From the thousands of years, metal compounds have been used in medicine for treatment of various diseases including various types of cancers. Ruthenium was seen as a promising metal due to its similar kinetics to platinum and its lower toxicity. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the newer mononuclear ruthenium (II) compounds for antinociceptive and antitumor activities.
Materials and Methods:
Ruthenium (II) compounds were evaluated for antinociceptive and antitumor activity using the various in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were injected to mice at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally and were screened for antinociceptive activity, and the antiproliferative effect was evaluated against murine leukemia cells (L1210), human T-lymphocyte cells (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa) using MTT assay.
The results for antitumor activity clearly indicated that compound R1 was potent cytotoxic agent than R2 with IC50 values ranging from 4-6 μM for R1, whereas IC50 values for compound R2 ranging from 65-103 μM. The compounds have shown a significant anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan and dextran models but do not having the central analgesic activity, this indicating that the antinociceptive activity is related to the peripheral nervous system. The results for 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity showed that both R1 and R2 compounds were found to be significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 14.35 μg ml-1 and 29.24 μg ml-1 respectively.
These findings concluded that the new ruthenium compounds might be the promising antiproliferative agents as these compounds showing significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity and potential agents in the management of pain related disorders.
5-LOX; antinociception; MTT; ruthenium compounds
Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of transition metals provide useful units for incorporating multiple coordination interactions into a single protein binding molecule. They can be designed with available sites for protein interactions with donor atom containing amino acid side chains or have labile ligands such as H2O allowing facile exchange. Three configurationally restricted nickel(II) cyclam complexes with either one or two macrocyclic rings were synthesised and their ability to abrogate the CXCR4 chemokine receptor signalling process was assessed (IC50 = 8320, 194 and 14 nM). Analogues were characterised crystallographically to determine the geometric parameters of acetate binding as a model for aspartate. The most active nickel(II) compound was tested in several anti-HIV assays against representative viral strains showing highly potent EC50 values down to 13 nM against CXCR4 using viruses with no observed cellular cytotoxicity (CC50 > 125 μM).
Various substituted 1-arylmethyl-2,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydroindole thiosemicarbazones 3a-h, 1-benzyl-2,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydroin-dole N4-aryl thiosemicarbazones 4a-i and 1-benzyl-2,3-dioxy-2,3-dihydroindole N4-cyclohexylthiocarbazone 5 were synthesized. All of these compounds were evaluated against human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 leukemia cells. Nearly 40% of these compounds possess low micromolar IC50 values and some are either more potent than, or equipotent with, melphalan. Various correlations between the structures of these compounds and cytotoxic potencies were obtained which included the use of QSAR and molecular modeling techniques. Representative compounds displayed anticonvulsant properties in rats and were well tolerated by these animals. The encouraging biodata noted affords adequate rationale for outlining guidelines for further development of these molecular scaffolds.
PMID: 18608748 CAMSID: cams2171
Indoles; thiosemicarbazones; cytotoxicity; molecular modeling; SAR; anticonvulsants; bioassays
A series of 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones 3 were converted into the corresponding 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-1-phosphono-4-piperidones 5 via diethyl esters 4. The analogues in series 4 and 5 displayed marked growth inhibitory properties toward human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine leukemia L1210 cells. In general, the N-phosphono compounds 5, which are more hydrophilic than the analogues in series 3 and 4, were the most potent cluster of cytotoxins, and, in particular, 3,5-bis-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-1-phosphono-4-piperidone 5g had an average IC50 value of 34 nM toward the two T-lymphocyte cell lines. Four of the compounds displayed potent cytotoxicity toward a panel of nearly 60 human tumor cell lines, and nanomolar IC50 values were observed in a number of cases. The mode of action of 5g includes the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cellular respiration. Most of the members of series 4 as well as several analogues in series 5 are potent multi-drug resistance (MDR) reverting compounds. Various correlations were noted between certain molecular features of series 4 and 5 and cytotoxic properties, affording some guidelines in expanding this study.
