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author:("kotomura, K")
1.  Nanoplasma Formation by High Intensity Hard X-rays 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:10977.
Using electron spectroscopy, we have investigated nanoplasma formation from noble gas clusters exposed to high-intensity hard-x-ray pulses at ~5 keV. Our experiment was carried out at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA) facility in Japan. Dedicated theoretical simulations were performed with the molecular dynamics tool XMDYN. We found that in this unprecedented wavelength regime nanoplasma formation is a highly indirect process. In the argon clusters investigated, nanoplasma is mainly formed through secondary electron cascading initiated by slow Auger electrons. Energy is distributed within the sample entirely through Auger processes and secondary electron cascading following photoabsorption, as in the hard x-ray regime there is no direct energy transfer from the field to the plasma. This plasma formation mechanism is specific to the hard-x-ray regime and may, thus, also be important for XFEL-based molecular imaging studies. In xenon clusters, photo- and Auger electrons contribute more significantly to the nanoplasma formation. Good agreement between experiment and simulations validates our modelling approach. This has wide-ranging implications for our ability to quantitatively predict the behavior of complex molecular systems irradiated by high-intensity hard x-rays.
doi:10.1038/srep10977
PMCID: PMC4468420  PMID: 26077863
2.  Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice. 
In previous papers (Y. Ikeda and T. Nishino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1073-1077, 1988; Y. Ikeda, T. Nishino, and T. Tanino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:865-869, 1987), we reported that many of the 7-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins, such as cefmenoxime, showed paradoxically reduced activity against Proteus vulgaris at higher concentrations, whereas these paradoxical effects were not observed for other types of cephalosporins, such as cefbuperazone and cefoperazone. In this study, we compare the therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime with that of cefbuperazone and explore the in vivo paradoxical effect of cefmenoxime by using an experimental infection model in mice. In an intraperitoneal infection with P. vulgaris 11, the survival rate with cefmenoxime was increased to 43% at 3.13 mg/kg but was lower at higher doses. On the other hand, cefbuperazone did not show such a paradoxical therapeutic effect. In mice infected with P. vulgaris 11, cefmenoxime levels in both serum and peritoneal washings were rapidly reduced and beta-lactamase activities in the peritoneal cavity were increased at higher cefmenoxime doses. These findings suggested that high levels of cefmenoxime at the infection site induced increased production of beta-lactamase, which then rapidly inactivated the antibiotic. We conclude that the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris occurs by the same mechanisms as the in vitro effect and that the high beta-lactamase inducibility and low beta-lactamase stability may account for the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris.
PMCID: PMC171526  PMID: 2183712

Results 1-3 (3)