YAG laser iridotomy; intraocular pressure; pigmentary glaucoma
The prognostic value of CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in colorectal cancer remains controversial. We systematically reviewed the evidence for assessment of CDKN2A methylation in colorectal cancer to elucidate this issue.
Pubmed, Embase and ISI web of knowledge were searched to identify eligible studies to evaluate the association of CDKN2A hypermethylation and overall survival and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer patients. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were pooled using a random-effects model.
A total of 11 studies encompassing 3440 patients were included in the meta-analysis. CDKN2A hypermethylation had an unfavourable impact on OS of patients with colorectal cancer (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.29–2.11). Subgroup analysis indicated that CDKN2A hypermethylation was significantly correlated with OS in Europe (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.28–1.74) and Asia (HR 3.30; 95% CI 1.68–6.46). Furthermore, there was a significant association between CDKN2A hypermethylation and lymphovascular invasion (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.15–2.47), lymph node metastasis (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09–2.59) and proximal tumour location (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.34–3.26) of colorectal cancer.
This meta-analysis indicated that CDKN2A hypermethylation might be a predictive factor for unfavourable prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.
CDKN2A; methylation; colorectal cancer; prognosis
Cucurbitacin E (CuE) or α-elaterin is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigated the anticancer effects of CuE on colorectal cancer (CRC) using primary cell lines isolated from five CRC patients in Taiwan, Specifically, we explored the anti-proliferation and cell cycle G2/M arrest induced by CuE in CRC cells. MPM-2 flow cytometry tests show that CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5–7.5 μM). Results further indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the downregulation of CDC2 and cyclin B1 expression and dissociation. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE; however, the inhibition of proliferation, arrest of mitosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were found to be dependent on the quantity of CuE used to treat the cancer cells. In addition, cell cycle arrest in treated cells coincided with the activation of the gene GADD45(α, β, γ). Incubation with CuE resulted in the binding of GADD45γ to CDC2, which suggests that the delay in CuE-induced mitosis is regulated by the overexpression of GADD45γ. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activities in established CRC.
Cucurbitacin E; Colorectal cancer (CRC); G2/M arrest; Growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45)
To explore the potential of quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
34 cases of FNH and 66 cases of HCC (all lesions <5 cm) were studied using CEUS to evaluate enhancement patterns and using analytic software Sonoliver® (Image-Arena™ v.4.0, TomTec Imaging Systems, Munich, Germany) to obtain quantitative features of CEUS in the region of interest. The quantitative features of maximum of intensity (IMAX), rise slope (RS), rise time (RT) and time to peak (TTP) were compared between the two groups and applied to further characterise both FNH and HCC with hypoenhancing patterns in the late phase on CEUS.
The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS for diagnosis of FNH were 67.6% and 93.9%, respectively. For quantitative analysis, IMAX and RS in FNHs were significantly higher than those in HCCs (p<0.05), while RT and TTP in FNHs were significantly shorter (p<0.05). Both the 11 FNHs and 62 HCCs with hypo-enhancing patterns in the late phase were further characterised with their quantitative features, and the sensitivity and specificity of IMAX for diagnosis of FNH were 90.9% and 43.5%, RS 81.8% and 80.6%, RT 90.9% and 71.0%, and TTP 90.9% and 71.0%, respectively.
The quantitative features of CEUS in FNH and HCC were significantly different, and they could further differentiate FNH from HCC following conventional CEUS.
Advances in knowledge:
Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of CEUS can improve the accuracy of differentiating FNH from HCC.
Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH) is an important clinical problem that is often
monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography,
magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are
not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world,
emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive
tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. The system measures the magnetic
induction phase shift (MIPS) between the electromagnetic signals on two coils.