PMID: 19802855 CAMSID: cams2173
4-piperidones; cytotoxicity; multi-drug resistance; phosphono derivatives; unsaturated ketones
Novel 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyethylthio)propanoyl]piperidin-4-ones (3a–e) display potent cytotoxicity and a preferential lethality toward various neoplasms compared to some normal cells. The corresponding sulfonic acid analogues 5a–e and an isostere 4 demonstrated substantially lower activity. The leads 3d and 3e possess very high activity against colon cancer and leukemia cell lines, caused DNA fragmentation, and activated caspase-3 in HL-60 cells. The enones 3b–e were well tolerated in a short-term toxicity screen in mice.
PMID: 21449610 CAMSID: cams2189
The principal objective of this study was the examination of the theory of cytotoxic synergism. In this exploratory study, we tested the hypothesis that doubling the number of sites available for thiol alkylation in a series of candidate cytotoxins increases potency more than two-fold. This concept was verified in one-third of our comparisons using human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and murine L1210 cells. In addition, the significant potencies of various members of our compound series justified further studies. Molecular modeling revealed that relative locations of the amidic groups correlate with cytotoxicity. A potent cytotoxic compound, 1,2-bis(3,5-dibenzyli-dene-4-oxo-piperidin-1-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (1 a) inhibited the growth of a large number of human tumor cell lines and displayed greater toxicity toward certain non-adherent cells than toward adherent neoplasms or fibroblasts. The mode of action of 1 a includes induction of apoptosis and necrosis.
PMID: 21826795 CAMSID: cams2188
apoptosis; cytotoxic synergism; cytotoxicity; molecular modeling; unsaturated ketones
Several series of compounds containing the 1,4-dioxo-2-butenyl moiety have been prepared as candidate cytotoxins, including the methyl N-arylmaleamates, methyl N-arylfumaramates, and N-arylmaleimides. In addition, the N-arylisomaleimides were synthesized which are the structural isomers of N-arylmaleimides. These compounds were evaluated against human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 cells. Methyl N-arylfumaramates showed the highest cytotoxic potencies and, in particular, methyl N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)fumaramate is six times more potent than melphalan towards L1210 cells and is equipotent with this drug in the Molt 4/C8 assay. Electrophilicity of compounds under investigation was demonstrated by carrying out thiolation using model benzyl mercaptan on representative compounds. Methyl N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)fumaramate and methyl N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleamate inhibited human N-myristoyltransferase, a possible molecular target, in high micromolar range. QSAR and molecular modeling revealed some correlations between different structural features of a number of the molecules and cytotoxic potencies. Methyl N-arylfumaramates were well tolerated in mice in comparison to the analogs in other series of compounds tested. The data obtained in this investigation affords guidelines for preparing new series of molecules with greater potencies.
PMID: 20149656 CAMSID: cams2140
1,4-Dioxo-2-butenyl; Cytotoxicity; N-Arylmaleamates; N-Arylfumaramates; N-Arylmaleimides; N-Arylisomaleimides; Structure–activity relationships; Molecular modeling
The primary objective of this study was to discover one or more clusters of compounds which are not equitoxic but display cytoselectivity toward different malignant cells. Furthermore a most important consideration is that such molecules should also display greater cytotoxic potencies to tumors than normal tissues. Two series of compounds are described which meet these criteria, namely the 1-aryl-2-dimethylaminomethyl-2-propen-1-one hydrochlorides 1a–e and 1-aryl-3-dimethylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-propanone hydrochlorides 2a–e. A number of these compounds possess marked cytotoxic potencies (IC50 and CC50 values within the 10−6 and 10−7 molar range) which are greater than these of the reference drug melphalan. Statistical analyses demonstrated that cytotoxic potencies are influenced by the size of the aryl substituents in series 1 and to some extent by the electronic properties of the aryl groups in series 2. The mode of action of a representative compound 1e in HL-60 cells included inducing apoptosis and activation of caspases –3, –8, and –9.
PMID: 18397829 CAMSID: cams2154
1-Aryl-3-dimethylamino-1-propanones; Cytotoxicity; Apoptosis; Caspases
Three series of structurally isomeric 2-benzylidene-6-(nitrobenzylidene) cyclohexanones 1–3 were prepared and evaluated against human Molt/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 cells. The IC50 values of the majority of compounds are less than 10 μM and in some assays, the figures for 1d and 1e are submicromolar. Correlations were discerned between cytotoxic potencies and the atomic charges on one of the olefinic carbon atoms, the torsion angles between an aryl ring, and the adjacent unsaturated group as well as logP values. Three representative compounds were examined for their effect on respiration in rat liver mitochondria.
