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1.  Developmental Changes in Organization of Structural Brain Networks 
Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S. | Reid, Andrew | Brauer, Jens | Carbonell, Felix | Lewis, John | Ameis, Stephanie | Karama, Sherif | Lee, Junki | Chen, Zhang | Das, Samir | Evans, Alan C. | Ball, William S. | Byars, Anna Weber | Schapiro, Mark | Bommer, Wendy | Carr, April | German, April | Dunn, Scott | Rivkin, Michael J. | Waber, Deborah | Mulkern, Robert | Vajapeyam, Sridhar | Chiverton, Abigail | Davis, Peter | Koo, Julie | Marmor, Jacki | Mrakotsky, Christine | Robertson, Richard | McAnulty, Gloria | Brandt, Michael E. | Fletcher, Jack M. | Kramer, Larry A. | Yang, Grace | McCormack, Cara | Hebert, Kathleen M. | Volero, Hilda | Botteron, Kelly | McKinstry, Robert C. | Warren, William | Nishino, Tomoyuki | Robert Almli, C. | Todd, Richard | Constantino, John | McCracken, James T. | Levitt, Jennifer | Alger, Jeffrey | O'Neil, Joseph | Toga, Arthur | Asarnow, Robert | Fadale, David | Heinichen, Laura | Ireland, Cedric | Wang, Dah-Jyuu | Moss, Edward | Zimmerman, Robert A. | Bintliff, Brooke | Bradford, Ruth | Newman, Janice | Evans, Alan C. | Arnaoutelis, Rozalia | Bruce Pike, G. | Louis Collins, D. | Leonard, Gabriel | Paus, Tomas | Zijdenbos, Alex | Das, Samir | Fonov, Vladimir | Fu, Luke | Harlap, Jonathan | Leppert, Ilana | Milovan, Denise | Vins, Dario | Zeffiro, Thomas | Van Meter, John | Lange, Nicholas | Froimowitz, Michael P. | Botteron, Kelly | Robert Almli, C. | Rainey, Cheryl | Henderson, Stan | Nishino, Tomoyuki | Warren, William | Edwards, Jennifer L. | Dubois, Diane | Smith, Karla | Singer, Tish | Wilber, Aaron A. | Pierpaoli, Carlo | Basser, Peter J. | Chang, Lin-Ching | Koay, Chen Guan | Walker, Lindsay | Freund, Lisa | Rumsey, Judith | Baskir, Lauren | Stanford, Laurence | Sirocco, Karen | Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina | Spinella, Giovanna | McCracken, James T. | Alger, Jeffry R. | Levitt, Jennifer | O'Neill, Joseph
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2012;23(9):2072-2085.
Recent findings from developmental neuroimaging studies suggest that the enhancement of cognitive processes during development may be the result of a fine-tuning of the structural and functional organization of brain with maturation. However, the details regarding the developmental trajectory of large-scale structural brain networks are not yet understood. Here, we used graph theory to examine developmental changes in the organization of structural brain networks in 203 normally growing children and adolescents. Structural brain networks were constructed using interregional correlations in cortical thickness for 4 age groups (early childhood: 4.8–8.4 year; late childhood: 8.5–11.3 year; early adolescence: 11.4–14.7 year; late adolescence: 14.8–18.3 year). Late childhood showed prominent changes in topological properties, specifically a significant reduction in local efficiency, modularity, and increased global efficiency, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more random configuration. An increase in number and span of distribution of connector hubs was found in this age group. Finally, inter-regional connectivity analysis and graph-theoretic measures indicated early maturation of primary sensorimotor regions and protracted development of higher order association and paralimbic regions. Our finding reveals a time window of plasticity occurring during late childhood which may accommodate crucial changes during puberty and the new developmental tasks that an adolescent faces.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs187
PMCID: PMC3729193  PMID: 22784607
adolescence; connectivity; connector hub; cortical thickness; maturation
2.  Effect of methylglyoxal on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 μg/ml (1.7–7.1 mM) and is not recognized by drug efflux systems.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00180
PMCID: PMC4029012  PMID: 24860556
manuka honey; methylglyoxal; drug efflux system; multidrug resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
3.  Cooperation of the multidrug efflux pump and lipopolysaccharides in the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 
Objectives
In Gram-negative bacteria, drug susceptibility is associated with multidrug efflux systems and an outer membrane (OM) barrier. Previous studies revealed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has 10 functional drug efflux pumps. Among them, AcrB is a major factor to maintain the intrinsic drug resistance in this organism. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content of OM is also important for resistance to lipophilic drugs; however, the interplay between the multidrug efflux pump and LPS in the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Salmonella remains to be studied in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between AcrB and LPS in the intrinsic drug resistance of this organism.
