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author:("guerbet, S.")
1.  Interpretation of the human skin biotribological behaviour after tape stripping 
The present study deals with the modification of the human skin biotribological behaviour after tape stripping. The tape-stripping procedure consists in the sequential application and removal of adhesive tapes on the skin surface in order to remove stratum corneum (SC) layers, which electrically charges the skin surface. The skin electric charges generated by tape stripping highly change the skin friction behaviour by increasing the adhesion component of the skin friction coefficient. It has been proposed to rewrite the friction adhesion component as the sum of two terms: the first classical adhesion term depending on the intrinsic shear strength, τ0, and the second term depending on the electric shear strength, τelec. The experimental results allowed to estimate a numerical value of the electric shear strength τelec. Moreover, a plan capacitor model with a dielectric material inside was used to modelize the experimental system. This physical model permitted to evaluate the friction electric force and the electric shear strength values to calculate the skin friction coefficient after the tape stripping. The comparison between the experimental and the theoretical value of the skin friction coefficient after the tape stripping has shown the importance of the electric charges on skin biotribological behaviour. The static electric charges produced by tape stripping on the skin surface are probably able to highly modify the interaction of formulations with the skin surface and their spreading properties. This phenomenon, generally overlooked, should be taken into consideration as it could be involved in alteration of drug absorption.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2010.0672
PMCID: PMC3104339  PMID: 21227961
biotribology; electric charge; friction model; stratum corneum; tribo-electricity; tape stripping
2.  Effect of a Combination of Clevudine and Emtricitabine with Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Gamma Interferon in the Woodchuck Model of Hepatitis B Virus Infection 
Our aim was to evaluate the antiviral effect of a combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, emtricitabine (FTC) and clevudine (L-FMAU), with the addition of an adenovirus-driven delivery of recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the woodchuck model of hepatitis B virus infection. Six woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks received L-FMAU (10 mg/kg) plus FTC (30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 8 weeks; six other animals received in addition an intravenous injection of a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing woodchuck IFN-γ (Ad-IFN) at weeks 4 and 8. In the control group, two animals received Ad-IFN alone, two received adenovirus vector expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene, and one remained untreated. In less than 2 weeks, all woodchucks that received L-FMAU plus FTC showed a rapid and marked inhibition of viral replication, with a 4-log10 drop in serum WHV DNA. In two animals, viremia remained suppressed for several months after the end of treatment. Similarly, a dramatic decrease in intrahepatic replicative intermediates of viral DNA was observed in the L-FMAU/FTC-treated groups. The additional administration of Ad-IFN led to increased inflammation in the liver but did not enhance the antiviral effect of the L-FMAU/FTC combination. In conclusion, therapies combining L-FMAU and FTC in WHV-infected woodchucks resulted in a potent and sustained antihepadnaviral effect both in the liver and in the blood circulation. However, no extra benefit of adding IFN-γ gene transduction to the L-FMAU/FTC combination could be detected.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.7.2683-2692.2004
PMCID: PMC434178  PMID: 15215126
3.  Antiviral Activity of β-l-2′,3′-Dideoxy-2′,3′-Didehydro-5-Fluorocytidine in Woodchucks Chronically Infected with Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus 
The l-nucleoside analog β-l-2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydro-5-fluorocytidine (β-l-Fd4C) was first shown to exhibit potent activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in tissue culture and then to significantly inhibit viral spread during acute infection in the duck HBV model (F. Le Guerhier et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:111–122, 2000). We have therefore examined its antiviral activity in a mammalian model of chronic HBV infection, the woodchuck chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Side-by-side comparison of β-l-Fd4C and lamivudine administered intraperitoneally during short-term and long-term protocols demonstrated a more profound inhibition of viremia in β-l-Fd4C-treated groups. Moreover, β-l-Fd4C induced a marked inhibition of intrahepatic viral DNA synthesis compared with that induced by lamivudine. Nevertheless, covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA persistence explained the lack of clearance of infected hepatocytes expressing viral antigens and the relapse of WHV replication after drug withdrawal. Liver histology showed a decrease in the inflammatory activity of chronic hepatitis in woodchucks receiving β-l-Fd4C. An electron microscopy study showed the absence of ultrastructural changes of hepatic mitochondria, biliary canaliculi, and bile ducts. However, a loss of weight was observed in all animals, whatever the treatment, as was a transient skin pigmentation in all woodchucks during β-l-Fd4C treatment. There was no evidence that lamivudine or β-l-Fd4C could prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma with the protocols used. These results indicate that β-l-Fd4C exhibits a more potent antiviral effect than lamivudine in the WHV model but was not able to eradicate CCC DNA and infected cells from the liver at the dosage and with the protocol used.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.4.1065-1077.2001