ACH was induced in 6 experimental rabbits and edema was induced in 4 control
rabbits by stereotactic methods, and their intracranial pressure and heart rate
were monitored for 1 h. Signals were continuously monitored for up to 1 h at an
exciting frequency of 10.7 MHz. Autologous blood was administered to the
experimental group, and saline to the control group (1 to 3 mL) by injection of
1-mL every 5 min. The results showed a significant increase in MIPS as a
function of the injection volume, but the heart rate was stable. In the
experimental (ACH) group, there was a statistically significant positive
correlation of the intracranial pressure and MIPS. The change of MIPS was
greater in the ACH group than in the control group. This high-sensitivity system
could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume. The MIPS was significantly related
to the intracranial pressure. This observation suggests that the method could be
valuable for detecting early warning signs in emergency medicine and critical
Acute cerebral hemorrhage; Magnetic induction phase shift; Electromagnetic properties of biological tissues; Intracranial pressure
Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to have anti-feedant, antioxidant and antitumor activities as well as a potent chemo-preventive action against cancer. The present study investigates its anti-proliferative property using MTT assay; CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest in these cells. CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5–10 μM) as determined using MPM-2 by flow cytometry. We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of CuE in GBM 8401 cells. We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. The CuE reduced the expression of 558 genes and elevated the levels of 1354 genes, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of G2/M arrest. We identified the RB (GADD45β and GADD45γ) and the p53 (GADD45α) signaling pathways as the common pathways, serving as key molecules that regulate cell cycle. Results indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the upregulation of GADD45 γ and binding with CDC2. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE, suggesting that the CuE-induced mitosis delay is regulated by GADD45γ overexpression. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activity in glioma therapy.
cucurbitacin E (CuE); malignant glioma; G2/M arrest; growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45)
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an important mitotic kinase and its expression is tightly regulated in the cell cycle and in the DNA damage response. PLK1 expression is previously shown to be suppressed by p53 and/or p21. Here, we demonstrate that the CCAAT box in the PLK1 promoter is pivotal for p53/p21-mediated PLK1 repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) associated with the CCAAT box-containing region of PLK1 promoter in unstressed cells, whereas adriamycin (ADR) induced the recruitment of p21 with a concomitant reduction in the occupancy of CDK2 in this region. Expression of p21 inhibited the interaction between CDK2 and the nuclear factor YA (NF-YA) subunit of the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor NF-Y. A mutant p21 that is defective in CDK2 binding was unable to disrupt the CDK2–NF-YA interaction or suppress PLK1 transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated the interaction between NF-YA and p21, and in vitro assays showed that p21 could directly bind to NF-YA. Knockdown of NF-YA decreased the amount of PLK1 promoter-associated p21 and abolished p21-mediated PLK1 repression in cells treated with ADR. Depletion of NF-YA diminished the p53-regulated transcriptional activation and suppressed the p53-mediated protection from mitotic death after DNA damage, and these effects of NF-YA deletion were alleviated by PLK1 depletion. Our findings have uncovered a novel p21/NF-YA/PLK1 axis critical for maintaining the checkpoint function of p53 to prevent mitotic death in the DNA damage-induced response.
PLK1; NF-YA; p21; p53; mitotic death
Limited data exist on allogeneic transplant outcomes in recipients receiving hematopoietic cells from donors with prior or current hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) infection (seropositive donors) or for recipients with prior or current HBV or HCV infection (seropositive recipients). Transplant outcomes are reported for 416 recipients from 121 centers who received a human leukocyte antigen-identical related-donor allogeneic transplant for hematologic malignancies between 1995 and 2003. Of these, 33 seronegative recipients received grafts from seropositive donors and 128 recipients were seropositive. The remaining 256 patients served as controls. With comparable median follow-up (cases, 5.9 years; controls, 6.7 years), the incidence of treatment-related mortality, survival, graft-versus-host disease, and hepatic toxicity appears similar in all cohorts. The frequencies of hepatic toxicities as well as causes of death between cases and controls were similar. Prior exposure to HBV or HCV in either the donor or the recipient should not be considered an absolute contraindication to transplant.
