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1.  Propofol, midazolam, vancomycin and cyclosporine therapeutic drug monitoring in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits primed with whole human blood 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):40.
Introduction
As a result of drug sequestration and increased volume of distribution, the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) procedure might lead to a decrease in drug concentrations during a patient’s treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate sedative, antibiotic and immunosuppressive drug loss in ECMO circuit using ex-vivo and in-vitro experiments.
Methods
Blood concentrations of propofol, midazolam, cyclosporine and vancomycin were measured in an ex-vivo ECMO circuit primed with whole human blood, and compared to controls stored in polypropylene tubes. In vitro experiments were also conducted to further explore the role of temperature, oxygen exposure and polyvinylchloride surfaces on propofol loss in the ECMO circuit.
Results
Propofol concentration decreased rapidly; 70% of its baseline concentration was lost after only 30 minutes, and only 11% remained after five hours (P <0.001 for the comparison with control polypropylene tube propofol concentration). Further experiments demonstrated that oxygen exposure and contact with polyvinylchloride tubing were respectively responsible for 70% and 85% of propofol loss after 45 minutes. Midazolam concentration also rapidly decreased in the ECMO circuit, with only 54% and 11% of baseline concentration being detected at 30 minutes and 24 hours respectively (P = 0.01 versus control). Alternatively, cyclosporine concentration remained stable for the five first hours, then decreased to 78% and 73% of the baseline value after 24 hours and 48 hours, (P = 0.35 versus control). Lastly, vancomycin concentration remained stable in the ECMO circuit for the 48-hour experimental protocol.
Conclusions
We observed important losses of propofol and midazolam, while cyclosporine concentration decreased slowly and moderately, and vancomycin concentration remained unchanged in the ex-vivo ECMO circuit primed with whole human blood. These data might help intensive care unit physicians planning clinical trials with a final objective to better adapt doses of these drugs while treating critically ill ECMO patients.
doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0772-5
PMCID: PMC4335544
2.  Should Moxifloxacin Be Used for the Treatment of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis? An Answer from a Murine Model▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(11):4765-4771.
The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), defined as TB that is resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, is rising worldwide. The extent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to fluoroquinolones depends on the mutation in the DNA gyrase, the only target of fluoroquinolones. The MIC of moxifloxacin, the most active fluoroquinolone against M. tuberculosis, may be lower than its peak serum level for some ofloxacin-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, if the MIC of moxifloxacin is lower than its peak serum level, it may be effective against XDR-TB. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of moxifloxacin in treating ofloxacin-resistant TB. We selected isogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in vivo. We infected Swiss mice with either wild-type H37Rv or one of three mutant strains with different MICs that are commonly seen in clinical practice. The MICs of the mutant strains ranged from below to above the peak moxifloxacin level seen in humans (3 μg/ml). Each mouse was treated with one of four moxifloxacin doses for 1 month. Moxifloxacin was effective against mutant strain GyrB D500N, with the lowest MIC (0.5 μg/ml), when the standard dose was doubled. Moxifloxacin reduced mortality in mice infected with mutant strain GyrA A90V with an intermediate MIC (2 μg/ml). However, it had no impact on the mutant strain GyrA D94G with the highest MIC (4 μg/ml). Our study underscores current WHO recommendations to use moxifloxacin when there is resistance to early-generation fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin, restricting this recommendation to strains with moxifloxacin MICs of less than or equal to 2 μg/ml.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00968-10
PMCID: PMC2976119  PMID: 20805388
4.  Combination of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine plus Efavirenz: In Vitro Modulation of ABC Transporter and Intracellular Drug Accumulation ▿  
Efflux proteins have been shown to greatly affect the uptake of antiretroviral drugs by cells and to hamper their access to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication site. This study evaluated the factors that may lead to drug-drug interactions between emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TFV), and efavirenz (EFV), including the modulation of efflux transporter expression and function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers were used to determine whether or not an interaction between antiretroviral drugs and target cells occurred in any combination of FTC, TFV, EFV, FTC-TFV, TFV-EFV, or FTC-TFV-EFV. Following 20 h of treatment, intracellular drug concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Efflux transporter functionality and inhibitor drug properties were assessed by measuring fluorescent dye efflux. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), ABCC 1 to 6 (multidrug resistance-associated protein), and OAT (organic anion transporter) expression in response to the treatments was quantified by semiquantitative real-time PCR. Cells treated with a double combination (FTC-TFV or TFV-EFV) or the triple combination (FTC-TFV-EFV) produced higher FTC and TFV intracellular concentrations than cells treated with FTC or TFV alone. However, no change in the EFV intracellular concentration was observed. FTC tended to induce abcc5 mRNA expression and EFV tended to induce abcc1 and abcc6 mRNA expression, whereas TFV tended to reduce mdr1, abcc1, abcc5, and abcc6 mRNA expression. Under these conditions, a decrease in the functionality of ABCC was observed, and this decrease was associated with the direct inhibitory actions of these drugs. This in vitro study reveals a benefit of the combination FTC-TFV-EFV in terms of the intracellular FTC and TFV concentrations and highlights the pharmacological mechanisms that lead to this effect.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00733-08