Methods
The genes encoding LPS core biosynthetic proteins and AcrB were disrupted from the wild-type S. enterica strain ATCC 14028s. The plasmid carrying acrB was transformed into these mutants and then the drug susceptibilities of the mutants and transformants were determined.
Results
Our results showed that the levels of Salmonella intrinsic antibiotic resistance were decreased when the length and branches of core oligosaccharide were lost. Furthermore, the deletion of acrB reduced multidrug resistance of all LPS mutants and AcrB production from the plasmid complemented this phenotype. However, AcrB production could not completely compensate for LPS function in intrinsic resistance.
Conclusions
Both pump inactivation and shortened LPS enhanced drug susceptibility, although the maximum susceptibility was achieved when the two were combined. Hence, these results indicated that the multidrug efflux system and OM barrier are both essential for maintaining intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Salmonella.
doi:10.1093/jac/dks528
PMCID: PMC3625434  PMID: 23378414
AcrB; LPS; multidrug resistance
4.  Impact of Hfq on the Intrinsic Drug Resistance of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium 
Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen, and its various serovars cause both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, has further complicated its management. Hfq is an RNA chaperon that mediates the binding of small RNAs to mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. Although Hfq is related to important phenotypes including virulence in Salmonella, its role in the drug resistance of this organism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Hfq in intrinsic drug resistance of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. hfq Mutant was susceptible to acriflavine. Although there is a relationship between the production of the AcrB multidrug efflux pump and Hfq in Escherichia coli, the deletion of the drug efflux acrB did not impair the effect of hfq deletion on Salmonella susceptibility. In contrast, the deletion of another drug efflux gene, smvA, impaired the effect of hfq deletion on acriflavine susceptibility. These results indicate that Hfq regulates the intrinsic drug resistance, and it may influence drug susceptibility by regulating SmvA in Salmonella.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00205
PMCID: PMC3366549  PMID: 22675323
drug efflux system; drug resistance; Hfq, Salmonella; small RNA
5.  Effect of NlpE Overproduction on Multidrug Resistance in Escherichia coli▿  
NlpE, an outer membrane lipoprotein, functions during envelope stress responses in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report that overproduction of NlpE increases multidrug and copper resistance through activation of the genes encoding the AcrD and MdtABC multidrug efflux pumps in Escherichia coli.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01677-09
PMCID: PMC2863614  PMID: 20211889
6.  H-NS Modulates Multidrug Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Repressing Multidrug Efflux Genes acrEF▿  
Screening of Salmonella mutants for the ability to increase β-lactam resistance has led to the identification of a mutation in hns, which codes for the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). In this study, we report that H-NS modulates multidrug resistance through repression of the genes that encode the AcrEF multidrug efflux pump in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00371-09
PMCID: PMC2715579  PMID: 19506059
7.  Interactions of Gaseous HNO3 and Water with Individual and Mixed Alkyl Self-Assembled Monolayers at Room Temperature 
The major removal processes for gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) in the atmosphere are dry and wet deposition onto various surfaces. The surface in the boundary layer is often covered with organic films, but the interaction of gaseous HNO3 with them is not well understood. To better understand the factors controlling the uptake of gaseous nitric acid and its dissociation in organic films, studies were carried out using single component and mixtures of C8 and C18 alkyl self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) attached to a germanium (Ge) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal upon which a thin layer of SiOx had been deposited. For comparison, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) studies were also carried out using a C18 SAM attached to the native oxide layer on the surface of silicon powder. These studies show that the alkyl chain length and order/disorder of the SAMs does not significantly affect the uptake or dissociation/recombination of molecular HNO3. Thus, independent of the nature of the SAM, molecular HNO3 is observed up to 70–90 % relative humidity. After dissociation, molecular HNO3 is regenerated on all SAM surfaces when water is removed. Results of molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experiments and show that defects and pores on the surfaces control the uptake, dissociation and recombination of molecular HNO3. Organic films on surfaces in the boundary layer will certainly be more irregular and less ordered than SAMs studied here, therefore undissociated HNO3 may be present on surfaces in the boundary layer to a greater extent than previously thought. The combination of this observation with the results of recent studies showing enhanced photolysis of nitric acid on surfaces suggests that renoxification of deposited nitric acid may need to be taken into account in atmospheric models.