PMID: 18450457 CAMSID: cams2153
Unsaturated ketones; Molecular modeling; Cytotoxicity; Mitochondria
This study demonstrated that replacement of the axial protons on the C2 and C6 atoms of various 1-methyl-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones 3 by a dimethylene bridge leading to series 2 lowered cytotoxic potencies. Four compounds 2a and 3a–c emerged as lead molecules based on their toxicity towards different neoplasms and their selective toxicity for malignant rather than normal cells. Some possible reasons for the disparity between the IC50 values in the two series of compounds are presented based on molecular modeling, log P values and respiration in rat liver mitochondria.
PMID: 18468733 CAMSID: cams2136
Tropinones; 4-Piperidones; Cytotoxicity; Molecular modeling; X-ray crystallography; Mitochondria
A series of 3-benzylidene-4-chromanones 1a–l were prepared and their cytotoxicity towards human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 lymphoid leukemia cells were compared to the previously generated biodata in these three assays for the isosteric 2-benzylidene-1-tetralones 2a–l. Over 40% of the compounds in series 1 were more potent than their counterparts in series 2, while equipotency was noted in one-third of the comparisons made. In general the IC50 values of 1a–l towards the human T-lymphocytes were in the low micro-molar range. Molecular modelling revealed differences in shapes of representative molecules in series 1 and 2 which may contribute to the variation in cytotoxic potencies. Most of the compounds in series 1 displayed greater potencies towards HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4 and HL-60 neoplasms than HGF, HPC, and HPLF normal cells and were well tolerated in mice.
PMID: 17692998 CAMSID: cams2135
3-Benzylidene-4-chromanones; α,β-Unsaturated ketones; Molecular modelling; Cytotoxicity; Murine toxicity
A series of 2-(3-aryl-2-propenoyl)-3-methylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxides 3a–l were prepared by condensation of various aryl aldehydes with 2-acetyl-3-methylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide 2. These compounds inhibit the growth of human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and the IC50 values are mainly in the 5–30 μM range. The quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide 3j inhibited the growth of 58 human tumor cell lines, particularly leukemic and breast cancer neoplasms. All of the compounds 3a–l reversed the multidrug resistance (MDR) properties of murine L-5178Y leukemic cells which were transfected with the human MDR1 gene. The MDR-reversing effect may be due to the conjugated π-electron system forming a weak electron charge transfer complex with the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux pump. The compounds in series 2 and 3 were assessed against HL-60, HSC-2, HSC-3 and HSC-4 malignant cells as well as HGF, HPC and HPLF normal cell lines which revealed that the majority of the compounds displayed a greater toxicity to neoplastic than normal cells. Various ways in which the project may be expanded are presented.
PMID: 19427790 CAMSID: cams2141
α,β-Unsaturated ketones; Quinoxalines; Cytotoxicity; Multidrug resistance revertants; Structure–activity relationships; QSAR
Palladium-catalyzed C–N bond forming reactions of 6-bromo- as well as 6-chloropurine ribonucleosides and the 2’-deoxy analogues with aryl amines are described. Efficient conversions were observed with Pd(OAc)2/Xantphos/Cs2CO3, in PhMe at 100 °C. Reactions of the bromo nucleoside derivatives could be conducted at a lowered catalytic loading (5 mol % Pd(OAc)2/7.5 mol % Xantphos), whereas good product yields were obtained with a higher catalyst load (10 mol % Pd(OAc)2/15 mol % Xantphos) when the chloro analogue was employed. Among the examples evaluated, silyl protection for the hydroxyls appears better as compared to acetyl. The methodology has been evaluated via reactions with a variety of aryl amines and by synthesis of biologically relevant deoxyadenosine and adenosine dimers. This is the first detailed analysis of aryl amination reactions of 6-chloropurine nucleosides, and comparison of the two halogenated nucleoside substrates.
