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1.  Impacts of Dosing Frequency of the Combination Rifampin-Streptomycin on Its Bactericidal and Sterilizing Activities against Mycobacterium ulcerans in Mice▿  
Because of operational limitations, a significant proportion of the health centers at the peripheral level are able to provide treatment to Buruli ulcer patients with the combination rifampin (rifampicin)-streptomycin (RIF-STR) only five times weekly (5/7) instead of seven times weekly (7/7), as recommended. The objective of this experiment is to assess the impacts of various dosing frequencies of the combination on its bactericidal and sterilizing activities against Mycobacterium ulcerans in mice. The results demonstrate that the bactericidal activities did not differ significantly among five dosing frequencies of the combination, ranging from seven times to twice weekly, whereas the sterilizing activities differed widely. RIF-STR 7/7 was the only regimen that was able to sterilize the infection after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment; the sterilizing activities associated with reduced dosing frequencies were significantly diminished, and 8 weeks of 5/7 administration yielded a relapse rate greater than the generally accepted level of 5%. We recommend that the duration of treatment with 5/7 administration be prolonged beyond 8 weeks and that additional experiments with mice be carried out, with sufficient statistical power to compare the relapse rates of M. ulcerans infection between 8 weeks of 7/7 administration and 10 and 12 weeks of 5/7 administration of RIF-STR.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00011-09
PMCID: PMC2704658  PMID: 19364857
2.  Bactericidal and Sterilizing Activities of Several Orally Administered Combined Regimens against Mycobacterium ulcerans in Mice ▿  
Treatment with rifampin-clarithromycin or moxifloxacin-clarithromycin for 8 weeks displayed promising bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium ulcerans in mice; none of the mice treated with rifampin-clarithromycin relapsed, whereas 59% of those treated with moxifloxacin-clarithromycin relapsed after treatment was stopped. The bactericidal and sterilizing activities of the five-times-weekly (5/7) administration of 5 mg of rifapentine/kg of body weight, either alone or in combination, were virtually identical to those of the corresponding regimens with 10 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight; however, because of the long half-life of rifapentine, accumulation of the drug after 5/7 administration is a concern. The bactericidal activity of 20 mg/kg rifapentine in monotherapy or 20 mg/kg rifapentine in combination with 150 mg/kg streptomycin or 200 mg/kg moxifloxacin administered twice weekly was as effective as the corresponding regimens containing 10 mg/kg rifampin administered 5/7, suggesting that Buruli ulcer might be treated with intermittently administered rifapentine-containing combinations.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00193-08
PMCID: PMC2415803  PMID: 18391038
3.  Type II Topoisomerase Mutations in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
We determined the sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes for 30 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to ciprofloxacin that were previously complemented by wild-type gyrA and gyrB plasmid-borne alleles and studied for their coresistance to imipenem (E. Cambau, E. Perani, C. Dib, C. Petinon, J. Trias, and V. Jarlier, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2248–2252, 1995). In the present study, we found mutations in type II topoisomerase genes for all strains. Twenty-eight strains had a missense mutation in gyrA (codon 83 or 87). Ten of them had an additional mutation in parC (codon 80 or 84), including a novel mutation of Ser-80 to Trp, but all were fully complemented by a plasmid-borne wild-type gyrA allele. The remaining two strains harbored the first gyrB mutation described in P. aeruginosa, leading to the substitution of phenylalanine for serine 464. The strains which had two mutations in type II topoisomerase genes (i.e., gyrA and parC) were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with a single mutation in gyrA or gyrB (geometric mean MICs of ciprofloxacin, 39.4 versus 10.9 μg/ml, P < 0.01; geometric mean MICs of sparfloxacin, 64.0 versus 22.6, P < 0.01). No mutant with a parC mutation alone was observed, which favors DNA gyrase being the primary target for fluoroquinolones. These results demonstrate that gyrA mutations are the major mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones for clinical strains of P. aeruginosa and that additional mutations in parC lead to a higher level of quinolone resistance.
PMCID: PMC89021  PMID: 9869566

Results 1-3 (3)