doi:10.1039/c3cp54118e
PMCID: PMC4000124  PMID: 24352159
8.  Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance 
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00034
PMCID: PMC4318422
antibiotics; resistance; mechanisms; resistance reservoirs; metagenomics; combination therapy
9.  Three Cases of Organized Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus: Clinical Features and Immunohistological Studies for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expressions 
Case Reports in Otolaryngology  2015;2015:846832.
Objectives. Organized hematoma (OH) is a rare, nonneoplastic, hemorrhagic lesion causing mucosal swelling and bone thinning, mainly in the maxillary sinus. We aimed to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of OH. Methods. Three cases of maxillary sinus OH and a literature review are presented. Results. Three men aged 16–40 years complained of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and/or headache. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a maxillary sinus OH. They were cured in a piecemeal fashion via endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were expressed in the lesion. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of OH is unclear and it presents various histological and imaging findings; however, it is not difficult to rule out malignant tumors. Minimally invasive surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery can cure it completely. Thus, it is important to determine the diagnosis using CT and MRI and to quickly provide surgical treatment.
doi:10.1155/2015/846832
PMCID: PMC4325202
10.  A Practical Approach to High-Resolution CT of Diffuse Lung Disease 
European journal of radiology  2013;83(1):6-19.
Diffuse lung disease presents a variety of high-resolution CT findings reflecting its complex pathology, and provides diagnostic challenge to radiologists. Frequent modification of detailed pathological classification makes it difficult to keep up with the latest understanding. In this review, we describe a practical approach to high-resolution CT diagnosis of diffuse lung disease, emphasizing 1) analysis of “distribution” of the abnormalities, 2) interpretation of “pattern” in relation to distribution, 3) utilization of associated imaging findings and clinical information, and 4) chronicity of the findings. This practical approach will help radiologists establish a way to interpret high-resolution CT, leading to pin-point diagnosis or narrower differential diagnoses of diffuse lung diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.12.028
PMCID: PMC3745551  PMID: 23410907
CT; high-resolution CT; diffuse lung disease; interstitial lung disease; lung
11.  Clinical Problem Solving 
This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving.
doi:10.7863/ultra.33.1.9
PMCID: PMC3970328  PMID: 24371094
cancer; general sonography; radiology; sonography
12.  Tcf3 promotes cell migration and wound repair through regulation of lipocalin 2 
Nature communications  2014;5:4088.
Cell migration is an integral part of re-epithelialization during skin wound healing, a complex process involving molecular controls that are still largely unknown. Here we identify a novel role for Tcf3, an essential transcription factor regulating embryonic and adult skin stem cell functions, as a key effector of epidermal wound repair. We show that Tcf3 is upregulated in skin wounds and that Tcf3 overexpression accelerates keratinocyte migration and skin wound healing. We also identify Stat3 as an upstream regulator of Tcf3. We show that the pro-migration effects of Tcf3 are non-cell autonomous and occur independently of its ability to interact with β-catenin. Finally, we identify lipocalin-2 as the key secreted factor downstream of Tcf3 that promotes cell migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular controls of wound-associated cell migration and identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of defective wound repair.
doi:10.1038/ncomms5088
PMCID: PMC4052366  PMID: 24909826
Tcf3; Stat3; lipocalin 2; cell migration; wound healing; keratinocytes
13.  Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for removal of bile duct stones 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(45):17148-17154.
