Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a new neuroimaging technique, which uses tissue magnetic susceptibility differences to generate a unique contrast, different from that of spin density, T1, T2, and T2*. In this review (the first of 2 parts), we present the technical background for SWI. We discuss the concept of gradient-echo images and how we can measure local changes in susceptibility. Armed with this material, we introduce the steps required to transform the original magnitude and phase images into SWI data. The use of SWI filtered phase as a means to visualize and potentially quantify iron in the brain is presented. Advice for the correct interpretation of SWI data is discussed, and a set of recommended sequence parameters for different field strengths is given.
The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits.
To improve susceptibility quantification, a threshold-based k-space/image domain iterative approach that uses geometric information from the susceptibility map itself as a constraint to overcome the ill-posed nature of the inverse filter is introduced. Simulations were used to study the accuracy of the method and its robustness in the presence of noise. In vivo data was processed and analyzed using this method. Both simulations and in vivo results show that most streaking artifacts inside the susceptibility map caused by the ill-defined inverse filter were suppressed by the iterative approach. In simulated data, the bias toward lower mean susceptibility values inside vessels has been shown to decrease from around 10% to 2% when choosing an appropriate threshold value for the proposed iterative method. Typically, three iterations are sufficient for this approach to converge and this process takes less than 30 seconds to process a 512 × 512 × 256 dataset. This iterative method improves quantification of susceptibility inside vessels and reduces streaking artifacts throughout the brain for data collected from a single-orientation acquisition. This approach has been applied to vessels alone as well as to vessels and other structures with lower susceptibility to generate whole brain susceptibility maps with significantly reduced streaking artifacts.
oxygen saturation; susceptibility mapping; susceptibility weighted imaging
A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.
5-Amino-2,5-dideoxy-5-iodouridine, a nel thymidine analogue, is a potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication. In contrast to most other nucleoside analogues which possess antiviral activity, 5-amino-2,5-dideoxy-5-iodouridine exhibits little, if any, cellular toxicity. Preliminary evidence suggests that 5-amino-2,5-dideoxy-5-iodouridine selectively inhibits viral-specific DNA synthesis.
One of the proposed mechanisms of trastuzumab-induced regression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) tumours includes facilitation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediates ADCC. We presented our pilot study of adding GM-CSF to trastuzumab in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
Patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer that progressed after trastuzumab +/− chemotherapy were continued on trastuzumab 2 mg kg–1 intravenous weekly and GM-CSF 250 μg m–2 subcutaneous daily. Patients were assessed for response every 8 weeks. Treatment was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity.
Seventeen patients were evaluable (median age 48 years, range 27–75 years). The median number of metastatic sites was 2 (range 1–3); the most common site was the liver (n=10). The median number of prior regimens for metastatic disease was 2 (range 1–5). No objective disease response was observed, but five patients (29%) had stable disease for a median duration of 15.8 (range 10–53.9) weeks. The most common adverse event was rash at the injection site. No grade 4 or irreversible adverse event was seen.
The addition of GM-CSF to trastuzumab alone had a modest clinical benefit and acceptable safety profile in heavily pretreated patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HER2; metastatic breast cancer; trastuzumab
The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100) substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.
ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotip; Photoluminescence; Activation energies
The authors report the growth of needle-like high density quaternary Zn0.87Cd0.13Se0.98Te0.02 nanotips on oxidized Si(100) substrate. It was found that average length and average diameter of the nanotips were 1.3 μm and 91 nm, respectively. It was also found that the as-grown ZnCdSeTe nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. Furthermore, it was found that the operation speeds of the fabricated ZnCdSeTe nanotip photodetector were fast with turn-on and turn-off time constants both less than 2 s.
