Background: Chst10 transfers sulfate to glucuronic acid to form the HNK-1 antigen carried by glycoproteins and glycolipids in neurons and NK cells.
Results: Chst10 transfers sulfate to glucuronidated steroid hormones, and Chst10-deficient mice exhibited subfertility.
Conclusion: Subfertility in Chst10 null females is caused by a loss of steroid hormone dysregulation.
Significance: This study identified a new regulatory mechanism mediated by sulfation of glucuronidated steroid.
Chst10 adds sulfate to glucuronic acid to form a carbohydrate antigen, HNK-1, in glycoproteins and glycolipids. To determine the role of Chst10 in vivo, we generated systemic Chst10-deficient mutant mice. Although Chst10−/− mice were born and grew to adulthood with no gross defects, they were subfertile. Uteri from Chst10−/− females at the pro-estrus stage were larger than those from wild-type females and exhibited a thick uterine endometrium. Serum estrogen levels in Chst10−/− females were higher than those from wild-type females, suggesting impaired down-regulation of estrogen. Because steroid hormones are often conjugated to glucuronic acid, we hypothesized that Chst10 sulfates glucuronidated steroid hormone to regulate steroid hormone in vivo. Enzymatic activity assays and structural analysis of Chst10 products by HPLC and mass spectrometry revealed that Chst10 indeed sulfates glucuronidated estrogen, testosterone, and other steroid hormones. We also identified an HPLC peak corresponding to sulfated and glucuronidated estradiol in serum from wild-type but not from Chst10 null female mice. Estrogen-response element reporter assays revealed that Chst10-modified estrogen likely did not bind to its receptor. These results suggest that subfertility exhibited by female mice following Chst10 loss results from dysregulation of estrogen. Given that Chst10 transfers sulfates to several steroid hormones, Chst10 likely functions in widespread regulation of steroid hormones in vivo.
Estrogen; Homologous Recombination; Hormones; Sulfotransferase; Testosterone
Core2 β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) forms an N-acetylglucosamine branch in the O-glycans (core2 O-glycans) of cell surface glycoproteins. We previously revealed that the expression of C2GnT is positively correlated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying their poor prognosis remain unclear. In the current study, we report that the core2 O-glycans carried by the surface MUC1 glycoproteins of prostate cancer cells play an important role in the evasion of NK cell immunity. In C2GnT-expressing prostate cancer cells, the MUC1 core2 O-glycans are modified with poly-N-acetyllactosamine. MUC1 glycoproteins carrying poly-N-acetyllactosamine attenuated the interaction of the cancer cells with NK cells, resulting in decreased secretion of granzyme B by the NK cells. Poly-N-acetyllactosamine also interfered with the ability of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to access the cancer cell surface. These effects of poly-N-acetyllactosamine on NK cells render C2GnT-expressing prostate cancer cells resistant to NK cell cytotoxicity. By contrast, C2GnT-deficient prostate cancer cells carrying a lower amount of poly-N-acetyllactosamine than the C2GnT-expressing prostate cancer cells were significantly more susceptible to NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results strongly suggest that C2GnT-expressing prostate cancer cells evade NK cell immunity and survive longer in the host blood circulation, thereby resulting in the promotion of prostate cancer metastasis.
prostate cancer; metastasis; core2 O-glycans; NK cell immunity; MUC1
Core 2 β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) forms an N-acetylglucosamine branch in O-glycans (core 2 O-glycans) of cell surface glycoproteins. C2GnT-expressing bladder tumors acquire highly metastatic phenotypes by surviving longer in host blood circulation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this increased survival remain unclear. In this study, we report that the expression of C2GnT in bladder tumors positively correlates with tumor progression and that bladder tumor cell-surface mucin 1 (MUC1) carrying core 2 O-glycans plays an important role in the evasion from natural killer (NK) cell attack. In C2GnT-expressing bladder tumor cells, heavily core 2 O-glycosylated MUC1 carries poly-N-acetyllactosamine in its O-glycans and galectin-3 binds to MUC1 through this poly-N-acetyllactosamine. The binding of galectin-3 to poly-N-acetyllactosamine in MUC1 core 2 O-glycans attenuates the interaction of the tumor cells with NK cells and interferes with the access of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to the tumor cell surface. These effects of MUC1 carrying core 2 O-glycans on NK cell attack facilitate C2GnT-expressing tumor cells to evade NK cell immunity and survive longer in host blood circulation. We reveal that MUC1 carrying core 2 O-glycans thus functions as a molecular shield against NK cell attack, thereby promoting bladder tumor metastasis.
bladder tumor; metastasis; core 2 O-glycans; natural killer cell immunity; mucin 1
This is the first report on the role of Fer kinase in down-regulating the expression of laminin-binding glycans that suppress cell migration. The data show a novel biochemical interaction between glycan-based adhesion and cell migration, mediated by a tyrosine kinase.