allogeneic transplantation; hepatitis B; hepatitis C
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells refractory to initial chemotherapy frequently develop disease relapse and distant metastasis. We show here that tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) (also named FOR or WOX1) regulates the susceptibility of SCC to methotrexate (MTX) in vitro and cure of SCC in MTX therapy. MTX increased WWOX expression, accompanied by caspase activation and apoptosis, in MTX-sensitive SCC cell lines and tumor biopsies. Suppression by a dominant-negative or small interfering RNA targeting WWOX blocked MTX-mediated cell death in sensitive SCC-15 cells that highly expressed WWOX. In stark contrast, SCC-9 cells expressed minimum amount of WWOX protein and resisted MTX-induced apoptosis. Transiently overexpressed WWOX sensitized SCC-9 cells to apoptosis by MTX. MTX significantly downregulated autophagy-related Beclin-1, Atg12–Atg5 and LC3-II protein expression and autophagosome formation in the sensitive SCC-15, whereas autophagy remained robust in the resistant SCC-9. Mechanistically, WWOX physically interacted with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which potentiated MTX-increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream substrate p70 S6 kinase, along with dramatic downregulation of the aforementioned proteins in autophagy, in SCC-15. When WWOX was knocked down in SCC-15, MTX-induced mTOR signaling and autophagy inhibition were blocked. Thus, WWOX renders SCC cells susceptible to MTX-induced apoptosis by dampening autophagy, and the failure in inducing WWOX expression leads to chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
tumor suppressor; methotrexate; chemotherapy; autophagy; apoptosis
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which promotes cell survival and division, is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many cancer cell types, including many cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Erlotinib (Tarceva), an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a so-called targeted drug that inhibits the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, and thus targets cancer cells with some specificity while doing less damage to normal cells. However, erlotinib resistance can occur, reducing the efficacy of this treatment. To develop more effective therapeutic interventions by overcoming this resistance problem, we combined the histone deacetylase inhibitor, MPT0E028, with erlotinib in an effort to increase their antitumor effects in erlotinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells. This combined treatment yielded significant growth inhibition, induced the expression of apoptotic proteins (PARP, γH2AX, and caspase-3), increased the levels of acetylated histone H3, and showed synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo. These effects were independent of the mutation status of the genes encoding EGFR or K-Ras. MPT0E028 synergistically blocked key regulators of the EGFR/HER2 signaling pathways, attenuating multiple compensatory pathways (e.g., AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-MET). Our results indicate that this combination therapy might be a promising strategy for facilitating the effects of erlotinib monotherapy by activating various networks. Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that MPT0E028 has the potential to improve the treatment of heterogeneous and drug-resistant tumors that cannot be controlled with single-target agents.
lung cancer; HDAC; synergistic; EGFR; apoptosis; erlotinib
We investigated the role of the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) on intestinal salt and water absorption, brush border membrane (BBM) morphology, and on the NHE3 mRNA expression, protein abundance, and transport activity in the murine intestine. NHERF1-deficient mice displayed reduced jejunal fluid absorption in vivo, as well as an attenuated in vitro Na+ absorption in isolated jejunal and colonic, but not of ileal, mucosa. However, cAMP-mediated inhibition of both parameters remained intact. Acid-activated NHE3 transport rate was reduced in surface colonocytes, while its inhibition by cAMP and cGMP was normal. Immunodetection of NHE3 revealed normal NHE3 localization in the BBM of NHERF1 null mice, but NHE3 abundance, as measured by Western blot, was significantly reduced in isolated BBM from the small and large intestines. Furthermore, the microvilli in the proximal colon, but not in the small intestine, were significantly shorter in NHERF1 null mice. Additional knockout of PDZK1 (NHERF3), another member of the NHERF family of adaptor proteins, which binds to both NHE3 and NHERF1, further reduced basal NHE3 activity and caused complete loss of cAMP-mediated NHE3 inhibition. An activator of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) had no effect on jejunal fluid absorption in vivo, but slightly inhibited NHE3 activity in surface colonocytes in vitro. In conclusion, NHERF1 has segment-specific effects on intestinal salt absorption, NHE3 transport rates, and NHE3 membrane abundance without affecting mRNA levels. However, unlike PDZK1, NHERF1 is not required for NHE3 regulation by cyclic nucleotides.
PDZ domain proteins; Intestinal electrolyte transport; PDZK1; NHERF1; EPAC; Knockout mice
The aim of the study was to compare differences in dosimetric, clinical and quality-of-life end points among patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT) and segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
From June 2005 to August 2009, 30 consecutive patients were treated with IMRT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma to a dose of 70 Gy. 14 patients (47%) were treated using HT and 16 (53%) were treated using SMLC-based IMRT. 28 patients (93%) received concurrent chemotherapy. The patients were evenly balanced between the two radiotherapy groups with respect to clinical and pathological characteristics. Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 6–62 months).