ZnCdSeTe; Nanotips; MBE; Photodetector
The l-nucleoside analog β-l-2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydro-5-fluorocytidine (β-l-Fd4C) was first shown to exhibit potent activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in tissue culture and then to significantly inhibit viral spread during acute infection in the duck HBV model (F. Le Guerhier et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:111–122, 2000). We have therefore examined its antiviral activity in a mammalian model of chronic HBV infection, the woodchuck chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Side-by-side comparison of β-l-Fd4C and lamivudine administered intraperitoneally during short-term and long-term protocols demonstrated a more profound inhibition of viremia in β-l-Fd4C-treated groups. Moreover, β-l-Fd4C induced a marked inhibition of intrahepatic viral DNA synthesis compared with that induced by lamivudine. Nevertheless, covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA persistence explained the lack of clearance of infected hepatocytes expressing viral antigens and the relapse of WHV replication after drug withdrawal. Liver histology showed a decrease in the inflammatory activity of chronic hepatitis in woodchucks receiving β-l-Fd4C. An electron microscopy study showed the absence of ultrastructural changes of hepatic mitochondria, biliary canaliculi, and bile ducts. However, a loss of weight was observed in all animals, whatever the treatment, as was a transient skin pigmentation in all woodchucks during β-l-Fd4C treatment. There was no evidence that lamivudine or β-l-Fd4C could prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma with the protocols used. These results indicate that β-l-Fd4C exhibits a more potent antiviral effect than lamivudine in the WHV model but was not able to eradicate CCC DNA and infected cells from the liver at the dosage and with the protocol used.
The acyclic cytosine nucleoside analog cytallene [1-(4'-hydroxy-1',2'-butadienyl)cytosine], which has both (+)- and (-)-enantiomers, was evaluated for its anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity in 2.2.15 cells and was found to have potent activity against HBV DNA synthesis. The R-(-)-enantiomer was found to be the more active of the cytallene enantiomers, with a 50% inhibition concentration against HBV synthesis (HBIC50) of 0.08 microM. Its antiviral activity could be reversed by deoxycytidine (dC) and less efficiently by cytidine. Upon removal of the R-(-)-enantiomer from culture medium, the synthesis of HBV DNA could reinitiate, which suggested that the antiviral action is reversible. The R-(-)-enantiomer was also found to be more cytotoxic than the S-(+)-enantiomer. The degree of cytotoxicity varied among the cell lines, with a 50% inhibition of cell growth at greater than 10 microM. The R-(-)-enantiomer had no effect on HBV RNA synthesis and mitochondrial DNA synthesis at a concentration of 10 times or more than the HBIC50. The two enantiomers cannot be deaminated by dC deaminase, and they can be phosphorylated by cytoplasmic dC kinase. The R-(-)-enantiomer of cytallene is the first acyclic cytosine analog with potent inhibitory activity against HBV similar to those of other L-(-)-ddC analogs.
2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl uracil (L-FMAU) was discovered to have potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). L-FMAU was more potent than its D-enantiomer and produced dose-dependent inhibition of the viral DNA replication in 2.2.15 cells (human HepG2 cells with the HBV genome), with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.1 microM. There was no inhibitory effect on HBV transcription or protein synthesis. In the 2.2.15 cell system, L-FMAU did not show any toxicity up to 200 microM, whereas the D-enantiomer was toxic, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 50 microM. Repeated treatments of HepG2 cells with L-FMAU at a 1 microM concentration for 9 days did not result in any decrease in the total mitochondrial DNA content, suggesting that a mode of toxicity similar to that produced by 2',3'-dideoxycytidine is unlikely. Also at concentrations as high as 200 microM, L-FMAU did not adversely affect mitochondrial function as determined by lactic acid production by L-FMAU-treated hepatoma cells. L-FMAU was metabolized in the cells to its mono-, di-, and triphosphates, A dose-dependent inhibition of HBV DNA synthesis by L-FMAU triphosphate was observed in the DNA polymerase assays with isolated HBV particles, suggesting that the mode of action of this compound could involve viral polymerase. However, L-FMAU was not incorporated into the cellular DNA. Considering the potent inhibition of the viral DNA synthesis and the nontoxicity of L-FMAU towards the host DNA synthetic machinery, this compound should be further explored for development as asn anti-HBV drug.
