PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-3761, a new quinolone derivative. 
T-3761, a new quinolone derivative, showed broad and potent antibacterial activity. Its MICs for 90% of the strains tested were 0.20 to 100 micrograms/ml against gram-positive bacteria, including members of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus; 0.025 to 3.13 micrograms/ml against gram-negative bacteria, including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Haemophilus; 0.05 to 50 micrograms/ml against glucose nonfermenters, including members of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, and Moraxella; 0.025 micrograms/ml against Legionella spp.; and 6.25 to 25 micrograms/ml against anaerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium difficile, and Peptostreptococcus spp. The in vitro activity of T-3761 against these clinical isolates was comparable to or 2- to 32-fold greater than those of ofloxacin and norfloxacin and 2- to 16-fold less and 1- to 8-fold greater than those of ciprofloxacin and tosulfoxacin, respectively. When administered orally, T-3761 showed good efficacy in mice against systemic, pulmonary, and urinary tract infections with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including quinolone-resistant Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vivo activity of T-3761 was comparable to or greater than those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tosufloxacin against most infection models in mice. The activities of T-3761 were lower than those of tosufloxacin against gram-positive bacterial systemic and pulmonary infections in mice but not against infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The activities of T-3761 against systemic quinolone-resistant Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in mice were 2- to 14-fold greater than those of the reference agents.
PMCID: PMC187681  PMID: 8460909
2.  Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice. 
In previous papers (Y. Ikeda and T. Nishino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1073-1077, 1988; Y. Ikeda, T. Nishino, and T. Tanino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:865-869, 1987), we reported that many of the 7-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins, such as cefmenoxime, showed paradoxically reduced activity against Proteus vulgaris at higher concentrations, whereas these paradoxical effects were not observed for other types of cephalosporins, such as cefbuperazone and cefoperazone. In this study, we compare the therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime with that of cefbuperazone and explore the in vivo paradoxical effect of cefmenoxime by using an experimental infection model in mice. In an intraperitoneal infection with P. vulgaris 11, the survival rate with cefmenoxime was increased to 43% at 3.13 mg/kg but was lower at higher doses. On the other hand, cefbuperazone did not show such a paradoxical therapeutic effect. In mice infected with P. vulgaris 11, cefmenoxime levels in both serum and peritoneal washings were rapidly reduced and beta-lactamase activities in the peritoneal cavity were increased at higher cefmenoxime doses. These findings suggested that high levels of cefmenoxime at the infection site induced increased production of beta-lactamase, which then rapidly inactivated the antibiotic. We conclude that the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris occurs by the same mechanisms as the in vitro effect and that the high beta-lactamase inducibility and low beta-lactamase stability may account for the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris.
PMCID: PMC171526  PMID: 2183712
3.  Interactions of beta-lactam antibiotics and antineoplastic agents. 
The in vitro interactions of four beta-lactam antibiotics and five antineoplastic agents were examined with 100 clinically isolated strains of four species of gram-negative bacilli. Generally, by the checkerboard dilution method, beta-lactam antibiotics, when tested in combination with mitomycin C, bleomycin, or 5-fluorouracil, showed synergistic action, whereas when tested in combination with carboquone, they showed antagonistic action. Almost no combinations of adriamycin showed the interactions. Among beta-lactam antibiotics, piperacillin was more frequently synergistic than cefoperazone, cefazolin, or carbenicillin when tested in combination with each antineoplastic agent against various species.
PMCID: PMC184655  PMID: 6405686
4.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of T-1982, a new semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic. 
The activities of T-1982 (sodium 7 beta-[(2R, 3S)-2-(4-ethyl-2, 3-dioxo-1-piperazine-carboxamido)-3-hydroxybutanamido]-7 alpha-methoxy-3-[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiomethyl]-3-cephem-4-carboxylate) against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were compare with those of cefmetazole, cefoxitin, cefazolin, and cefoperazone. T-1982 was active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including genera resistant to the other cephalosporins. T-1982 exhibited greater activity than did cefmetazole, cefoxitin, cefazolin, or cefoperazone against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens and was also highly active against Bacteroides fragilis. T-1982 was as stable to various beta-lactamases as were cefmetazole and cefoxitin. The therapeutic activities of T-1982 in mice experimentally infected with various gram-negative bacteria were superior to those of cefmetazole, cefoxitin, cefazolin, and cefoperazone.
PMCID: PMC185653  PMID: 6983861
5.  In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of T-1220, a New Semisynthetic Penicillin 
T-1220, sodium 6-[d-(-)-α-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazinylcarbonyl-amino)- α-phenylacetamido] penicillanate, is a new semisynthetic penicillin derivative that possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. T-1220 is more effective than carbenicillin (CB-PC) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus species, and Serratia marcescens. Addition of human serum to culture media did not significantly alter the antibacterial activity of T-1220. Greater bactericidal activity toward various strains of gram-negative bacteria was demonstrated with T-1220 than with CB-PC. T-1220, like penicillin G, was hydrolyzed by penicillinase, but was sable to a type IV penicillinase produced by P. aeruginosa strains. In vivo antibacterial activities of T-1220, ampicillin (AB-PC), and CB-PC were compared, using systemic infections of mice with P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. The 50% effective doses (milligrams per kilogram) of T-1220 were consistently lower than those of AB-PC and CB-PC.
PMCID: PMC429945  PMID: 921239

Results 1-5 (5)