The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local–regional control and progression-free survival were 81%, 87% and 82%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these end points with respect to IMRT technique (p>0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that patients treated by HT had significantly improved salivary sparing with respect to mean dose (27.3 vs 34.1 Gy, p=0.03) and volume receiving greater than or equal to 30 Gy (31.7% vs 47.3%, p=0.01) to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. The incidence of Grade 3+ late xerostomia was 13 and 7% among patients treated with SMLC-based IMRT and HT, respectively (p=0.62). The corresponding proportion of patients who subjectively reported “too little” or “no” saliva at final follow-up was 38% and 7%, respectively (p=0.04).
The superior dosimetric outcome observed with HT appeared to translate into moderately improved clinical outcomes with respect to salivary sparing. Prospective trials are needed to validate this gain in the therapeutic ratio.
We have studied a hybrid nanoelectronic system which consists of an AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in close proximity (~70 nm) to an Al superconducting nanofilm. By tuning the current through the Al film, we can change the conductance of the 2DEG and furthermore vary the effective disorder in the Al superconducting film in a controllable way. When a high current is injected into the film, screening which couples the Al film and the 2DEG results in a collapse of anti-symmetric behavior in the current-voltage characteristics, V(I) ~ -V(-I), which holds true in a conventional superconductor. Our results may open a new avenue of experimentally realizing a superconducting diode.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and underlying Bruch’s membrane undergo significant modulation during ageing. Progressive, age-related modifications of lipids and proteins by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) at this cell–substrate interface have been implicated in RPE dysfunction and the progression to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathogenic nature of these adducts in Bruch’s membrane and their influence on the overlying RPE remains unclear. This study aimed to identify alterations in RPE protein expression in cells exposed to AGE-modified basement membrane (AGE-BM), to determine how this “aged” substrate impacts RPE function and to map the localisation of identified proteins in ageing retina.
Confluent ARPE-19 monolayers were cultured on AGE-BM and native, non-modified BM (BM). Following 28-day incubation, the proteome was profiled using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D), densitometry and image analysis was employed to map proteins of interest that were identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS). Immunocytochemistry was employed to localise identified proteins in ARPE-19 monolayers cultured on unmodified and AGE-BM and to analyze aged human retina.
Image analysis detected altered protein spot densities between treatment groups, and proteins of interest were identified by LC ESI MS/MS which included heat-shock proteins, cytoskeletal and metabolic regulators. Immunocytochemistry revealed deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin carboxyterminal hydrolase-1 (UCH-L1), which was upregulated in AGE-exposed RPE and was also localised to RPE in human retinal sections.
This study has demonstrated that AGE-modification of basement membrane alters the RPE proteome. Many proteins are changed in this ageing model, including UCHL-1, which could impact upon RPE degradative capacity. Accumulation of AGEs at Bruch”s membrane could play a significant role in age-related dysfunction of the RPE.
Bruch’s membrane; RPE; Advanced glycation endproducts; Ubiquitin carboxyterminal hydrolase-1
To evaluate the accuracy of 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), which served as the reference standard, for the detection of functionally significant coronary artery disease (CAD).
141 consecutive patients (60±10 years, 101 men) were investigated with 64-slice CTA and SPECT MPI; a subset of 35 patients had additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The data from CTA and ICA were compared with those from MPI for both cut-offs of ≥50% and ≥70% stenosis, respectively.
The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CTA, using a cut-off of ≥50% for significant stenosis, in detecting inducible perfusion defects on MPI were 96% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88–100%], 61% (95% CI 52–70%), 37% (95% CI 23–49%), 99% (95% CI 97–100%) and 68%, respectively, in patient-based analysis and 97% (95% CI 91–100%), 86% (95% CI 83–89%), 33% (95% CI 24–42%), 100% (95% CI 99–100%) and 87%, respectively, in vessel-based analysis. Applying a cut-off of ≥70% for significant stenosis, CTA yielded the following sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the detection of inducible MPI defects: by patient, 65% (95% CI 46–84%), 95% (95% CI 91–99%), 74% (95% CI 50–92%), 92% (95% CI 87–97%) and 89%, respectively; by vessel, 58% (95% CI 42–74%), 97% (95% CI 95–99%), 62% (95% CI 45–79%), 97% (95% CI 95–99%) and 95%, respectively.