palladium; ligand; amination; nucleoside; Xantphos; C–N bond-formation
Metal complexation can have a major influence on the antiviral and co-receptor binding properties of cyclam and bicyclam macrocycles. We report the synthesis of the vanadyl cyclam complexes [V(IV) O(cyclam)SO4] (1) and [V(IV)O(cyclam)Cl]Cl - (2), and the analogous xylylbicyclam sulfato (3) and chlorido (4) complexes. The X-ray crystal structures of 1·1.33CH3OH and 2·CH3OH1.5H2O show short V=O bonds (1.6093(19) and 1.599(3) Å, respectively) with monodentate sulfate H-bonded to ring NH groups for 1, but a long V-Cl bond (2.650(12) Å) for 2. The solid-state structures of 3 and 4 were compared to those of 1 and 2 using vanadium K-edge EXAFS data. These suggested that complex 4 was oligomeric and contained bridging chlorido ligands. EPR studies suggested that the SO42- (from 1) and Cl- (from 2) ligands are readily substituted by water in solution, whereas these remain partially bound for the VIV xylylbicyclam complexes 3 and 4. The vanadyl xylylbicyclam complexes were highly active against HIV-1 (IIIB) and HIV-2 (ROD) strains with IC50 values in the range 1-5 μM for 3 and 0.1-0.3 μM for 4; in contrast the vanadyl cyclam complexes 1 and 2 were inactive. The factors which contribute to the activity of these complexes are discussed. Studies of vanadyl cyclam docked into a model of the human CXCR4 co-receptor revealed that the coordination of vanadium to the carboxylate of Asp171 may be accompanied by H-bonding to the macrocycle and an attractive V=O··H interaction involving the backbone Trp195 α-carbon proton of CXCR4. In addition, hydrophobic interactions with Trp195 are present. Both ring configuration and the xylyl linker may play roles in determining the higher activity of the bicyclam complexes.
Two crystal structures have been solved for separate complexes of alkenyldiarylmethane (ADAM) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) 3 and 4 with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). The structures reveal inhibitor binding is exclusively hydrophobic in nature and the shape of the inhibitor-bound NNRTI binding pocket is unique among other reported inhibitor-RT crystal structures. Primarily, ADAMs 3 and 4 protrude from a large gap in the backside of the binding pocket, placing portions of the inhibitors unusually close to the polymerase active site and allowing 3 to form a weak hydrogen bond with Lys223. The lack of additional stabilizing interactions, beyond the observed hydrophobic surface contacts, between 4 and RT is quite perplexing given the extreme potency of the compound (IC50 ≤ nM). ADAM 4 was designed to be hydrolytically stable in blood plasma, and an investigation of its hydrolysis in rat plasma demonstrated it has a significantly prolonged half-life in comparison to ADAM lead compounds 1 and 2.
While 25 compounds have been formally licensed for the treatment of HIV infection (AIDS), only seven licensed products are currently available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: interferon-α, pegylated interferon-α, lamivudine, adefovir (dipivoxil), entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir (disoproxil fumarate). In contrast to the treatment of HIV infections where the individual drugs are routinely used in combination, for the treatment of chronic HBV infection the individual drugs are generally used in monotherapy. In principle, combination drug therapy should allow reducing the likelihood of drug-resistant development.
antiviral therapy; HBV therapy; nucleoside analogs; viral hepatitis
The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VV) served as the model virus for which the first antivirals, the thiosemicarbazones, were identified. This dates back to 1950; and, although there is at present no single antiviral drug specifically licensed for the chemotherapy or -prophylaxis of poxvirus infections, numerous candidate compounds have been described over the past 50 years. These compounds include interferon and inducers thereof (i.e., polyacrylic acid), 5-substituted 2’-deoxyuridines (i.e., idoxuridine), IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (such as cidofovir) and alkoxyalkyl prodrugs thereof (such as CMX001), viral egress inhibitors (such as tecovirimat), and cellular kinase inhibitors (such as imatinib).