PMCID: PMC2650525  PMID: 19075072
5.  Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein and Binding Protein Effect on the Placental Transfer of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in the Ex Vivo Human Perfusion Model 
Aims. To study the influence of P-glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein, ABCB1, MDR1) function on placental transfer of lopinavir with ritonavir at different albumin concentrations. Methods. Cotyledons were perfused with lopinavir, ritonavir, and the internal control antipyrin, at various albumin concentrations (10, 30, 40 g/L). After the control phase of each experiment, the P-glycoprotein inhibitor ciclosporin A was added at middle perfusion (45 minutes). Fetal Transfer Rate (FTR) and Clearance Index (CLI) were compared between the 2 phases. Results. In the control phase, the clearance index of lopinavir decreased from 0.401 ± 0.058 to 0.007 ± 0.027, as albumin concentrations increased from 10 g/L to higher concentrations (30, 40 g/L). When adding ciclosporin A at physiological albumin concentrations, the clearance index of lopinavir increased significantly 10.3 fold (95% of CI difference [−0.156, −0.002], P = .046) and became positive for ritonavir. Conclusions. Even at high albumin concentrations, inhibition of placental P-glycoprotein increased placental transfer of lopinavir, suggesting that this efflux pump actively reduces placental transfer of the drug. This mechanism may play a role in fetal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy.
doi:10.1155/2009/726593
PMCID: PMC2778444  PMID: 19960055
6.  Interaction between Miltefosine and Amphotericin B: Consequences for Their Activities towards Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Leishmania donovani Promastigotes In Vitro▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3793-3800.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a combination of two antileishmanial drugs, miltefosine (HePC) and amphotericin B (AMB), when administered by the oral route. Caco-2 cell monolayers were used as a validated in vitro model of the intestinal barrier and Leishmania donovani promastigotes as a model for evaluating the effect of the drug combination. Spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that HePC and AMB associate, leading to the formation of mixed aggregates in which AMB is solubilized as monomers. The incubation of the association of HePC and AMB with Caco-2 cell monolayers, at a concentration higher than 5 μM, led to (i) a reduction of the HePC-induced paracellular permeability enhancement in Caco-2 cell monolayers, (ii) an inhibition of the uptake of both drugs, and (iii) a decrease in the transepithelial transport of both drugs, suggesting that a pharmacokinetic antagonism between HePC and AMB could occur after their oral administration. However, the combination did not exhibit any antagonism or synergy in its antileishmanial activity. These results demonstrated a strong physicochemical interaction between HePC and AMB, depending on the concentration of each, which could have important consequences for their biological activities, if they are administered together.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00837-06
PMCID: PMC1635231  PMID: 16966395
8.  Kinetics of Antiviral Activity and Intracellular Pharmacokinetics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitors in Tissue Culture 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(11):2629-2634.
We have examined the kinetics of the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle infectivity by protease inhibitors (PIs) in cell culture, using either transfected HeLa cells or infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as producers of infectious virions. Both the kinetics of the initiation of antiviral activity after addition of the PIs to these cultures and the kinetics of restoration of virion infectivity after removal of the PIs from the treated cultures were examined. We found that the kinetics of initiation of particle infectivity inhibition produced by a high extracellular concentration (5 μM) of the inhibitors were similar for all five inhibitors tested: loss of particle infectivity was perceptible as early as 1 h after the initiation of PI treatment and increased gradually thereafter. By contrast, the durability of this antiviral effect following removal of the drug from the culture varied dramatically according to the drug studied. In transfected HeLa cells, saquinavir and nelfinavir exerted the most prolonged inhibition, with the half-lives of their antiviral activities being greater than 24 h, while ritonavir exerted an intermediate length of inhibition (18 h) and indinavir and amprenavir exerted a reproducibly shorter length of inhibition (5 h). For all five tested PIs, these kinetics were significantly faster in PBMCs than in HeLa cells. The striking differences in antiviral kinetics observed among the different PIs appear mostly due to differences in their intracellular concentrations and/or rates of cellular clearance. Our observations, although limited to tissue culture conditions, may help delineate the cellular parameters of the antiviral activities of HIV-1 PIs and further optimize the efficiencies of these antiretrovirals in vivo.