Glycans of α-dystroglycan (α-DG), which is expressed at the epithelial cell–basement membrane (BM) interface, play an essential role in epithelium development and tissue organization. Laminin-binding glycans on α-DG expressed on cancer cells suppress tumor progression by attenuating tumor cell migration from the BM. However, mechanisms controlling laminin-binding glycan expression are not known. Here, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screening and identified Fer kinase, a non–receptor-type tyrosine kinase, as a key regulator of laminin-binding glycan expression. Fer overexpression decreased laminin-binding glycan expression, whereas siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Fer kinase increased glycan expression on breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Loss of Fer kinase function via siRNA or mutagenesis increased transcription levels of glycosyltransferases, including protein O-mannosyltransferase 1, β3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1, and like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that are required to synthesize laminin-binding glycans. Consistently, inhibition of Fer expression decreased cell migration in the presence of laminin fragment. Fer kinase regulated STAT3 phosphorylation and consequent activation, whereas knockdown of STAT3 increased laminin-binding glycan expression on cancer cells. These results indicate that the Fer pathway negatively controls expression of genes required to synthesize laminin-binding glycans, thus impairing BM attachment and increasing tumor cell migration.
High endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels have been observed in gastric B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma), as well as in its preceding lesion, chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Previously we reported that glycans on HEV-like vessels in the latter lesion served as L-selectin ligands. However, the biochemical and functional nature of glycans on HEV-like vessels in gastric MALT lymphoma remained to be determined. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis for sialyl Lewis X (sLeX)-related glycoepitopes using three monoclonal antibodies MECA-79, HECA-452, and NCC-ST-439, and found that MECA-79−/HECA-452+/NCC-ST-439+ HEV-like vessels preferentially appears in gastric MALT lymphoma compared to chronic H. pylori gastritis, suggesting that appearance of MECA-79−/HECA-452+/NCC-ST-439+ HEV-like vessels marks gastric MALT lymphoma. We then constructed a set of CHO cell lines expressing possible MECA-79−/HECA-452+/NCC-ST-439+ glycans, as well as other sLeX-type glycans, on CD34, and evaluated L-selectin binding to those cells using L-selectin•IgM chimera binding and lymphocyte adhesion assays. L-selectin•IgM chimeras bound to CHO cells expressing 6-sulfo sLeX attached to core 2-branched O-glycans with or without 6-sulfo sLeX attached to extended core 1 O-glycans but only marginally to other CHO cell lines. On the other hand, CHO cells expressing 6-sulfo sLeX attached to extended core 1 and/or core 2-branched O-glycans, and also non-sulfated sLeX attached to core 2-branched O-glycans showed substantial lymphocyte binding, while binding was negligible on cell lines expressing 6-sulfo and non-sulfated sLeX attached to N-glycans and non-sulfated sLeX attached to extended core 1 O-glycans. These results indicate that MECA-79−/HECA-452+/NCC-ST-439+ glycans, namely 6-sulfo and non-sulfated sLeXs attached to core 2-branched O-glycans, expressed on HEV-like vessels in gastric MALT lymphoma, function as L-selectin ligands and likely contribute to H. pylori-specific T-cell recruitment in the progression of gastric MALT lymphoma.
stomach; mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; lymphoma; high endothelial venule-like vessel; 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X; non-sulfated sialyl Lewis X; core 2-branched O-glycan
Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides (O-glycans) having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc). Previously, we identified human α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT), which is responsible for the O-glycan biosynthesis and characterized αGlcNAc function in suppressing Helicobacter pylori in vitro. In the present study, we engineered A4gnt–/– mice to better understand its role in vivo. A4gnt–/– mice showed complete lack of αGlcNAc expression in gastric gland mucin. Surprisingly, all the mutant mice developed gastric adenocarcinoma through a hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the absence of H. pylori infection. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed upregulation of genes encoding inflammatory chemokine ligands, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors, such as Ccl2, Il-11, and Hgf in the gastric mucosa of A4gnt–/– mice. Further supporting an important role for this O-glycan in cancer progression, we also observed significantly reduced αGlcNAc in human gastric adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Our results demonstrate that the absence of αGlcNAc triggers gastric tumorigenesis through inflammation-associated pathways in vivo. Thus, αGlcNAc-terminated gastric mucin plays dual roles in preventing gastric cancer by inhibiting H. pylori infection and also suppressing tumor-promoting inflammation.
