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1.  Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence 
Psychological medicine  2009;40(4):569-579.
Individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) seem to share some social, behavioral and biological features. Although marked impairments in social cognition have been documented in both groups, little empirical work has compared the social cognitive functioning of these two clinical groups.
Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia, 36 with HFA and 41 non-clinical controls completed a battery of social cognitive measures that have been linked previously to specific brain regions.
The results indicate that the individuals with schizophrenia and HFA were both impaired on a variety of social cognitive tasks relative to the non-clinical controls, but did not differ from one another. When individuals with schizophrenia were divided into negative symptom and paranoid subgroups, exploratory analyses revealed that individuals with HFA may be more similar, in terms of the pattern of social cognition impairments, to the negative symptom group than to the paranoia group.
Our findings provide further support for similarities in social cognition deficits between HFA and schizophrenia, which have a variety of implications for future work on gene–brain–behavior relationships.
PMCID: PMC2827676  PMID: 19671209
Asperger’s syndrome; high-functioning autism; schizophrenia; social cognition
2.  Effects of fasting on temporal variations in nephrotoxicity of gentamicin in rats. 
Evidence for temporal variations in the nephrotoxicity of low doses of aminoglycosides were recently shown by using specific and sensitive parameters of renal toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a short period of fasting on the temporal variations in the renal toxicity of gentamicin. Twenty-eight normally fed (i.e., food and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment) female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 175 to 220 g) and 28 fasted rats (i.e., only water was available during a 12-h fast before and a 24-h fast after gentamicin injection) were used. The animals were synchronized on a 14-h light, 10-h dark cycle (lights on at 0600 h) for 1 week before gentamicin administration. In July 1993, each group of animals was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of saline (NaCl, 0.9%) or gentamicin (150 mg/kg of body weight) at either the peak (1400 h) or the trough (0200 h) of the previously determined toxicity. On day 1, the 24-h urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase was significantly higher in normally fed animals treated with gentamicin at 1400 h than in their time-matched controls and in normally fed animals treated at 0200 h (P < 0.01), which had normal levels of these enzymes. By contrast, the urinary excretion of these enzymes was significantly higher in both groups of gentamicin-treated, fasted rats than in their time-matched control groups (P < 0.01), reaching levels similar to those measured in normally fed rats treated at 1400 h. The accumulation of gentamicin was significantly lower in the renal cortex of normally fed rats treated at 0200 h than in rats treated at 1400 h (P < 0.05), but this time-dependent difference was not found in fasted rats treated at 0200 and 1400 h. Immunogold labeling done on ultrathin sections and observed by electron microscopy showed a similar subcellular localization of gentamicin in normally fed and fasted rats treated at either 1400 or 0200 h. These results suggest that the feeding period is of crucial importance in the temporal variations of the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin in rats.
PMCID: PMC163178  PMID: 8851591
3.  Daptomycin may attenuate experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by electrostatic complexation to tobramycin. 
The lipopeptidic antibiotic daptomycin is reported to reduce experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). In an attempt to explain these results, the in vivo and in vitro interactions between daptomycin and tobramycin were studied. Tobramycin alone and preincubated with negatively charged phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) was dialyzed against increasing concentrations of daptomycin in buffer at pH 5.4. A significant drop in the concentration of tobramycin was observed when daptomycin was added to the opposite half cells. Furthermore, daptomycin induced a concentration-dependent release of lipid-bound tobramycin. Gold labeling experiments showed that daptomycin could be incorporated into phospholipid layers. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daptomycin alone, with tobramycin alone, or with the combination over 2 to 10 days. Levels of daptomycin and tobramycin in serum were similar in all groups. The levels of tobramycin in the renal cortex increased significantly with time and, on day 10, reached values of 654 +/- 122 and 844 +/- 298 micrograms/g of tissue (mean +/- standard deviation; not significant) in animals treated with tobramycin and the combination of daptomycin-tobramycin, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the levels of tobramycin in the kidneys between animals treated with tobramycin or the daptomycin-tobramycin combination at any time. By contrast, daptomycin levels were significantly higher in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin-tobramycin in comparison with those in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin alone on days 6,8, and 10 (P < 0.01). For immunogold labeling studies, animals were killed 4 h after a single injection of daptomycin alone or daptomycin in combination with tobramycin. Daptomycin was found throughout the matrixes of the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone. In animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin, daptomycin was associated with intralysosomal myeloid bodies. Our results suggest that daptomycin might attenuate experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interacting with the aminoglycoside, perhaps electrostatically, and thereby protecting intracellular targets of toxicity.
PMCID: PMC284536  PMID: 8031040

Results 1-3 (3)