64-slice CTA is a reliable tool to exclude functionally significant CAD when using a cut-off of ≥50% diameter stenosis. By contrast, a cut-off of ≥70% diameter narrowing is a strong predictor of ischaemia.
The objective of this study was to analyze the safety and results of intra-operative SAN (spinal accessary nerve) monitoring during selective neck dissection, with emphasis on shoulder syndrome. Twenty-five consecutive patients with head and neck cancer were studied. Selective neck dissection was performed by a single clinical fellow under the supervision of the department chief using an intra-operative SAN monitor. Electrophysiological data were recorded after initial identification of the SAN and continued until just before closure. Electromyographic evaluation was carried out to assess SAN function one month postoperatively. Shoulder disability was also evaluated at this time using a questionnaire for shoulder syndrome (shrug, flexion, abduction, winging, and pain). No patients had postoperative shoulder syndrome involving shrug, flexion, abduction, or winging. Twenty-two of the 25 (88%) patients had shoulder pain, but the average pain score was low (2.3 ± 1.3). No patients had neck recurrence during at least 1 year of follow up. By using nerve monitoring during selective neck dissection, no patient developed significant "shoulder syndrome", with the exception of slight pain.
Head and neck; Selective neck dissection; Axonal injury; Spinal accessory nerve; Electrophysiology
Phase relations and solidification behavior in the Ge-rich
of the phase diagram have been determined in two isothermal sections
at 700 and 750 °C and in a liquidus projection. A reaction scheme
has been derived in the form of a Schulz–Scheil diagram. Phase
equilibria are characterized by three ternary compounds: τ1-BaRhGe3 (BaNiSn3-type) and two novel
phases, τ2-Ba3Rh4Ge16 and τ3-Ba5Rh15Ge36-x, both forming in peritectic reactions. The crystal structures of
τ2 and τ3 have been elucidated from
single-crystal X-ray intensity data and were found to crystallize
in unique structure types: Ba3Rh4Ge16 is tetragonal (I4/mmm, a = 0.65643(2) nm, c = 2.20367(8) nm, and RF = 0.0273), whereas atoms in Ba5Rh15Ge36–x (x = 0.25) arrange in a large orthorhombic unit cell (Fddd, a = 0.84570(2) nm, b = 1.4725(2) nm, c = 6.644(3) nm, and RF = 0.034). The body-centered-cubic superstructure of
binary Ba8Ge43□3 was observed
to extend at 800 °C to Ba8Rh0.6Ge43□2.4, while the clathrate type I phase, κI-Ba8RhxGe46–x–y□y, reveals a maximum solubility of x = 1.2
Rh atoms in the structure at a vacancy level of y = 2.0. The cubic lattice parameter increases with increasing Rh
content. Clathrate I decomposes eutectoidally at 740 °C: κI ⇔ (Ge) + κIX + τ2. A very small solubility range is observed at 750 °C for the
clathrate IX, κIX-Ba6RhxGe25–x (x ∼ 0.16). Density functional theory calculations have been
performed to derive the enthalpies of formation and densities of states
for various compositions Ba8RhxGe46–x (x = 0–6).
The physical properties have been investigated for the phases κI, τ1, τ2, and τ3, documenting a change from thermoelectric (κI) to superconducting behavior (τ2). The electrical
resistivity of κI-Ba8Rh1.2Ge42.8□2.0 increases almost linearly with the
temperature from room temperature to 730 K, and the Seebeck coefficient
is negative throughout the same temperature range. τ1-BaRhGe3 has a typical metallic electrical resistivity.