α-Dystroglycan (DG) carries glycan chains that bind to laminin and thus function in homeostasis of not only skeletal muscle but also of various epithelial cells. Loss of glycosylation has been suggested to play important roles in tumor development, particularly in detachment and migration of carcinoma cells. We previously reported that glycosylation of α-DG, but not levels of α-DG core protein itself, is reduced in prostate carcinoma. In this study, we investigate the association between reduction of laminin-binding glycans on α-DG and the degree of tumor cell differentiation and/or infiltrative properties, as assessed by the Gleason grading system.
Immunohistochemical analysis of 146 biopsy specimens of prostate adenocarcinoma with various Gleason scores was carried out employing IIH6 and 6C1 antibodies, which recognize laminin-binding glycans on α-DG and α-DG core proteins, respectively. Double immunofluorescence staining was performed to evaluate colocalization of α-DG and laminin, and to determine which types of epithelial cells express laminin-binding glycans on α-DG.
Reduction of α-DG glycosylation, rather than loss of α-DG core protein, was correlated with higher Gleason patterns. Reduction was most conspicuous at the interface between carcinoma cells and the basement membrane. In addition, in non-neoplastic prostate glands, laminin-binding glycans were expressed predominantly on the basolateral surface of basal cells.
Reduced expression of laminin-binding glycans on α-DG may contribute to formation of highly infiltrative behavior of prostate carcinoma cells. Substantial reduction of laminin-binding glycans in carcinoma tissue could be partly ascribed to disappearance of pre-existing basal cells.
prostatic neoplasms; dystroglycans; glycosylation
Core 2 β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT), which exists in three isoforms, C2GnT1, C2GnT2 and C2GnT3, is one of the key enzymes in the O-glycan biosynthetic pathway. These isoenzymes produce core 2 O-glycans and have been correlated with the biosynthesis of core 4 O-glycans and I-branches. Previously, we have reported mice with single and multiple deficiencies of C2GnT isoenzyme(s) and have evaluated the biological and structural consequences of the loss of core 2 function. We now present more comprehensive O-glycomic analyses of neutral and sialylated glycans expressed in the colon, small intestine, stomach, kidney, thyroid/trachea and thymus of wild-type, C2GnT2 and C2GnT3 single knockouts and the C2GnT1–3 triple knockout mice. Very high-quality data have emerged from our mass spectrometry techniques with the capability of detecting O-glycans up to at least 3500 Da. We were able to unambiguously elucidate the types of O-glycan core, branching location and residue linkages, which allowed us to exhaustively characterize structural changes in the knockout tissues. The C2GnT2 knockout mice suffered a major loss of core 2 O-glycans as well as glycans with I-branches on core 1 antennae especially in the stomach and the colon. In contrast, core 2 O-glycans still dominated the O-glycomic profile of most tissues in the C2GnT3 knockout mice. Analysis of the C2GnT triple knockout mice revealed a complete loss of both core 2 O-glycans and branched core 1 antennae, confirming that the three known isoenzymes are entirely responsible for producing these structures. Unexpectedly, O-linked mannosyl glycans are upregulated in the triple deficient stomach. In addition, our studies have revealed an interesting terminal structure detected on O-glycans of the colon tissues that is similar to the RM2 antigen from glycolipids.
C2GnT; core 2 O-glycan; knockout mice; mass spectrometry; murine O-glycome
Background: We produced a humanized monoclonal antibody, designated HMOCC-1, against cell surface carbohydrates presented by malignant ovarian cancer.
Results: Co-transfection experiments predicted HMOCC-1 antigenic oligosaccharides structures, which were then chemically synthesized for testing antibody binding.
Conclusion: HMOCC-1 antigen is the glycan structure composed of SO3→3Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→3(±SO3→6)Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→.
Significance: The approach employed in this study will be useful in determining specificity of an undefined monoclonal anti-carbohydrate antibody.