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for bile duct stones in a multicenter prospective study.
METHODS: Lithotomy by EPLBD was conducted in 124 patients with bile duct stones ≥ 13 mm in size or with three or more bile duct stones ≥ 10 mm. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, the papilla was dilated using balloons 12-20 mm in diameter fitting the bile duct diameter.
RESULTS: The success rate of first-time lithotomy was 86.3% (107/124) and the final lithotomy success rate was 100% (124/124). Lithotripsy was needed in 10 of the 124 (13.6%) patients. Adverse events due to the treatment procedure occurred in 6 (4.8%) patients, all of which were mild. Performing large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with large stones or multiple stones in the bile duct is considered to ensure the safety of treatment and to reduce the need for lithotripsy.
CONCLUSION: It is suggested that treatment by EPLBD for large bile duct stones may be safe and useful.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.17148
PMCID: PMC4258585  PMID: 25493029
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation; Large bile duct stones; Multiple bile duct stones
14.  Prion protein- and cardiac troponin T-marked interstitial cells from the adult myocardium spontaneously develop into beating cardiomyocytes 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7301.
Atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs) constitute a novel subpopulation of beating heart cells found in the cultures of cardiac myocyte-removed crude fraction cells obtained from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. Although ~500 beating ACMs are observed under microscope in the cell cultures obtained from the hearts of either male or female mice, the origin of these cells in cardiac tissue has yet to be elucidated due to the lack of exclusive markers. In the present study, we demonstrate the efficacy of cellular prion protein (PrP) as a surface marker of ACMs. Cells expressing PrP at the plasma membrane in the culture of the crude fraction cells were found to develop into beating ACMs by themselves or fuse with each other to become larger multinuclear beating ACMs. Combining PrP with a cardiac-specific contractile protein cardiac troponin T (cTnT) allowed us to identify native ACMs in the mouse cardiac ventricles as either clustered or solitary cells. PrP- and cTnT-marked cells were also found in the adult, even aged, human cardiac ventricles. These findings suggest that interstitial cells marked by PrP and cTnT, native ACMs, exhibit life-long survival in the cardiac ventricles of both mice and humans.
doi:10.1038/srep07301
PMCID: PMC4252891  PMID: 25466571
15.  Effects of a protein-rich drink or a standard meal on the pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir in healthy Japanese male subjects: A randomized, three-way crossover study 
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology  2014;54(6):640-648.
This study investigated the effects of ingested food types on the pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir as a single-tablet regimen (STR) in Japanese HIV-negative healthy subjects. In this open-label, randomized, three-way crossover study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir were evaluated when administered with a standard breakfast, under fasting conditions, or with a nutritional protein-rich drink. All subjects (N = 11) received a single morning dose of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (150/150/200/300 mg). Administration under fasting conditions resulted in decreases in the mean AUCinf of elvitegravir and tenofovir by 50% and 28%, respectively, relative to administration with a standard breakfast, whereas the bioavailabilities of elvitegravir and tenofovir were comparable when administered with a standard breakfast or a nutritional protein-rich drink. Under fasting conditions, it appears that the bioavailabilities of elvitegravir and tenofovir were not equivalent to those when they were administered with either type of food, although they were bioequivalent to each other under fed conditions. Cobicistat and emtricitabine were bioequivalent under all conditions. These findings suggest that elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate should be administered with food, and that the bioavailability of elvitegravir and tenofovir is not affected by the type of meal ingested.
doi:10.1002/jcph.283
PMCID: PMC4237505  PMID: 24615728
elvitegravir; stribild; Japanese; food effect; pharmacokinetics
16.  Response assessment in metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab and bevacizumab: CT tumor size and density as markers for response and outcome 
Background
Investigate the tumor diameter and density changes in advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab plus bevacizumab, compare response rates based on different response criteria, and study association between these measures and survival.