beta-L-Nucleoside analogs represent a new class of potent antiviral agents with low cytotoxicity which provide new hope in the therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We evaluated the anti-HBV activity of 2',3'-dideoxy-beta-L-5-fluorocytidine (beta-L-F-ddC), a beta-L-nucleoside analog derived from 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), in the duck HBV (DHBV) model. This compound was previously shown to inhibit HBV DNA synthesis in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line (F2215). Using a cell-free system for the expression of an enzymatically active DHBV polymerase, we could demonstrate that the triphosphate form of beta-L-F-ddC does inhibit hepadnavirus reverse transcription. In primary duck hepatocyte culture, beta-L-F-ddC showed a potent inhibitory effect on DHBV DNA synthesis which was concentration dependent. Although beta-L-F-ddC was shown to be less active than ddC against the DHBV reverse transcriptase in vitro, beta-L-F-ddC was a stronger inhibitor in hepatocytes. The oral administration of beta-L-F-ddC in experimentally infected ducklings showed that beta-L-F-ddC is a potent inhibitor of viral replication in vivo. Short-term therapy could not prevent a rebound of viral replication after the drug was withdrawn. Preventive therapy with beta-L-F-ddC could delay the onset of viremia by only 1 day compared with the time to the onset of viremia in the control group. The in vivo inhibitory effect of beta-L-F-ddC was much stronger than that of ddC and was not associated with signs of toxicity. Our data show that beta-L-F-ddC inhibits hepadnavirus reverse transcription and is a strong inhibitor of viral replication both in vitro and in vivo.
A novel anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) agent, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-FMAU), was synthesized and found to be a potent anti-HBV and anti-Epstein-Barr virus agent. Its in vitro potency was evaluated in 2.2.15 and H1 cells for anti-HBV and anti-Epstein-Barr virus activities, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity in MT2, CEM, 2.2.15, and H1 cells was also assessed, and the results indicated high antiviral selectivities of L-FMAU in these cells.
Three structural analogs of 5-ethyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-6-(phenylthio)uracil (E-BPU) inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication without cytotoxicity in vitro and were more potent than azidothymidine and were as potent as E-BPU. The target of these compounds is HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Reverse transcriptases resistant to nevirapine (tyrosine at position 181 to cysteine) and TIBO R82150 (leucine at position 100 to isoleucine) are cross resistant to E-BPU analogs. Nevirapine- or TIBO R82150-resistant HIV-1 were cross resistant to E-BPU analogs but were inhibited at concentrations 11- to 135-fold lower than the cytotoxic doses.
Several 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (PdR) analogs were examined for their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in cell culture. The order of potency of their antiviral activities against HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 was iodo PdR approximately ethynyl PdR approximately propynyl PdR. The antiviral action of iodo PdR is dependent on the ability of HSV to induce virus-specified thymidine kinase in infected cells. Several HSV-1 variants with altered thymidine kinase changed their sensitivity to iodo PdR, whereas HSV-1 variants with altered DNA polymerase were as sensitive as the parental virus to iodo PdR. Continuous presence of iodo PdR for more than one virus replication cycle was required for optimal antiviral activity. Iodo PdR (100 microM) had no activity against Epstein-Barr virus DNA replication in P3HR-1 cells. With an oral, an intraperitoneal, or a subcutaneous route of injection, iodo PdR administered twice a day for 2.5 days could prevent the death of mice infected with HSV-2. This in vivo activity is unlikely to be related to the potential conversion of iodo PdR to iododeoxyuridine, since iodo PdR is not a substrate of xanthine oxidase.