A humanized monoclonal antibody raised against human ovarian cancer RMG-I cells and designated as HMOCC-1 (Suzuki, N., Aoki, D., Tamada, Y., Susumu, N., Orikawa, K., Tsukazaki, K., Sakayori, M., Suzuki, A., Fukuchi, T., Mukai, M., Kojima-Aikawa, K., Ishida, I., and Nozawa, S. (2004) Gynecol. Oncol. 95, 290–298) was characterized for its carbohydrate epitope structure. Specifically, a series of co-transfections was performed using mammalian expression vectors encoding specific glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. These experiments identified one sulfotransferase, GAL3ST3, and one glycosyltransferase, B3GNT7, as required for HMOCC-1 antigen formation. They also suggested that the sulfotransferase CHST1 regulates the abundance and intensity of HMOCC-1 antigen. When HEK293T cells were co-transfected with GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7 expression vectors, transfected cells weakly expressed HMOCC-1 antigen. When cells were first co-transfected with GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7 and then with CHST1, the resulting cells strongly expressed HMOCC-1 antigen. However, when cells were transfected with a mixture of GAL3ST3 and CHST1 before or after transfection with B3GNT7, the number of antigen-positive cells decreased relative to the number seen with only GAL3ST3 and B3GNT7, suggesting that CHST1 plays a regulatory role in HMOCC-1 antigen formation. Because these results predicted that HMOCC-1 antigens are SO3→3Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→3(±SO3→6)Galβ1→4GlcNAc, we chemically synthesized mono- and disulfated and unsulfated oligosaccharides. Immunoassays using these oligosaccharides as inhibitors showed the strongest activity by disulfated tetrasaccharide, weak but positive activity by monosulfated tetrasaccharide at the terminal galactose, and no activity by nonsulfated tetrasaccharides. These results establish the HMOCC-1 epitope, which should serve as a useful reagent to further characterize ovarian cancer.
Carbohydrate; Carbohydrate Chemistry; Carbohydrate Glycoconjugate; Carbohydrate Glycoprotein; Ovarian Cancer; Glycosyltransferase; Polylactosamine; Sulfotransferase
Heparan sulfate can bind several adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking. However, the in vivo function of endothelial heparan sulfate in lymphocyte homing and stimulation of the immune response has not been elucidated. Here, we generated mutant mice deficient in the enzyme Ext1, which is required for heparan sulfate synthesis, in a Tek-dependent and inducible manner. Chemokine presentation was diminished in the mutant mice, causing the lack of appropriate integrin-mediated adhesion, and resulted in a marked decrease in lymphocyte sticking to high endothelial venules and in recruitment of resident dendritic cells through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes. As a consequence, mutant mice displayed a severe impairment in lymphocyte homing and a compromised contact hypersensitivity response. By contrast, lymphocyte rolling was increased due to loss of electrostatic repulsion by heparan sulfate. These results demonstrate critical roles of endothelial heparan sulfate in immune surveillance and immune response generation.
Homing of conventional T cells to NALT is primarily dependent on L-selectin–PNAd interactions, whereas homing of regulatory T cells also depends on PSGL1- and CD44-mediated adhesion.
Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is a mucosal immune tissue that provides immune responses against inhaled antigens. Lymphocyte homing to NALT is mediated by specific interactions between lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs) in NALT. In contrast to HEVs in other mucosal lymphoid tissues, NALT HEVs strongly express peripheral node addressins (PNAds) that bear sulfated glycans recognized by the monoclonal antibody MECA-79. We investigated the role of PNAd in lymphocyte homing to NALT using sulfotransferase N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (GlcNAc6ST) 1 and GlcNAc6ST-2 double knockout (DKO) mice. The expression of PNAd in NALT HEVs was eliminated in DKO mice. Short-term homing assays indicated that lymphocyte homing to NALT was diminished by 90% in DKO mice. Production of antigen-specific IgE and the number of sneezes in response to nasally administered ovalbumin were also substantially diminished. Consistently, the NALT of DKO mice showed reduced production of IL-4 and increased production of IL-10 together with an increase in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Compared with the homing of CD4+CD25− conventional T cells, the homing of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells to NALT was less dependent on the L-selectin–PNAd interaction but was partially dependent on PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1) and CD44. These results demonstrate that PNAd is essential for lymphocyte homing to NALT and nasal allergic responses.
