in primary tumors, suggesting that investigating their functional relevance in SCLC progression is warranted. Association with survival requires further validation in larger clinical data sets.
doi:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000090
PMCID: PMC4028683  PMID: 24518087
Biomarker; Membrane-associated; Proteomics; Small-cell lung cancer
2.  Loss of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor expression is associated with lung tumourigenesis 
The European respiratory journal  2011;39(5):1171-1180.
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression is downregulated in lung cancer, but its implications in lung tumourigenesis remain unknown. We hypothesised that loss of pIgR expression occurs early, and is associated with cell proliferation and poor prognosis.
pIgR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in airways of patients with normal mucosa, pre-invasive lesions and invasive lesions, and correlated with clinical outcomes. 16-HBE and A549 cells stably transfected with pIgR were tested for proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression.
Immunostaining was strong in normal epithelium, but severely reduced in pre-invasive lesions and most lung cancers. Persistent expression was associated with younger age and adenocarcinoma subtype but not survival. pIgR overexpression significantly reduced A549 and 16-HBE proliferation. Growth inhibition was not due to cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but we observed altered expression of genes encoding for membrane proteins, including NOTCH3. Interestingly, NOTCH3 expression was inversely correlated with pIgR expression in cell lines and tissues.
pIgR expression was lost in most lung cancers and pre-invasive bronchial lesions, suggesting that pIgR downregulation is an early event in lung tumourigenesis. pIgR overexpression in A549 and 16-HBE cells inhibited proliferation. Future investigations are required to determine the mechanisms by which pIgR contributes to cell proliferation.
doi:10.1183/09031936.00184410
PMCID: PMC3717253  PMID: 21965228
Differentiation; lung adenocarcinoma; lung pre-invasive lesions; polymeric immunoglobulin receptor; proliferation
3.  Dual Effect of Neutrophils on pIgR/Secretory Component in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Role of TGF-β 
Neutrophils have a dual affect on epithelial pIgR/SC, the critical receptor for transcellular routing of mucosal IgA, but mechanisms of pIgR/SC upregulation remain elusive. Requirements of cytokine, redox, and signalling pathways for pIgR/SC production were assessed in human bronchial epithelial (Calu-3) cells cocultured with increasing numbers of blood neutrophils. Increased SC production was observed after incubation for 48 hrs with intermediate neutrophil numbers (1.25 to 2.5 × 106), was favoured by the elastase inhibitor SLPI, and correlated with increased TGF-β production. Exogenous TGF-β stimulated SC production with a maximal effect at 48 hrs and both TGF-β- and neutrophil-driven SC upregulation were dependent on redox balance and p38 MAP-kinase activation. This paper shows that activated neutrophils could upregulate epithelial pIgR/SC production through TGF-β-mediated activation of a redox-sensitive and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. An imbalance between the two neutrophil-driven opposite mechanisms (SC upregulation and SC degradation) could lead to downregulation of pIgR/SC, as observed in severe COPD.
doi:10.1155/2010/428618
PMCID: PMC2914448  PMID: 20706611
4.  LPS induces IL-10 production by human alveolar macrophages via MAPKinases- and Sp1-dependent mechanisms 
Respiratory Research  2007;8(1):71.
Background
IL-10 is a cytokine mainly produced by macrophages that plays key roles in tolerance to inhaled antigens and in lung homeostasis. Its regulation in alveolar macrophages (HAM), the resident lung phagocytes, remains however unknown.
Methods
The present study investigated the role of intracellular signalling and transcription factors controlling the production of IL-10 in LPS-activated HAM from normal nonsmoking volunteers.
Results
LPS (1–1000 pg/ml) induced in vitro IL-10 production by HAM, both at mRNA and protein levels. LPS also activated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPkinases (immunoblots) and Sp-1 nuclear activity (EMSA). Selective inhibitors of MAPKinases (respectively PD98059, SB203580 and SP600125) and of Sp-1 signaling (mithramycin) decreased IL-10 expression in HAM. In addition, whilst not affecting IL-10 mRNA degradation, the three MAPKinase inhibitors completely abolished Sp-1 activation by LPS in HAM.
Conclusion
These results demonstrate for the first time that expression of IL-10 in lung macrophages stimulated by LPS depends on the concomitant activation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPKinases, which control downstream signalling to Sp-1 transcription factor. This study further points to Sp-1 as a key signalling pathway for IL-10 expression in the lung.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-71
PMCID: PMC2080632  PMID: 17916230
5.  Mechanism of the Intracellular Killing and Modulation of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in THP-1 Macrophages Activated by Gamma Interferon 
Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular pathogen, readily enters cells and multiplies in the cytosol after escaping from phagosomal vacuoles. Macrophages exposed to gamma interferon, one of the main cellular host defenses against Listeria, become nonpermissive for bacterial growth while containing Listeria in the phagosomes. Using the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1, we show that the combination of l-monomethyl arginine and catalase restores bacterial growth without affecting the phagosomal containment of Listeria. A previous report (B. Scorneaux, Y. Ouadrhiri, G. Anzalone, and P. M. Tulkens, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1225–1230, 1996) showed that intracellular Listeria was almost equally sensitive to ampicillin, azithromycin, and sparfloxacin in control cells but became insensitive to ampicillin and more sensitive to azithromycin and sparfloxacin in gamma interferon-treated cells. We show here that these modulations of antibiotic activity are largely counteracted by l-monomethyl arginine and catalase. In parallel, we show that gamma interferon enhances the cellular accumulation of azithromycin and sparfloxacin, an effect which is not reversed by addition of l-monomethyl arginine and catalase and which therefore cannot account for the increased activity of these antibiotics in gamma interferon-treated cells. We conclude that (i) the control exerted by gamma interferon on intracellular multiplication of Listeria in THP-1 macrophages is dependent on the production of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide; (ii) intracellular Listeria may become insensitive to ampicillin in macrophages exposed to gamma interferon because the increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates already controls bacterial growth; and (iii) azithromycin and still more sparfloxacin cooperate efficiently with gamma interferon, one of the main cellular host defenses in Listeria infection.
PMCID: PMC89140  PMID: 10223943

Results 1-5 (5)