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1.  Intratumoral delivery of CD154 homolog (Ad-ISF35) induces tumor regression: analysis of vector biodistribution, persistence and gene expression 
Cancer gene therapy  2012;19(5):336-344.
Ad-ISF35 is an adenovirus (Ad) vector that encodes a mouse-human chimeric CD154. Ad-ISF35 induces activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells converting them into CLL cells capable of promoting immune recognition and anti-leukemia T-cell activation. Clinical trials in humans treated with Ad-ISF35-transduced leukemia cells or intranodal injection of Ad-ISF35 have shown objective clinical responses. To better understand the biology of Ad-ISF35 and to contribute to its clinical development, we preformed studies to evaluate biodistribution, persistence and toxicity of repeat dose intratumoral administration of Ad-ISF35 in a mouse model. Ad-ISF35 intratumoral administration induced tumor regression in more than 80% of mice bearing A20 tumors. There were no abnormalities in the serum chemistry. Mice receiving Ad-ISF35 presented severe extramedullary hematopoiesis and follicular hyperplasia in the spleen and extramedullary hematopoiesis with lymphoid hyperplasia in lymph nodes. After Ad-ISF35 injection, the vector was found primarily in the injected tumors with a biodistribution pattern that showed a rapid clearance with no evidence of Ad-ISF35 accumulation or persistence in the injected tumor or peripheral organs. Furthermore, pre-existing antibodies against Ad-5 did not abrogate Ad-ISF35 anti-tumor activity. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of Ad-ISF35 induced tumor regression in A20 tumor bearing mice without toxicities and with no evidence of vector accumulation or persistence.
PMCID: PMC4486070  PMID: 22402624
biodistribution; CD154; lymphoma
2.  Resistance to Phosphinothricin (Glufosinate) and Its Utilization as a Nitrogen Source by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1996;62(10):3834-3839.
Wild-type strain 21gr of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was resistant to the ammonium salt of l-phosphinothricin (PPT, also called glufosinate), an irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase activity and the main active component of the herbicide BASTA (AgrEvo, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). Under the same conditions, however, this strain was highly sensitive to l-methionine-S-sulfoximine, a structural analog of PPT which has been reported to be 5 to 10 times less effective than PPT as an inhibitor in plants. Moreover, this alga was able to grow with PPT as the sole nitrogen source when this compound was provided at low concentrations. This utilization of PPT was dependent upon the addition of acetate and light and did not take place in the presence of ammonium. Resistance was due neither to the presence of N-acetyltransferase or transaminase activity nor to the presence of glutamine synthetase isoforms resistant to PPT. By using l-[methyl-(sup14)C]PPT, we demonstrated that resistance is due to lack of PPT transport into the cells. This strongly suggests that PPT and l-methionine-S-sulfoximine enter the cells through different systems. Growth with PPT is supported by its deamination by an l-amino acid oxidase activity which has been previously described to be located at the periplasm.
PMCID: PMC1388965  PMID: 16535427
3.  Single-dose cephalexin therapy for acute bacterial urinary tract infections and acute urethral syndrome with bladder bacteriuria. 
The efficacy of single-dose therapy with 3 g of cephalexin was evaluated in 129 women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. Of 91 patients with significant bacteriuria, 61 (67%) were cured of their original infection; this was similar to the 54 to 79% cure rates reported in unselected populations of women of a wide age range treated for acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections with a single dose of amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (J. Rosenstock, L. P. Smith, M. Gurney, K. Lee, W. G. Weinberg, J. N. Longfield, W. B. Tauber, and W. W. Karney, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:652-654, 1985; N. E. Tolkoff-Rubin, M. E. Wilson, P. Zuromskis, I. Jacoby, A. R. Martin, and R. H. Rubin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:626-629, 1984). The cure rates of (87%) for our younger patients, those less than 25 years of age, was better than that (46%) for our patients over 40 years of age (P less than 0.001). Patients with infections that were negative in an antibody-coated bacteria test were cured at a significantly higher rate than those with infections that were positive in an antibody-coated bacteria test (71 versus 19%; P = 0.003). Those patients with infections caused by cephalexin-susceptible organisms were cured at a rate similar to that for patients with infections caused by cephalexin-resistant organisms (68 versus 50%; P = 0.62). The cure rate for suburban patients was 90%, versus 45% for inner-city patients (P = 0.008). Of the 28 women with acute urethral syndrome due to low-level bacteriuria, 27 were cured.