We have previously reported the establishment of a Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strain, 10*3d1, having reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) phenotype. The strain was generated in vitro by serial daptomycin selection (Camargo, I. L., H. M. Neoh, L. Cui, and K. Hiramatsu, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:4289-4299, 2008). Here we explored the genetic mechanism of resistance in the strain by whole-genome sequencing and by producing gene-replaced strains. By genome comparison between 10*3d1 and its parent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain N315ΔIP, we identified five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of the five mutations was found in the rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase β subunit. The mutation at nucleotide position 1862 substituted the 621st alanine by glutamic acid. The replacement of the intact rpoB with the mutated rpoB, designated rpoB(A621E), conferred N315ΔIP with the phenotypes of reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and hetero-VISA. The rpoB(A621E)-mediated resistance conversion was accompanied by a thickened cell wall and reduction of the cell surface negative charge. Being consistent with these phenotypic changes, microarray data showed that the expression of the dlt operon, which increases the cell surface positive charge, was enhanced in the rpoB(A621E) mutant. Other remarkable findings of microarray analysis of the rpoB(A621E) mutant included repression of metabolic pathways of purine, pyrimidine, arginine, the urea cycle, and the lac operon, enhancement of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B2, K1, and K2, and cell wall metabolism. Finally, mutations identified in rplV and rplC, encoding 50S ribosomal proteins L22 and L3, respectively, were found to be associated with the slow growth, but not with the phenotype of decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin, of 10*3d1.
We studied orchiectomy specimens from 130 patients immuhistochemically with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) using anti-core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-1 (C2GnT-1) antibody. The incidence of C2GnT-1 positivity in stage I disease (29.5%, 21/71) was significantly lower than that in higher stages (84.7%, 50/59) (P < 0.001, χ2 test). This significant difference was also found when the cases were divided into seminoma and NSGCT according to histopathological classification. Kaplan-Meier plots and the log rank test showed that in the patients with stage I seminoma, C2GnT-1-positive cases had a higher risk for recurrence (P < 0.001). This was also the case with the patients with stage I NSGCT (P < 0.001). To determine whether C2GnT-1 promotes aggressive behavior of cancer cells, a C2GnT-1-negative human TGCT cell line, JKT-1, was stably transfected with a mammalian expression vector containing C2GnT-1 cDNA. In vitro assays revealed that JKT-1-C2 cells are more invasive than mock transfectants, although there are no differences in proliferation activity. When orthotopically inoculated into athymic nude mice, JKT-1-C2 cells produced larger testicular tumors extending to the retroperitoneum with mesenteric metastasis, while mock transfectants produced small tumors without metastasis (P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney’s U-test). When injected via the tail vein, JKT-1-C2 cells produced a number of metastatic lung foci. In contrast, mock transfectants produced a small number of nodules (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney’s U-test). These results strongly suggest that C2GnT-1 enhances the metastatic potential of TGCT and may be a reliable biomarker for aggressive potential of TGCT.
core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-1; testicular germ cell tumor; metastasis
Long-term survival is quite uncommon in refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, with less than 25% of patients with limited-stage disease and 1%–2% of patients with extensive-stage disease remaining alive at five years. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the promising efficacy of amrubicin for patients with relapsed SCLC. This review presents the results of clinical studies showing the efficacy and safety of amrubicin for the treatment of relapsed SCLC. Amrubicin is a synthetic anthracycline agent with a similar structure to doxorubicin, in which the hydroxyl group at position 9 in amrubicin is replaced by an amino group to enhance efficacy. It is converted to an active metabolite, amrubicinol, which is 5–54 times more active than amrubicin. Amrubicin and amrubicinol are inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II, exerting their cytotoxic effects by stabilizing a topoisomerase II-mediated cleavable complex. The toxicity of amrubicin is similar to that of doxorubicin, although amrubicin shows almost no cardiotoxicity. In the relevant trials, amrubicin was administered intravenously at a dose of 35–40 mg/m2 on days 1–3 every three weeks. The response rate was 34%–52% and median survival times were 8.1–12.0 months. Common hematologic toxicities included neutropenia, leucopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia. Nonhematologic adverse events included Grade 3–4 anorexia, asthenia, hyponatremia, and nausea. The results of the studies which demonstrated the efficacy of monotherapy for relapsed SCLC involved mainly Japanese patients. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more clinical studies in non-Japanese patients to confirm the efficacy of amrubicin.
amrubicin; amrubicinol; small cell lung cancer; relapse
Helicobacter pylori infect more than half of the world’s population and are considered a cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Recently, hypothetical gene HP0421 was identified in H. pylori as a cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase, which is required to synthesize cholesteryl glucosides, essential cell wall components of the bacteria. In the same gene-cluster, HP0420 was co-identified, whose function remains unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of HP0420-homolog of H. felis (HF0420) to gain insight into the function of HP0420. The crystal structure, combined with size-exclusion chromatography, reveals that HF0420 adopts a homodimeric hot-dog fold. The crystal structure suggests that HF0420 has enzymatic activity that involves a conserved histidine residue at the end of the central α-helix. Subsequent biochemical studies provide clues to the function of HP0420 and HF0420.
