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1.  European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis: Overview and introduction to the full Supplement publication 
von Karsa, L. | Patnick, J. | Segnan, N. | Atkin, W. | Halloran, S. | Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I. | Malila, N. | Minozzi, S. | Moss, S. | Quirke, P. | Steele, R. J. | Vieth, M. | Aabakken, L. | Altenhofen, L. | Ancelle-Park, R. | Antoljak, N. | Anttila, A. | Armaroli, P. | Arrossi, S. | Austoker, J. | Banzi, R. | Bellisario, C. | Blom, J. | Brenner, H. | Bretthauer, M. | Camargo Cancela, M. | Costamagna, G. | Cuzick, J. | Dai, M. | Daniel, J. | Dekker, E. | Delicata, N. | Ducarroz, S. | Erfkamp, H. | Espinàs, J. A. | Faivre, J. | Faulds Wood, L. | Flugelman, A. | Frkovic-Grazio, S. | Geller, B. | Giordano, L. | Grazzini, G. | Green, J. | Hamashima, C. | Herrmann, C. | Hewitson, P. | Hoff, G. | Holten, I. | Jover, R. | Kaminski, M. F. | Kuipers, E. J. | Kurtinaitis, J. | Lambert, R. | Launoy, G. | Lee, W. | Leicester, R. | Leja, M. | Lieberman, D. | Lignini, T. | Lucas, E. | Lynge, E. | Mádai, S. | Marinho, J. | Maučec Zakotnik, J. | Minoli, G. | Monk, C. | Morais, A. | Muwonge, R. | Nadel, M. | Neamtiu, L. | Peris Tuser, M. | Pignone, M. | Pox, C. | Primic-Zakelj, M. | Psaila, J. | Rabeneck, L. | Ransohoff, D. | Rasmussen, M. | Regula, J. | Ren, J. | Rennert, G. | Rey, J. | Riddell, R. H. | Risio, M. | Rodrigues, V. | Saito, H. | Sauvaget, C. | Scharpantgen, A. | Schmiegel, W. | Senore, C. | Siddiqi, M. | Sighoko, D. | Smith, R. | Smith, S. | Suchanek, S. | Suonio, E. | Tong, W. | Törnberg, S. | Van Cutsem, E. | Vignatelli, L. | Villain, P. | Voti, L. | Watanabe, H. | Watson, J. | Winawer, S. | Young, G. | Zaksas, V. | Zappa, M. | Valori, R.
Endoscopy  2012;45(1):51-59.
Population-based screening for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) and precursor lesions, using evidence-based methods, can be effective in populations with a significant burden of the disease provided the services are of high quality. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in CRC screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project co-financed by the European Union. The 450-page guidelines were published in book format by the European Commission in 2010.They include 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, individually graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. Adoption of the recommendations can improve and maintain the quality and effectiveness of an entire screening process, including identification and invitation of the target population, diagnosis and management of the disease and appropriate surveillance in people with detected lesions. To make the principles, recommendations and standards in the guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community and to facilitate their use in the scientific literature, the original content is presented in journal format in an open-access Supplement of Endoscopy. The editors have prepared the present overview to inform readers of the comprehensive scope and content of the guidelines.
PMCID: PMC4482205  PMID: 23212726
2.  Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects 
Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare.
Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations.
Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analyzed the treatment results in relation to the etiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion, and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication/pharmacology.
Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct etiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g., more acoustic stimulation) are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being possibly more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics). The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication/pharmacology is the main etiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the causative substance or medication.
Conclusion: Treatments for musical hallucinations tend to yield favorable results when they target the main etiological factor of these phenomena. There is a need to establish the natural course of musical hallucinations, their response to non-pharmacological treatments, and their effects on the patient's quality of life. There is also a need to standardize the assessment of treatment responses, and document long-term follow up.