A superconducting transition at TC = 6.5
K was observed for τ2-Ba3Rh4Ge16, whereas τ3-Ba5Rh15Ge35.75 showed metallic-like behavior down to
Phase equilibria in the Ba−Rh−Ge system are
characterized by three ternary cage compounds: τ 1-BaRhGe3 (BaNiSn3-type) and two novel phases
with unique structures, τ 2-Ba3Rh4Ge16 and τ 3-Ba5Rh15Ge36−x, besides κI-Ba8RhxGe46−x−y□y (x ≤ 1.2 and y ≥
2.0). Density functional theory calculations for the enthalpies of
formation and density of states for various compositions Ba8RhxGe46−x (x = 0−6) demonstrate a strong stabilizing
influence of Ge/Rh substitution. The physical properties have been
investigated for κI, τ 1, τ 2, and τ 3, documenting a change from n-type
thermoelectric (κI) to superconducting behavior (τ 2; TC = 6.5 K).
A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil.
1,3-dimethylamylamine; 1,4-dimethylamylamine; geranium (Pelargonium graveolens); liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)
The bacterial loads for gonococcal infections of the pharynx and rectum were determined among men with male sexual partners. The median bacterial load for rectal infections (18,960 copies/swab) was significantly higher than the load for pharyngeal infections (2,100 copies/swab; P = 0.001). Bacterial loads among men with symptomatic proctitis were strikingly high (median, 278,000 copies/swab).
Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings.
Ciliary blood flow; Aqueous humor production; Aqueous humor dynamics; Intraocular pressure
The four ESCRT (endocytic sorting complexes required for transport) complexes (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III) normally operate sequentially in the trafficking of cellular cargo. HIV-1 Gag trafficking and release as virus-like particles (VLPs) require the participation of ESCRTs; however, its use of ESCRTs is selective and nonsequential. Specifically, Gag trafficking to release sites on the plasma membrane does not require ESCRT-0 or -II. It is known that a bypass of ESCRT-0 is achieved by the direct linkage of the ESCRT-I component, Tsg101, to the primary L domain motif (PTAP) in Gag and that bypass of ESCRT-II is achieved by the linkage of Gag to ESCRT-III through the adaptor protein Alix. However, the mechanism by which Gag suppresses the interaction of bound ESCRT-I with ESCRT-II is unknown. Here we show (i) that VLP release requires the steady-state level of Sprouty 2 (Spry2) in COS-1 cells, (ii) that Spry2 binds the ESCRT-II component Eap20, (iii) that binding Eap20 permits Spry2 to disrupt ESCRT-I interaction with ESCRT-II, and (iv) that coexpression of Gag with a Spry2 fragment that binds Eap20 increases VLP release. Spry2 also facilitated release of P7L-Gag (i.e., release in the absence of Tsg101 binding). In this case, rescue required the secondary L domain (YPXnL) in HIV-1 Gag that binds Alix and the region in Spry2 that binds Eap20. The results identify Spry2 as a novel cellular factor that facilitates release driven by the primary and secondary HIV-1 Gag L domains.
The preferential use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in the treatment of head and neck cancer has raised concerns regarding dose to non-target tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare dose-volume characteristics with the brachial plexus between treatment plans generated by IMRT and CRT using several common treatment scenarios.
The brachial plexus was delineated on radiation treatment planning CT scans from 10 patients undergoing IMRT for locally advanced head and neck cancer using a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-endorsed atlas. No brachial plexus constraint was used. For each patient, a conventional three-g0ield shrinking-g0ield plan was generated and the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the brachial plexus was compared with that of the IMRT plan.
The mean irradiated volumes of the brachial plexus using the IMRT vs the CRT plan, respectively, were as follows: V50 (18±5 ml) vs (11±6 ml), p = 0.01; V60 (6±4 ml) vs (3±3 ml), p = 0.02; V66 (3±1 ml) vs (1±1 ml), p = 0.04, V70 (0±1 ml) vs (0±1 ml), p = 0.68. The maximum point dose to the brachial plexus was 68.9 Gy (range 62.3–78.7 Gy) and 66.1 Gy (range 60.2–75.6 Gy) for the IMRT and CRT plans, respectively (p = 0.01).
Dose to the brachial plexus is significantly increased among patients undergoing IMRT compared with CRT for head and neck cancer. Preliminary studies on brachial plexus-sparing IMRT are in progress.