Methods
Twenty-one advanced melanoma patients with 59 measurable lesions treated in a phase 1 trial of ipilimumab plus bevacizumab were retrospectively studied. Tumor diameter and density were measured on baseline and first follow-up CT. Responses were assigned using RECIST, MASS and Choi criteria. Diameter and density measures and responses by these criteria were studied for the association with survival.
Results
Twenty-three (39%) lesions and 7 (33%) patients met the Choi density criteria for response (≥15% density decrease) at the first follow-up. The response rates were 14% (3/21, 95% CI: 3-36%) by RECIST and MASS, and 52% (11/21, 95% CI: 30-74%) by Choi criteria, when both size and density criteria were used. Larger baseline tumor diameter was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (log-rank p = 0.001 and 0.003; respectively). Diameter or density changes, or responses by RECIST, MASS or Choi criteria at the first follow-up, were not associated with PFS or OS.
Conclusion
Tumor density decrease meeting Choi criteria was noted in one-third of advanced melanoma patients at the first follow-up scan during ipilimumab plus bevacizumab therapy. While larger baseline tumor diameter was strongly associated with shorter survival, changes of diameter or density, or responses by three criteria did not predict survival. The role of density changes in evaluating response during ipilimumab and bevacizumab therapy for advanced melanoma remains to be further established.
doi:10.1186/s40425-014-0040-2
PMCID: PMC4236430  PMID: 25411640
Melanoma; Immunotherapy; Anti-angiogenic therapy; Tumor response; Density; RECIST
17.  RHO Mutations (p.W126L and p.A346P) in Two Japanese Families with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:210947.
Purpose. To investigate genetic and clinical features of patients with rhodopsin (RHO) mutations in two Japanese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Methods. Whole-exome sequence analysis was performed in ten adRP families. Identified RHO mutations for the cosegregation analysis were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to evaluate the RP phenotypes. The impact of the RHO mutation on the rhodopsin conformation was examined by molecular modeling analysis. Results. In two adRP families, we identified two RHO mutations (c.377G>T (p.W126L) and c.1036G>C (p.A346P)), one of which was novel. Complete cosegregation was confirmed for each mutation exhibiting the RP phenotype in both families. Molecular modeling predicted that the novel mutation (p.W126L) might impair rhodopsin function by affecting its conformational transition in the light-adapted form. Clinical phenotypes showed that patients with p.W126L exhibited sector RP, whereas patients with p.A346P exhibited classic RP. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that the novel mutation (p.W126L) may be associated with the phenotype of sector RP. Identification of RHO mutations is a very useful tool for predicting disease severity and providing precise genetic counseling.
doi:10.1155/2014/210947
PMCID: PMC4248368  PMID: 25485142
18.  Metachronous early gastric cancer over a period of 13 years after eradication of Helicobacter pylori 
Stomach cancer can occur during chronic inflammation from Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, and its occurrence can be suppressed by eradication of HP. However, the effects of suppressing stomach cancer by HP eradication are limited, and the cancer is known to recur even after eradication of this infection. Here, we report the case of a 56-year-old male patient with gastric cancer who, although undergoing HP eradication after treatment of early gastric cancer with endoscopy, experienced five metachronous cancer recurrences over a period of 13 years. Whether observation of patients who undergo eradication of HP due to peptic ulcers or chronic gastritis and patients who undergo eradication after endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer should be performed at the same interval is an issue that must be addressed in the future. The appropriate observation period for each patient must be established while considering the burdens to the patient and from the medical economic perspective.
doi:10.1007/s12328-014-0536-9
PMCID: PMC4261136  PMID: 25491907
Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; Early gastric cancer; Metachronous cancer; Endoscopic treatment
19.  Volumetric tumor growth in advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations during EGFR-TKI therapy: Developing criteria to continue therapy beyond RECIST progression 
Cancer  2013;119(21):10.1002/cncr.28290.