Crystal structure; Helicobacter; Hot-dog fold; Structural genomics; HP0420
A diffuse lymphocyte infiltrate is one of the characteristic features of ulcerative colitis (UC). Such lymphocyte recruitment requires lymphocyte rolling mediated by L-selectin ligand carbohydrates (6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X-capped O-glycans) and/or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) expressed on high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of MAdCAM-1 posttranslationally modified (“decorated”) with L-selectin ligand carbohydrates in UC pathogenesis and consequent clinical outcomes.
Biopsy specimens composed of active and remission phases of UC as well as normal colonic mucosa were immunostained for CD34, MAdCAM-1 and MECA-79, and the immunostained sections were quantitatively analyzed. RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate transcripts of MAdCAM-1 and N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases (GlcNAc6STs). CHO and Lec2 cells transfected with CD34 and MAdCAM-1 together with enzymes involved in L-selectin ligand carbohydrate biosynthesis were analyzed by immunofluorescence, FACS and Western blotting to characterize biochemical property of GlcNAc6STs.
The number of MAdCAM-1+ vessels was increased in UC, with no significant difference between active and remission phases. An increased ratio of MECA-79+ to MAdCAM-1+ vessels with preferential GlcNAc6ST-1 transcripts was observed in the active phase of UC compared to remission phase. MAdCAM-1 protein was co-localized with L-selectin ligand carbohydrates at the luminal surface of HEV-like vessels in situ. GlcNAc6ST-1 preferentially utilizes MAdCAM-1 as a scaffold protein for GlcNAc-6-O-sulfation in L-selectin ligand carbohydrate biosynthesis.
UC disease activity is not regulated by expression of MAdCAM-1 protein itself, but rather by GlcNAc6ST-1-mediated decoration of MAdCAM-1 protein with L-selectin ligand carbohydrates.
ulcerative colitis; mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1); peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd); L-selectin ligand carbohydrate; posttranslational modification
High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized blood vessels of secondary lymphoid organs composed of endothelial cells with a characteristic cuboidal morphology. Lymphocytes selectively adhere to and migrate across HEVs to initiate immune responses. In this study, we established a novel transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the gene encoding HEV-expressed sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GlcNAc6ST-2), using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering. Crossing these transgenic mice with the ROSA26 reporter strain, which expresses lacZ following Cre-mediated recombination, and staining the resulting progeny with 5-bromo-4-chloro-5-indolyl-β-D-galactoside indicated that Cre recombinase was specifically expressed in mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in secondary lymphoid organs but not in any other blood vessels of the transgenic mice. The expression of Cre recombinase correlated with a developmental switch, from immature, mAb MECA367-reactive HEVs to mature, mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in neonatal lymph nodes. In addition to the HEVs, Cre recombinase was also strongly expressed in the colonic villi, which recapitulated the intrinsic expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 as confirmed in GlcNAc6ST-2GFP/GFP knock-in mice and by RT-PCR. Furthermore, treatment with an antimicrobial agent revealed that the colonic expression of Cre recombinase in the transgenic mice was regulated by commensal bacteria in the colon. In addition, Cre recombinase was expressed in a small subset of cells in the brain, testis, stomach, small intestine, and lung. In view of the restricted expression of Cre recombinase, this transgenic mouse line should be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene functions using the Cre/loxP system.
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects over 50% of the world's population. This organism causes various gastric diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. H. pylori possesses lipopolysaccharides that share structural similarity to Lewis blood group antigens in gastric mucosa. Such antigenic mimicry could result in immune tolerance against antigens of this pathogen. On the other hand, H. pylori colonizes gastric mucosa by utilizing adhesins that bind Lewis blood group antigen-related carbohydrates expressed on gastric epithelial cells. After colonization, H. pylori induces acute inflammatory responses mainly by neutrophils. This acute phase is gradually replaced by a chronic inflammatory response. In chronic gastritis, lymphocytes infiltrate the lamina propria, and such infiltration is facilitated by the interaction between L-selectin on lymphocytes and peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd), which contains 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X-capped O-glycans, on high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels. H. pylori barely colonizes gland mucous cell-derived mucin where α1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans exist. In vitro experiments show that α1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans function as a natural antibiotic to inhibit H. pylori growth. These findings show that distinct sets of carbohydrates expressed in the stomach are closely associated with pathogenesis and prevention of H. pylori-related diseases, providing therapeutic potentialities based on specific carbohydrate modulation.