Potential antiviral nucleoside analogs 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine, the 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-nucleosides of -5-methyluracil, -5-iodouracil, -5-methylcytosine, -5-iodocytosine, and -E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, and 9-(2-hydroxyethyoxymethyl)guanine were studied to compare their phosphorylation rates relative to thymidine by purified thymidine kinases from human and herpes simplex virus sources. Most of these analogs are capable of being phosphorylated by both human and viral enzymes. On the assumption that inhibition constants (Ki) reflect binding affinity, Ki values were determined for these analogs with the same thymidine kinases. In general, these analogs have a greater affinity for the viral enzymes. The amount of the analogs phosphorylated to the monophosphate form, which is presumably necessary to produce cytotoxic effects, was determined by the combined effects of phosphorylation rates and binding affinities. All of these analogs act as preferential substrates for the viral thymidine kinases at low concentrations, which may be one of the main reasons for their selective antiviral action.
The toxic effects of various concentrations of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine (D4T), and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) on CEM cells after 4 days of culture were assessed by measuring cell viability, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and mitochondrial morphology. Cell viability and mtDNA content in drug-treated cultures were significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion in comparison with cell viability and mtDNA content in untreated cultures. Cells in the treated cultures also showed significant changes in their mitochondrial morphologies which included distortion and reduction of the cristae and numerous vesicles. Unique features of the morphological changes were associated with each drug. The decrease in cell viability and mtDNA content and the increase in mitochondrial ultrastructural changes were directly related to the concentrations of the drugs used. The potencies of these compounds in reducing cell viability, mtDNA content, and normal mitochondria were in the order ddC > D4T > ddI. Comparison of the three assays used demonstrated that mtDNA content is a significantly more sensitive measure of drug toxicity than cell viability and mitochondrial morphology for the three compounds studied.
We found that 28-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-oligos) with and without sequence specificity complementary to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes are potent inhibitors of EBV replication in cell culture. The decrease in the amount of EBV DNA, the activity of intracellular viral DNA polymerase, and virus production were dose dependent, with a 90% inhibitory dose of approximately 0.5 microM. No inhibition of cell growth was observed with the S-oligos at concentrations up to 20 microM. The mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of EBV DNA synthesis. The reversibility of anti-EBV action is dependent on the dose and duration of drug exposure. S-oligos should be considered a new class of anti-EBV agents.
Phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides were found to be potent inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) but less potent for HSV-1 in cell culture studies. Oligomers with longer chain lengths were more active against HSV-2 than those with shorter ones. Of all the compounds examined, the 28-mer phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides were the strongest inhibitors of HSV-2. The degree of inhibition was related to the base moiety on the order of deoxycytidine = thymidine greater than deoxyadenosine. The inhibition of HSV-2 growth by S-dC28 was dose dependent with a 90% inhibitory dose of 1 microM. At 50 microM, S-dC28 inhibited HeLa S3 cell growth by less than 10%. The anti-HSV-2 activity was time and schedule dependent. The oligomer was most inhibitory to viral growth when present during the 1-h viral adsorption period, and this effect could be enhanced by continuous drug exposure after the adsorption period. S-dC28 was also an effective inhibitor of two HSV-2 drug-resistant mutants: a phosphonoformate-resistant mutant that induces an altered DNA polymerase and a 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine-resistant mutant that does not induce the viral thymidine kinase. In drug combination studies, phosphonoformate was shown to potentiate the action of S-dC28 against HSV-2 growth. In conclusion, because of their potency and selectivity, phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides are a promising new class of anti-HSV agents.
A new DNA polymerase and DNase activity were identified from cells infected with human B-lymphotropic herpesvirus (HBLV). DNA polymerase associated with HBLV infection was similar in its sensitivity to inhibition by ppi analogs as other herpesvirus-specific DNA polymerases but was dissimilar in its inhibition by certain nucleoside triphosphates.