Purpose
Define volumetric tumor growth rate in advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations initially treated with EGFR-TKI therapy beyond progression.
Methods
The study included 58 advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations treated with first-line gefitinib or erlotinib, who had baseline CT showing measurable lung lesion and at least two follow-up CTs while on TKI and experienced volumetric tumor growth. Tumor volume (mm3) of the dominant lung lesion was measured on baseline and follow-up CT scans during therapy. A total of 405 volume measurements were analyzed in a linear mixed effects model, fitting time as a random effect, to define the growth rate of the logarithm of tumor volume (logeV).
Results
A linear mixed effects model was fitted to predict growth of logeV, adjusting for time in months from baseline. LogeV was estimated as a function of time in months, in patients whose tumors have started growing after nadir: logeV=0.12*time+7.68 In this formula, the regression coefficient for time, 0.12/month, represents the growth rate of logeV (SE: 0.015; p<0.001). When adjusted for baseline volume, logeV0, the growth rate was also 0.12/month (SE: 0.015; p<0.001; logeV =0.12*months+0.72 logeV0+0.61).
Conclusion
Tumor volume models defined volumetric tumor growth after the nadir in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients receiving TKI, providing a reference value for the tumor growth rate in patients progressing after the nadir on TKI. The results can be further studied in additional cohorts to develop practical criteria which help to identify patients who are slowly progressing and can safely remain on EGFR-TKIs.
doi:10.1002/cncr.28290
PMCID: PMC3817609  PMID: 23922022
lung cancer; computed tomography; tumor volume; tumor growth rate; EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors
20.  N-WASP is required for Amphiphysin-2/BIN1-dependent nuclear positioning and triad organization in skeletal muscle and is involved in the pathophysiology of centronuclear myopathy 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2014;6(11):1455-1475.
Mutations in amphiphysin-2/BIN1, dynamin 2, and myotubularin are associated with centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a muscle disorder characterized by myofibers with atypical central nuclear positioning and abnormal triads. Mis-splicing of amphiphysin-2/BIN1 is also associated with myotonic dystrophy that shares histopathological hallmarks with CNM. How amphiphysin-2 orchestrates nuclear positioning and triad organization and how CNM-associated mutations lead to muscle dysfunction remains elusive. We find that N-WASP interacts with amphiphysin-2 in myofibers and that this interaction and N-WASP distribution are disrupted by amphiphysin-2 CNM mutations. We establish that N-WASP functions downstream of amphiphysin-2 to drive peripheral nuclear positioning and triad organization during myofiber formation. Peripheral nuclear positioning requires microtubule/Map7/Kif5b-dependent distribution of nuclei along the myofiber and is driven by actin and nesprins. In adult myofibers, N-WASP and amphiphysin-2 are only involved in the maintenance of triad organization but not in the maintenance of peripheral nuclear positioning. Importantly, we confirmed that N-WASP distribution is disrupted in CNM and myotonic dystrophy patients. Our results support a role for N-WASP in amphiphysin-2-dependent nuclear positioning and triad organization and in CNM and myotonic dystrophy pathophysiology.
doi:10.15252/emmm.201404436
PMCID: PMC4237471  PMID: 25262827
centronuclear myopathy; cytoskeleton; nuclear movement; triad formation
21.  Nationwide patient registry for GNE myopathy in Japan 
Background
GNE myopathy is a slowly progressive autosomal recessive myopathy caused by mutations in the GNE (glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase) gene. This study aimed to (1) develop a nationwide patient registry for GNE myopathy in order to facilitate the planning of clinical trials and recruitment of candidates, and (2) gain further insight into the disease for the purpose of improving therapy and care.
Methods
Medical records of genetically-confirmed patients with GNE myopathy at the National Center Hospital of the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) were retrospectively reviewed in order to obtain data reflecting the severity and progression of the disease. We also referred to items in the datasheet of the nationwide registry of dystrophinopathy patients in the Registry of Muscular Dystrophies (Remudy). Items selected for the registration sheet included age, sex, age at onset, past history and complications, family history, body weight and height, pathological findings of muscle biopsy, grip power, walking ability, respiratory function, cardiac function, willingness to join upcoming clinical trials, and participation in patient associations. A copy of the original genetic analysis report was required of each patient.