6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X-capped O-glycan; α1, 4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycan; cholesterol α-glucoside; cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase; Helicobacter pylori
Three glycosyltransferases have been identified in mammals that can initiate core 2 protein O glycosylation. Core 2 O-glycans are abundant among glycoproteins but, to date, few functions for these structures have been identified. To investigate the biological roles of core 2 O-glycans, we produced and characterized mice deficient in one or more of the three known glycosyltransferases that generate core 2 O-glycans (C2GnT1, C2GnT2, and C2GnT3). A role for C2GnT1 in selectin ligand formation has been described. We now report that C2GnT2 deficiency impaired the mucosal barrier and increased susceptibility to colitis. C2GnT2 deficiency also reduced immunoglobulin abundance and resulted in the loss of all core 4 O-glycan biosynthetic activity. In contrast, the absence of C2GnT3 altered behavior linked to reduced thyroxine levels in circulation. Remarkably, elimination of all three C2GnTs was permissive of viability and fertility. Core 2 O-glycan structures were reduced among tissues from individual C2GnT deficiencies and completely absent from triply deficient mice. C2GnT deficiency also induced alterations in I-branching, core 1 O-glycan formation, and O mannosylation. Although the absence of C2GnT and C4GnT activities is tolerable in vivo, core 2 O glycosylation exerts a significant influence on O-glycan biosynthesis and is important in multiple physiological processes.
It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2′-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by α2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and α2,8-sialyltransferase (ST8Sia-II, ST8Sia-III, and ST8Sia-IV). We found that ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV but not ST6Gal-I was inhibited by 2′-O-methyl CMP as potently as by CMP, while ST3Gal-III, ST3Gal-IV, and ST6Gal-I were moderately inhibited by 5-methyl CMP. Previously, it was reported that polysialyltransferase ST8Sia-II but not ST8Sia-IV was inhibited by CMP N-butylneuraminic acid. We found that ST8Sia-IV as well as ST8Sia-II and ST8Sia-III are inhibited by 2′-O-methyl CMP as robustly as by CMP and moderately by 5-methyl CMP. Moreover, the addition of CMP, 2′-O-methyl CMP, and 5-methyl CMP to the culture medium resulted in the decrease of polysialic acid expression on the cell surface and NCAM of Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results suggest that 2′-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP can be used to preferentially inhibit sialyltransferases, in particular, polysialyltransferases in vitro and in vivo. Such inhibition may be useful to determine the function of a carbohydrate synthesized by a specific sialyltransferase such as polysialyltransferase.
α2; 8-sialyltransferase; 2′-O-methyl CMP; 5-methyl CMP; polysialic acid
Helicobacter pylori infects over half of the world’s population and is thought to be a leading cause of gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Previously, we reported that a gland mucin (MUC6) present in the lower portion of the gastric mucosa containing α1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (α1,4GlcNAc)-capped core 2-branched O-glycans suppresses H. pylori growth by inhibiting the synthesis of α-glucosyl cholesterol, a major constituent of the H. pylori cell wall (Kawakubo et al. 2004. Science. 305:1003–1006). Therefore, we cloned the genomic DNA encoding cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase (HP0421) and expressed its soluble form in Escherichia coli. Using this soluble HP0421, we show herein that HP0421 sequentially acts on uridine diphosphoglucose and cholesterol in an ordered Bi-Bi manner. We found that competitive inhibition of HP0421 by α1,4GlcNAc-capped core 2-branched O-glycan is much more efficient than noncompetitive inhibition by newly synthesized α-glucosyl cholesterol. Utilizing synthetic oligosaccharides, α-glucosyl cholesterol, and monosaccharides, we found that α1,4GlcNAc-capped core 2-branched O-glycan most efficiently inhibits H. pylori growth. These findings together indicate that α1,4GlcNAc-capped O-glycans suppress H. pylori growth by inhibiting HP0421, and that α1,4GlcNAc-capped core 2 O-glycans may be useful to treat patients infected with H. pylori.