2'-Fluoro-5-ethyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FEAU) was synthesized, and its biological activities were compared with those of 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU). Earlier studies indicated that both compounds showed potent anti-herpes simplex virus activity, with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of less than 0.25 microM. In the present study the cell growth inhibitory activity of FEAU (ED50, 200 to 2,060 microM) was found to be about 100-fold less than that of FMAU. With an ED50 ranging from 630 to 3,700 microM, FEAU only weakly inhibited thymidine incorporation into DNA, as compared with FMAU with an ED50 of 9 to 28 microM. Following exposure to [2-14C]FEAU (100 microM), 0.48 pmol/10(6) cells per h was incorporated into the DNA of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected Vero cells, whereas no detectable incorporation was found in uninfected Vero cells or L1210 cells. The Ki of FEAU for thymidine kinase purified from human leukemic cells was greater than 150 microM. For herpes simplex virus type 1- and 2-encoded thymidine kinases, the Kis were 0.6 and 0.74 microM, respectively. Both FEAU and FMAU were relatively nontoxic for mice, with a 50% lethal dose of greater than 800 mg/kg per day (four intraperitoneal doses). However, the lethal dose of FEAU for dogs was 100 mg/kg per day (10 intravenous doses), a dose which is 40- to 80-fold greater than the toxic dose of FMAU. These results suggest that FEAU is a worthy candidate for further development as an antiherpetic agent.
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as identified by R3 monoclonal antibody, are critical components of EBV DNA polymerase.
The thymidine analog 5'-ethynylthymidine was a potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain KOS)-induced thymidine kinase with a Ki value of 0.09 microM. 5'-Ethynylthymidine was less inhibitory against herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain 333)-induced thymidine kinase with a Ki of 0.38 microM and showed no inhibition against human cytosolic thymidine kinase under the conditions tested. The compound was effective against the altered thymidine kinase induced by acyclovir- and bromovinyldeoxyuridine-resistant virus variants. At 100 microM 5'-ethynylthymidine, the cellular pool size of dTTP in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells was 5% that of infected cells receiving no drug treatment, while there was no significant effect on the pool sizes of dATP, dGTP, and dCTP. There was a positive correlation between dTTP pools and the intracellular thymidine kinase activity of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells. When tested alone, 5'-ethynylthymidine exhibited no antiviral activity, but it antagonized the antiviral efficacy of five compounds which require viral thymidine kinase for their action.
Human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase and cellular DNA polymerase alpha were purified by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose, heparin agarose, and single-stranded DNA agarose columns. The purified virus-induced DNA polymerase was resolved to consist of two polypeptides corresponding to molecular weights of 140,000 and 58,000, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Virus-induced DNA polymerase and cellular alpha polymerase were examined for their sensitivities to the triphosphates of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAUTP), -5-iodocytosine (FIACTP), and -5-methylcytosine (FMACTP). The inhibitive effects of these triphosphates on the DNA polymerases were competitive with regard to the natural substrates; thus FMAUTP competes with dTTP, and FIACTP and FMACTP compete with dCTP. The inhibition constants (Ki) for FMAUTP, FIACTP, and FMACTP of virus-induced DNA polymerase are 0.06, 0.30, and 0.47 microM, respectively. Cellular DNA polymerase alpha is much less sensitive to these inhibitors, and its Ki values for FMAUTP, FIACTP, and FMACTP are 0.45, 3.10, and 2.90 microM, respectively. In addition, human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase, but not cellular DNA polymerase alpha, can utilize these analog triphosphates as alternate substrates for their corresponding natural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in in vitro DNA synthesis.
Dual inhibitor studies were performed to examine the interaction of aphidicolin, phosphonoformate, 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine triphosphate, and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine triphosphate with herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase. Kinetic data indicated that inhibition by one agent prevents simultaneous inhibition by a second agent, producing a mutually exclusive inhibition pattern. This suggested that binding sites on the DNA polymerase molecule for these compounds are kinetically overlapping. These findings should be taken into consideration for the design of future antiviral compounds and combination chemotherapy protocols.