Results
We successfully established the Remudy-GNE myopathy. Currently, 121 patients are registered nationwide, and 93 physicians from 73 hospitals collaborated to establish the registry. The mean age at onset was 27.7 ± 9.6 years, and 19.8% (24/121) of patients could walk without assistance. Mean presumed durations from onset to use of assistive devices (cane and/or braces) and a wheelchair, and loss of ambulation were 12.4, 15.2, and 21.1 years, respectively. Three patients had a past history and/or complication of idiopathic thrombocytopenia. To share the progress of this study with the community, newsletters were published on a regular basis, and included information regarding new phase I clinical trials for GNE myopathy. The newsletters also served as a medium to bring attention to the importance of respiratory evaluation and care for respiratory insufficiency.
Conclusion
The Japanese Remudy-GNE myopathy is useful for clarifying the natural history of the disease and recruiting patients with genetically-confirmed GNE myopathy for clinical trials.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0150-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0150-4
PMCID: PMC4203883  PMID: 25303967
GNE myopathy; Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV); Natural history; Remudy; Patient registry
22.  Update on the Management of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors With Emphasis on the Role of Imaging 
OBJECTIVE
The purposes of this article are to review the current management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) based on the 2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and to describe the role of imaging in a multidisciplinary approach.
CONCLUSION
The management of GEP-NETs has become complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The World Health Organization classification of GEP-NETs has been revised; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved molecular targeted agents (sunitinib, everolimus) for the treatment of pancreatic NETs; and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network clinical practice guidelines have been updated.
doi:10.2214/AJR.12.10240
PMCID: PMC3970265  PMID: 24059370
gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; guidelines; molecular targeted therapy
23.  Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium 
ABSTRACT
The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts.
doi:10.1292/jvms.13-0543
PMCID: PMC4221176  PMID: 24976585
bovine; chemically defined medium; embryo; embryo culture; glucose
24.  AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC Multidrug Efflux Systems Are Involved in Enterobactin Export in Escherichia coli 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108642.
Escherichia coli produces the iron-chelating compound enterobactin to enable growth under iron-limiting conditions. After biosynthesis, enterobactin is released from the cell. However, the enterobactin export system is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that the outer membrane channel TolC is involved in enterobactin export. There are several multidrug efflux transporters belonging to resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family that require interaction with TolC to function. Therefore, several RND transporters may be responsible for enterobactin export. In this study, we investigated whether RND transporters are involved in enterobactin export using deletion mutants of multidrug transporters in E. coli. Single deletions of acrB, acrD, mdtABC, acrEF, or mdtEF did not affect the ability of E. coli to excrete enterobactin, whereas deletion of tolC did affect enterobactin export. We found that multiple deletion of acrB, acrD, and mdtABC resulted in a significant decrease in enterobactin export and that plasmids carrying the acrAB, acrD, or mdtABC genes restored the decrease in enterobactin export exhibited by the ΔacrB acrD mdtABC mutant. These results indicate that AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC are required for the secretion of enterobactin.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108642
PMCID: PMC4178200  PMID: 25259870
25.  Real Time Ligand-Induced Motion Mappings of AChBP and nAChR Using X-ray Single Molecule Tracking 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6384.
We observed the dynamic three-dimensional (3D) single molecule behaviour of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using a single molecule tracking technique, diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) with atomic scale and 100 μs time resolution. We found that the combined tilting and twisting motions of the proteins were enhanced upon acetylcholine (ACh) binding. We present the internal motion maps of AChBP and nAChR in the presence of either ACh or α-bungarotoxin (αBtx), with views from two rotational axes. Our findings indicate that specific motion patterns represented as biaxial angular motion maps are associated with channel function in real time and on an atomic scale.
doi:10.1038/srep06384
PMCID: PMC4165275  PMID: 25223459

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