α4GlcNAc-capped core 2-branched O-glycan; cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase; growth inhibition; Helicobacter pylori; novel antibiotics
Pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FNGN) is a severe inflammatory disease associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA). Here we characterize autoantibodies to lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and show that they are a new ANCA subtype present in almost all individuals with FNGN. Consequently, its prevalence is nearly twice that of the classical ANCAs that recognize myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3. Furthermore, antibodies to LAMP-2 cause pauci-immune FNGN when injected into rats, and a monoclonal antibody to human LAMP-2 (H4B4) induces apoptosis of human microvascular endothelium in vitro. The autoantibodies in individuals with pauci-immune FNGN commonly recognize a human LAMP-2 epitope (designated P41–49) with 100% homology to the bacterial adhesin FimH, with which they cross-react. Rats immunized with FimH develop pauci-immune FNGN and also develop antibodies to rat and human LAMP-2. Finally, we show that infections with fimbriated pathogens are common before the onset of FNGN. Thus, FimH-triggered autoimmunity to LAMP-2 provides a previously undescribed clinically relevant molecular mechanism for the development of pauci-immune FNGN.
Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms on glass surfaces at the air-liquid interface in in vitro batch cultures; however, biofilms of H. pylori have not been well characterized. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of H. pylori strains to form biofilms and characterized the underlying mechanisms of H. pylori biofilm formation.
Strain TK1402 showed strong biofilm forming ability relative to the other strains in Brucella broth supplemented with 7% FCS. The strong biofilm forming ability of TK1402 is reflected the relative thickness of the biofilms. In addition, outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were detected within the matrix of only the TK1402 biofilms. Biofilm formation was strongly correlated with the production of OMV in this strain. We further observed that strain TK1402 did not form thick biofilms in Brucella broth supplemented with 0.2% β-cyclodextrin. However, the addition of the OMV-fraction collected from TK1402 could enhance biofilm formation.
The results suggested that OMV produced from TK1402 play an important role in biofilm formation in strain TK1402.
E-, P- and L-selectins critically function in lymphocyte recirculation and recruiting leukocytes to inflammatory sites. MECA-79 antibody inhibits L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion in several species and does not require sialic acid in its epitope. Many other antibodies, however, recognize human selectin ligands expressing N-acetylneuraminic acid but not mouse selectin ligands expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid, suggesting that difference in sialic acid in sialyl Lewis X leads to differential reactivity. We found that HECA-452 and FH6 monoclonal antibodies bind Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing N-acetylneuraminyl Lewis X oligosaccharide but not its N-glycolyl form. Moreover, synthetic N-acetylneuraminyl Lewis X oligosaccharide but not its N-glycolyl oligosaccharide inhibited HECA-452 and FH6 binding. By contrast, E-, P- and L-selectin bound to CHO cells regardless of whether they express N-acetyl or N-glycolyl form of sialyl Lewis X, showing that selectins have a broader recognition capacity than HECA-452 and FH-6 anti-sialyl Lewis x antibodies.
Sialyl Lewis X; MECA-79; N-glycolylneuraminic acid; HECA-452 antibody; N-acetylneuraminic acid
Core2 1-6-N-glucosaminyltransferase-I (C2GlcNAcT-I) plays an important role in optimizing the binding functions of several selectin ligands, including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand. We used apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient atherosclerotic mice to investigate the role of C2GlcNAcT-I in platelet and leukocyte interactions with injured arterial walls, in endothelial regeneration at injured sites, and in the formation of arterial neointima.
Methods and Results
Arterial neointima induced by wire injury was smaller in C2GlcNAcT-I–deficient apoE−/− mice than in control apoE−/− mice (a 79% reduction in size). Compared to controls, apoE−/− mice deficient in C2GlcNAcT-I also demonstrated less leukocyte adhesion on activated platelets in micro-flow chambers (a 75% reduction) and accumulation of leukocytes at injured areas of mouse carotid arteries was eliminated. Additionally, endothelial regeneration in injured lumenal areas was substantially faster in C2GlcNAcT-I–deficient apoE−/− mice than in control apoE−/− mice. Endothelial regeneration was associated with reduced accumulation of platelet factor 4 (PF4) at injured sites. PF4 deficiency accelerated endothelial regeneration and protected mice from neointima formation after arterial injury.
C2GlcNAcT-I deficiency suppresses injury-induced arterial neointima formation, and this effect is attributable to decreased leukocyte recruitment to injured vascular walls and increased endothelial regeneration. Both C2GlcNAcT-I and PF4 are promising targets for the treatment of arterial restenosis.