PMCID: PMC180398  PMID: 3717940
4.  Imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. 
Imipenem-cilastatin was evaluated for efficacy and toxicity as an antistaphylococcal agent in 23 patients; 11 of these patients were infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 12 were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). There were 15 soft tissue, 5 endovascular, and 3 skeletal infections and a total of nine patients with bacteremia. As determined by in vitro susceptibility testing, the MICs for 90% of the MRSA and MSSA isolates tested were 6.25 and 0.39 micrograms/ml, respectively. Two MRSA isolates were resistant to a concentration of greater than 16 micrograms/ml. When 11 MRSA isolates and 7 MSSA isolates were incubated for 48 h the MICs for 90% of the isolates increased to greater than 50 micrograms/ml for the MRSA isolates and 6.25 micrograms/ml for the MSSA isolates. Three S. aureus isolates emerged resistant. Ten of 11 (91%) MRSA infections and 11 of 12 (92%) MSSA infections were clinically cured. Adverse reactions occurred in 25% of the imipenemcilastatin-treated patients. These reactions included gastrointestinal intolerance (7% of the patients), rash or pruritis (6%), eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (4%), and a positive, direct Coomb test without hemolysis (3%). One of the two patients for whom therapy was discontinued because of gastrointestinal intolerance had antibiotic-associated colitis. Imipenem appears to be an effective antistaphylococcal agent against both MRSA and MSSA infections.
PMCID: PMC180357  PMID: 3460521
5.  Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1982;150(3):1091-1097.
The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed.
PMCID: PMC216327  PMID: 6978883
6.  Chemoimmunotherapy of advanced breast cancer: prolongation of remission and survival with BCG. 
British Medical Journal  1976;2(6046):1222-1225.
Forty-five patients with disseminated breast cancer were given a trial of combination chemotherapy consisting of fluorouracil, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) and immunotherapy with BCG given by scarification. The results were compared with those in a comparable group of 44 patients treated with FAC alone immediately before the chemoimmunotherapy study. The remission rates (73% and 76% for FAC and FAC-BCG respectively) were similar in both studies. The durations of remission for patients on FAC-BCG (medium 12 months) were longer than remissions achieved for patients given FAC alone (median 8 months) (P = 0.068). The most notable effect of BCG was on survival. Thus 21 out of 34 patients achieving remission on FAC-BCG were alive at the time of the last follow-up examination (median over 22 months) compared with 11 out of 32 patients achieving remission on FAC (median 15 months) (P = 0.01). Twenty-six of the 45 patients given FAC-BCG were alive at the time of the last follow-up examination (median over 22 months) compared with 12 of the 44 patients given FAC (median 15 months) (P = 0.005). Although the apparent benefit of BCG could be explained by a maldistribution of some prognostic factors, the data suggest that further trial of chemoimmunotherapy of breast cancer should be carried out.
PMCID: PMC1689748  PMID: 791447
7.  Role of molybdenum in dinitrogen fixation by Clostridium pasteurianum. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1975;123(3):978-984.
The role of Mo in the activity and synthesis of the nitrogenase components of Clostridium pasteurianum has been studied by observing the competition of Mo with its structural analogue W. Clostridial cells when fixing N2 appeared strictly dependent upon the available Mo, showing maximal N2-fixing activity at molybdate concentrations in the media of 10 muM. Cells grown in media with 3 times 10(-6) muM Mo, although showing good growth, had only 15% as much N2-fixing activity. In the presence of W the synthesis of both nitrogenase components, molybdoferredoxin and azoferredoxin, was affected. Attempts to produce nitrogenase in W-grown cells by addition of high molybdenum to the media in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis showed that Mo incorporation into a possible inactive preformed apoenzyme did not occur. Unlike other molybdoenzyme-containing cells, in which W either is incorporated in place of Mo to yield inactive protein or initiates the production of apoprotein, C. pasteurianum forms neither a tungsten substituted molybdoferredoxin nor an apoprotein. It is concluded that in C. pasteurianum molybdenum is an essential requirement for both the biosynthesis and activity of its nitrogenase.
PMCID: PMC235822  PMID: 1158853

Results 1-7 (7)