PMCID: PMC89535  PMID: 10543739
9.  In Vivo Efficacies of Combinations of β-Lactams, β-Lactamase Inhibitors, and Rifampin against Acinetobacter baumannii in a Mouse Pneumonia Model 
The effects of various regimens containing combinations of β-lactams, β-lactam inhibitor(s), and rifampin were assessed in a recently described mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia (M. L. Joly-Guillou, M. Wolff, J. J. Pocidalo, F. Walker, and C. Carbon, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:345–351, 1997). Two aspects of the therapeutic response were studied: the kinetics of the bactericidal effect (treatment was initiated 3 h after intratracheal inoculation, and bacterial counts were determined over a 24-h period) and survival (treatment was initiated 8 h after inoculation, and the cumulative mortality rate was assessed on day 5). Two clinical strains were used: a cephalosporinase-producing strain (SAN-94040) and a multiresistant strain (RCH-69). For SAN-94040 and RCH-69, MICs and MBCs (milligrams per liter) were as follows: ticarcillin, 32, 64, 256, and >256, respectively; ticarcillin-clavulanate, 32, 64, and 512, and >512, respectively; imipenem, 0.5, 0.5, 8, and 32, respectively; sulbactam, 0.5, 0.5, 8, and 8, respectively; and rifampin, 8, 8, 4, and 4, respectively. Against SAN-94040, four regimens, i.e., imipenem, sulbactam, imipenem-rifampin, and ticarcillin-clavulanate (at a 25/1 ratio)-sulbactam produced a true bactericidal effect (≥3-log10 reduction of CFU/g of lung). The best survival rate (i.e., 93%) was obtained with the combination of ticarcillin-clavulanate-sulbactam, and regimens containing rifampin provided a survival rate of ≥65%. Against RCH-69, only regimens containing rifampin and the combination of imipenem-sulbactam had a true bactericidal effect. The best survival rates (≥80%) were obtained with regimens containing rifampin and sulbactam. These results suggest that nonclassical combinations of β-lactams, β-lactamase inhibitors, and rifampin should be considered for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia due to A. baumannii.
PMCID: PMC89287  PMID: 10348761
10.  Influence of Renal Failure on Intestinal Clearance of Ciprofloxacin in Rats 
Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.
PMCID: PMC89180  PMID: 10049287
11.  Effects of Salmonella typhimurium Infection and Ofloxacin Treatment on Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism in Caco-2/TC-7 Cells 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):2950-2955.
The effects of both Salmonella typhimurium infection and 5 mM ofloxacin treatment on 2 mM glutamine and 5 mM glucose metabolism in the enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC-7 cell line were studied. These cells utilized glutamine (212.07 ± 16.75 [mean ± standard deviation] nmol per h per 106 viable cells) and, to a lesser extent, glucose (139.63 ± 11.52 nmol per h per 106 viable cells). Metabolism of these substrates in Caco-2/TC-7 cells resembled that in rat, pig, or human enterocytes. Infection by S. typhimurium C53-enhanced glucose and glutamine substrate utilization by 32 and 22%, respectively and enhanced glucose and glutamine substrate oxidation by eight- and twofold, respectively. These increases in glucose and glutamine metabolism (especially glucose metabolism) were due in part to the metabolism of intracellular bacteria and/or to the activation of cellular metabolism. Substrate metabolism (especially glucose metabolism) in C53-infected cells was partially reduced by treatment with ofloxacin. It was concluded that cellular fuel metabolism is stimulated at the earliest stage of infection (3 to 4 h) and that treatment with 5 mM ofloxacin does not completely restore substrate metabolism to the levels observed in uninfected cells, possibly because this treatment does not eradicate intracellular S. typhimurium completely.
PMCID: PMC105971  PMID: 9797231
12.  Critical Importance of In Vivo Amoxicillin and Cefotaxime Concentrations for Synergy in Treatment of Experimental Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis 
The synergy between amoxicillin and cefotaxime against two strains of Enterococcus faecalis (JH2-2 and 6370) in vitro and in rabbit endocarditis was investigated. In vitro synergy was obtained only when amoxicillin concentrations were below the MBC and when cefotaxime concentrations were above 1 μg/ml. No synergy was observed in vivo, because of the short period of time during which these pharmacologic requirements were achieved.
PMCID: PMC105439  PMID: 9527811

Results 1-12 (12)