PMCID: PMC90426  PMID: 11257017
4.  Characterization of the Antiviral Effect of 2′,3′-Dideoxy-2′, 3′-Didehydro-β-l-5-Fluorocytidine in the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection Model 
A novel l-nucleoside analog of deoxycytidine, 2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydro-β-l-5-fluorocytidine (β-l-Fd4C), was recently shown to strongly inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the 2.2.15 cell line. Therefore, its antiviral activity was evaluated in the duck HBV (DHBV) infection model. Using a cell-free system for the expression of the DHBV polymerase, β-l-Fd4C-TP exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of dCTP incorporation into viral minus-strand DNA with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 μM which was lower than that of other tested deoxycytidine analogs, i.e., lamivudine-TP, ddC-TP, and β-l-FddC-TP. Further analysis showed that β-l-Fd4C-TP is likely to be a competitive inhibitor of dCTP incorporation and to cause premature DNA chain termination. In primary duck hepatocyte cultures infected in vitro, β-l-Fd4C administration exhibited a long-lasting inhibitory effect on viral DNA synthesis but could not clear viral covalently closed circular DNA (CCC DNA). Results of short-term antiviral treatment in experimentally infected ducklings showed that β-l-Fd4C exhibited the most potent antiviral effect, followed by β-l-FddC, lamivudine, and ddC. Longer administration of β-l-Fd4C induced a sustained suppression of viremia (>95% of controls) and of viral DNA synthesis within the liver. However, the persistence of trace amounts of viral CCC DNA detected only by PCR was associated with a recurrence of viral replication after drug withdrawal. In parallel, β-l-Fd4C treatment suppressed viral antigen expression within the liver and decreased intrahepatic inflammation and was not associated with any sign of toxicity. Our data, therefore, demonstrate that in the duck model of HBV infection, β-l-Fd4C is a potent inhibitor of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity in vitro and suppresses viral replication in the liver in vivo.
PMCID: PMC89636  PMID: 10602731
5.  Protective effect of rSm28GST-specific T cells in schistosomiasis: role of gamma interferon. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(9):3723-3730.
Immunization with a single dose of 50 micrograms of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa glutathione-S-transferase (rSm28GST) was able to induce a reduction in the worm burden, the number of eggs, and the degree of hepatic fibrosis as quantified by the measurement of collagen content in the liver of S. mansoni-infected mice. No relationship was found between anti-Sm28GST immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A titers and the levels of protection obtained. Adoptive transfers of Sm28GST-specific total, CD4+, or CD8+ T cells reproduced the protective effect obtained with the recombinant molecule. Moreover, experiments studying in vivo T-cell depletion demonstrated that anti-CD4- or anti-CD8-treated mice showed a significant decrease in the protective effect conferred, suggesting a role of the two T-cell subpopulations in the expression of Sm28GST-mediated protection against hepatic damage. Sm28GST-specific cells produced little interleukin-4 and high levels of gamma interferon. Treatment of immunized mice with anti-gamma interferon antibody totally suppressed the Sm28GST-induced protective effect and led to the rapid death of infected animals, suggesting a role for this cytokine in the expression of the protective immunity obtained after immunization with rSm28GST.
PMCID: PMC303023  PMID: 8063386
6.  Induction of a putative laminin-binding protein of Streptococcus gordonii in human infective endocarditis. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(2):360-365.
There is evidence to suggest that the virulence of Streptococcus strains in infective endocarditis might be due to the expression of binding sites for the extracellular matrix proteins of damaged valves. In this communication, we draw attention to one laminin-binding protein from a strain of Streptococcus gordonii isolated from a patient with human endocarditis. This 145-kDa protein was found on the cell wall of the bacterium. The level of expression of this binding protein might be regulated by the presence of extracellular matrix proteins: the protein was lacking after in vitro selection of laminin, collagen I, and fibronectin nonbinding variants, and it was recovered after growth of the variants when laminin or collagen I was added to the growth medium. It was also missing after 10 subcultures in minimal medium, indicating some positive control. Furthermore, the 145-kDa protein was recognized as a major antigen by sera from patients treated for streptococcal infective endocarditis, while sera from patients with valvulopathies gave only slight recognition, suggesting an increase of the expression of this protein during infective endocarditis. It was also shown that the 145-kDa protein carried a collagen I-like determinant detected with anti-human collagen I antibodies.
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PMCID: PMC257636  PMID: 1530927

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