thiosemicarbazones; interferon (inducers); idoxuridine (IDU); acyclic nucleoside phosphonates; cidofovir; CMX001 (HDP-CDV); tecovirimat (ST-246); Gleevec (imatinib)
A new copper(II) containing bis-macrocyclic CXCR4 chemokine receptor antagonist is shown to have improved binding properties to the receptor protein in comparison to the drug AMD3100 (Plerixafor, Mozobil™). The interaction of the metallodrug has been optimized by using ultra rigid chelator units that offer an equatorial site for coordination to the amino acid side chains of the protein. Binding competition assays with anti-CXCR4 antibodies show that the new compound stays bound longer and it has improved anti-HIV potency in vitro (EC50 = 4.3 nM). X-ray structural studies using acetate as a model for carboxylate amino acid side chains indicate the nature of the coordination interaction.
As a continuation of efforts to replace the metabolically labile methyl esters of the lead alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) with stable bioisosteres, compounds bearing benzo[d]isoxazole and oxazolidine-2-one rings were designed and evaluated as a new series of potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with anti-HIV activity. All of the resulting ADAMs were found to inhibit HIV-1 RT with poly(rC)·oligo(dG) as the template primer. The most promising compound in this series was ADAM 3, with EC50 values of 40 nM (vs HIV-1RF) and 20 nM (vs HIV-1IIIB). Compound 3 also inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.91 μM. ADAM 4 has an antiviral EC50 of 0.6 μM in CEM-SS cells and a plasma half-life of 51.4 min.
alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs); anti-HIV; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all shown to carry at least one amino acid mutation in the nonstructural protein 3A. In particular, three mutations located in a nonstructured region preceding the hydrophobic domain (V45A, I54F, and H57Y) appeared to contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. This region has previously been identified as a hot sport for mutations that resulted in resistance to enviroxime, the sole 3A-targeting enterovirus inhibitor reported thus far. This was corroborated by the fact that TTP-8307 and enviroxime proved cross-resistant. It is hypothesized that TTP-8307 and enviroxime disrupt proper interactions of 3A(B) with other viral or cellular proteins that are required for efficient replication.
The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) family of drugs shows promise as therapeutics for treating poxvirus infections. However, it has been questioned whether the utility of these compounds could be compromised through the intentional genetic modification of viral sequences by bioterrorists or the selection of drug resistance viruses during the course of antiviral therapy. To address these concerns, vaccinia virus (strain Lederle) was passaged 40 times in medium containing an escalating dose of (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine [(S)-HPMPDAP], which selected for mutant viruses exhibiting a ∼15-fold-increased resistance to the drug. (S)-HPMPDAP-resistant viruses were generated because this compound was shown to be one of the most highly selective and effective ANPs for the treatment of poxvirus infections. DNA sequence analysis revealed that these viruses encoded mutations in the E9L (DNA polymerase) gene, and marker rescue studies showed that the phenotype was produced by a combination of two (A684V and S851Y) substitution mutations. The effects of these mutations on drug resistance were tested against various ANPs, both separately and collectively, and compared with E9L A314T and A684V mutations previously isolated using selection for resistance to cidofovir, i.e., (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxypropyl)cytosine]. These studies demonstrated a complex pattern of resistance, although as a general rule, the double-mutant viruses exhibited greater resistance to the deoxyadenosine than to deoxycytidine nucleotide analogs. The S851Y mutant virus exhibited a low level of resistance to dCMP analogues but high-level resistance to dAMP analogues and to 6-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidine, which is considered to mimic the purine ring system. Notably, (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine retained marked activity against most of these mutant viruses. In vitro studies showed that the A684V mutation partially suppressed a virus growth defect and mutator phenotype created by the S851Y mutation, but all of the mutant viruses still exhibited a variable degree of reduced virulence in a mouse intranasal challenge model. Infections caused by these drug-resistant viruses in mice were still treatable with higher concentrations of the ANPs. These studies have identified a novel mechanism for the development of mutator DNA polymerases and provide further evidence that antipoxviral therapeutic strategies would not readily be undermined by selection for resistance to ANP drugs.
The alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) are currently being investigated as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of potential value in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. During the course of these studies, a number of ADAM analogues have been identified that protect HIV-infected cells from the cytopathic effects of the virus by an unknown, HIV-1 RT-independent mechanism. Since the phosphodiesterase 4 family is required for HIV infection, the effect of various ADAMs on the activity of PDE4B2 was investigated in an effort to determine if the ADAMs could possibly be targeting phosphodiesterases. Six compounds representative of the ADAM class were tested for inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis by PDE4B2 enzymatic activity. Four ADAMs were found to be weak inhibitors of PDE4B2 and two of them were inactive. The experimental results are consistent with an antiviral mechanism that does not include inhibition of PDE4 isoforms.
During studies on the alkenyldiarylmethane (ADAM) class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), analogues were discovered that exhibit low micromolar and sub-micromolar cytotoxicities. Since the ADAMs are structurally related to the tubulin polymerization inhibitor CC-5079, a set of fourteen ADAMs were tested for inhibition of tubulin polymerization in an attempt to identify the biological target responsible for their cytotoxicity. The results indicate that, overall, the ADAMs are poor inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. However, the two most cytotoxic compounds, 15 and 16, are in fact active as inhibitors of tubulin assembly with IC50 values of 3.7 ± 0.3 and 2.8 ± 0.2 µM, respectively, and they both inhibit the binding of colchicine to tubulin. Both compounds were investigated for anticancer activity in the National Cancer Institute's panel of 60 human cancer cell lines, and both compounds consistently displayed submicromolar cytotoxicities with mean-graph midpoint (MGM) values of 0.31 ± 0.08 and 0.47 ± 0.09 µM, respectively.
Debio-025 is a synthetic cyclosporine with no immunosuppressive capacity but a high inhibitory potency against cyclophilin A (CypA)-associated cis-trans prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. A lack of immunosuppressive effects compared to that of cyclosporine was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. For three cyclosporines, the inhibitory potential against PPIase activity was quantitatively correlated with that against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Debio-025 selectively inhibited the replication of HIV-1 in a CD4+ cell line and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: potent activity was demonstrated against clinical isolates of various HIV-1 subtypes, including isolates with multidrug resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. Simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 strains were generally resistant to inhibition by Debio-025; however, some notable exceptions of sensitive HIV-2 clinical isolates were detected. In two-drug combination studies, additive inhibitory effects were found between Debio-025 and 19 clinically used drugs of different classes. Clinical HIV-1 isolates that are naturally resistant to Debio-025 and that do not depend on CypA for infection were identified. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the CypA binding domain of the capsid (CA) protein from Debio-025-sensitive and -resistant HIV-1 isolates indicated that resistance was mostly associated with an H87Q/P exchange. Mechanistically, cyclosporines competitively inhibit the binding of CypA to the HIV-1 CA protein, which is an essential interaction required for early steps in HIV-1 replication. By real-time PCR we demonstrated that early reverse transcription is reduced in the presence of Debio-025 and that late reverse transcription is almost completely blocked. Thus, Debio-025 seems to interfere with the function of CypA during the progression/completion of HIV-1 reverse transcription.
Facile synthesis of C-4 aryl pyrimidinone nucleoside analogues from an easily prepared O4-arylsulfonate derivative of thymidine is reported. Two O4-arylsulfonylthymidine precursors, (4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl and (2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)sulfonyl, were prepared and analyzed for their stabilities. Of the two, the latter possessed suitable stability as well as reactivity for Pd-catalyzed C-C bond forming reactions with a variety of arylboronic acids. These reactions at the C-4 position are non-trivial in comparison with similar reactions at the C-5 position of pyrimidine nucleosides, with hydrolysis of the arylsulfonate precursor being a competing reaction in some cases. There are pronounced solvent influences in these reactions, but successful reactions can be attained by careful control of conditions. Many reactions proceeded efficiently at room temperature and electron-deficient arylboronic acids can also be cross-coupled under suitable conditions. Desilylation of these products was also non-trivial and various conditions were tested. Finally, anti-viral screening was performed with the C-4 aryl pyrimidinone nucleoside analogues, but none possessed any interesting activity. The study represents the first successful synthesis of C-4 aryl pyrimidinone nucleoside analogues by cross coupling of arylboronic acids with an arylsulfonate derived from a pyrimidine nucleoside, as well as antiviral testing of this new class of compounds.