PMCID: PMC4468361  PMID: 26136708
Auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome; auditory hallucination; brain lesion; epilepsy; intoxication/pharmacology; psychiatric disorder
3.  Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium 
Milne, Roger L. | Burwinkel, Barbara | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio | Zamora, M. Pilar | Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva | Hardisson, David | Mendiola, Marta | González-Neira, Anna | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, M. Rosario | Dennis, Joe | Wang, Qin | Bolla, Manjeet K. | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nick | Schoemaker, Minouk | Ko, Yon-Dschun | Brauch, Hiltrud | Hamann, Ute | Andrulis, Irene L. | Knight, Julia A. | Glendon, Gord | Tchatchou, Sandrine | Matsuo, Keitaro | Ito, Hidemi | Iwata, Hiroji | Tajima, Kazuo | Li, Jingmei | Brand, Judith S. | Brenner, Hermann | Dieffenbach, Aida Karina | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Lambrechts, Diether | Peuteman, Gilian | Christiaens, Marie-Rose | Smeets, Ann | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna | Durda, Katazyna | Hartman, Mikael | Hui, Miao | Yen Lim, Wei | Wan Chan, Ching | Marme, Federick | Yang, Rongxi | Bugert, Peter | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | García-Closas, Montserrat | Chanock, Stephen J. | Lissowska, Jolanta | Figueroa, Jonine D. | Bojesen, Stig E. | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Flyger, Henrik | Hooning, Maartje J. | Kriege, Mieke | van den Ouweland, Ans M.W. | Koppert, Linetta B. | Fletcher, Olivia | Johnson, Nichola | dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel | Peto, Julian | Zheng, Wei | Deming-Halverson, Sandra | Shrubsole, Martha J. | Long, Jirong | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Rudolph, Anja | Seibold, Petra | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Cox, Angela | Cross, Simon S. | Reed, Malcolm W.R. | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Broeks, Annegien | Cornelissen, Sten | Braaf, Linde | Kang, Daehee | Choi, Ji-Yeob | Park, Sue K. | Noh, Dong-Young | Simard, Jacques | Dumont, Martine | Goldberg, Mark S. | Labrèche, France | Fasching, Peter A. | Hein, Alexander | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Azzollini, Jacopo | Barile, Monica | Sawyer, Elinor | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael | Miller, Nicola | Hopper, John L. | Schmidt, Daniel F. | Makalic, Enes | Southey, Melissa C. | Hwang Teo, Soo | Har Yip, Cheng | Sivanandan, Kavitta | Tay, Wan-Ting | Shen, Chen-Yang | Hsiung, Chia-Ni | Yu, Jyh-Cherng | Hou, Ming-Feng | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Therese | Sanchez, Marie | Mulot, Claire | Blot, William | Cai, Qiuyin | Nevanlinna, Heli | Muranen, Taru A. | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blomqvist, Carl | Wu, Anna H. | Tseng, Chiu-Chen | Van Den Berg, David | Stram, Daniel O. | Bogdanova, Natalia | Dörk, Thilo | Muir, Kenneth | Lophatananon, Artitaya | Stewart-Brown, Sarah | Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M. | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Lu, Wei | Gao, Yu-Tang | Zhang, Ben | Couch, Fergus J. | Toland, Amanda E. | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | McKay, James | Wang, Xianshu | Olson, Janet E. | Vachon, Celine | Purrington, Kristen | Severi, Gianluca | Baglietto, Laura | Haiman, Christopher A. | Henderson, Brian E. | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Devilee, Peter | Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M. | Seynaeve, Caroline | Czene, Kamila | Eriksson, Mikael | Humphreys, Keith | Darabi, Hatef | Ahmed, Shahana | Shah, Mitul | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Hall, Per | Giles, Graham G. | Benítez, Javier | Dunning, Alison M. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Easton, Douglas F. | Berchuck, Andrew | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Olama, Ali Amin Al | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Benlloch, Sara | Antoniou, Antonis | McGuffog, Lesley | Offit, Ken | Lee, Andrew | Dicks, Ed | Luccarini, Craig | Tessier, Daniel C. | Bacot, Francois | Vincent, Daniel | LaBoissière, Sylvie | Robidoux, Frederic | Nielsen, Sune F. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Windebank, Sharon A. | Hilker, Christopher A. | Meyer, Jeffrey | Angelakos, Maggie | Maskiell, Judi | van der Schoot, Ellen | Rutgers, Emiel | Verhoef, Senno | Hogervorst, Frans | Boonyawongviroj, Prat | Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep | Schrauder, Michael | Rübner, Matthias | Oeser, Sonja | Landrith, Silke | Williams, Eileen | Ryder-Mills, Elaine | Sargus, Kara | McInerney, Niall | Colleran, Gabrielle | Rowan, Andrew | Jones, Angela | Sohn, Christof | Schneeweiß, Andeas | Bugert, Peter | Álvarez, Núria | Lacey, James | Wang, Sophia | Ma, Huiyan | Lu, Yani | Deapen, Dennis | Pinder, Rich | Lee, Eunjung | Schumacher, Fred | Horn-Ross, Pam | Reynolds, Peggy | Nelson, David | Ziegler, Hartwig | Wolf, Sonja | Hermann, Volker | Lo, Wing-Yee | Justenhoven, Christina | Baisch, Christian | Fischer, Hans-Peter | Brüning, Thomas | Pesch, Beate | Rabstein, Sylvia | Lotz, Anne | Harth, Volker | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Erkkilä, Irja | Aaltonen, Kirsimari | von Smitten, Karl | Antonenkova, Natalia | Hillemanns, Peter | Christiansen, Hans | Myöhänen, Eija | Kemiläinen, Helena | Thorne, Heather | Niedermayr, Eveline | Bowtell, D | Chenevix-Trench, G | deFazio, A | Gertig, D | Green, A | Webb, P | Green, A. | Parsons, P. | Hayward, N. | Webb, P. | Whiteman, D. | Fung, Annie | Yashiki, June | Peuteman, Gilian | Smeets, Dominiek | Brussel, Thomas Van | Corthouts, Kathleen | Obi, Nadia | Heinz, Judith | Behrens, Sabine | Eilber, Ursula | Celik, Muhabbet | Olchers, Til | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Scuvera, Giulietta | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Bonanni, Bernardo | Feroce, Irene | Maniscalco, Angela | Rossi, Alessandra | Bernard, Loris | Tranchant, Martine | Valois, Marie-France | Turgeon, Annie | Heguy, Lea | Sze Yee, Phuah | Kang, Peter | Nee, Kang In | Mariapun, Shivaani | Sook-Yee, Yoon | Lee, Daphne | Ching, Teh Yew | Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd | Otsukka, Meeri | Mononen, Kari | Selander, Teresa | Weerasooriya, Nayana | staff, OFBCR | Krol-Warmerdam, E. | Molenaar, J. | Blom, J. | Brinton, Louise | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila | Peplonska, Beata | Zatonski, Witold | Chao, Pei | Stagner, Michael | Bos, Petra | Blom, Jannet | Crepin, Ellen | Nieuwlaat, Anja | Heemskerk, Annette | Higham, Sue | Cross, Simon | Cramp, Helen | Connley, Dan | Balasubramanian, Sabapathy | Brock, Ian | Luccarini, Craig | Conroy, Don | Baynes, Caroline | Chua, Kimberley
Human Molecular Genetics  2014;23(22):6096-6111.
Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
PMCID: PMC4204770  PMID: 24943594
5.  Characteristics of the child behavior checklist in adolescents with depression associated with bipolar disorder 
Journal of affective disorders  2012;145(3):405-408.
The child behavior checklist-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype (CBCL-JBD) has been proposed as a distinct profile specific to children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The objective of this study was to examine whether bipolar disorder youth with depression exhibit the “CBCL-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype.”
Thirty-two adolescents, ages 12–18 years, with a depressive episode associated with bipolar I disorder were recruited, and their primary caregivers completed the CBCL.
Only the internalizing subscale (mean=70.2, SD=9.7) and total score (mean=71.5, SD=8.9) reached clinical significance (>70). Moreover, the CBCL-JBD profile scores of our subjects (204.6, SD=27.5) did not reach clinical significance (>210).
Our subjects differed demographically from those in studies that have confirmed the CBCL-Juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype with regards to sex, age and ADHD comorbidity, thus limiting the interpretability of our comparisons with other studies. Furthermore, our investigation involved a small sample size and did not include a control group, which should be addressed in future studies.
The results of our study suggest that the CBCL-JBD profile is not characteristic of depressed youth with bipolar disorder. Better assessment tools for making an accurate and efficient diagnosis of bipolar disorder are needed so that appropriate treatment can be implemented and significant morbidity and mortality are minimized.
PMCID: PMC3626494  PMID: 22884238
Pediatric bipolar disorder; Bipolar depression; CBCL; CBCL-JBD
6.  Application of Acoustic Emission on the Characterization of Fracture in Textile Reinforced Cement Laminates 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:178020.
This work studies the acoustic emission (AE) behavior of textile reinforced cementitious (TRC) composites under flexural loading. The main objective is to link specific AE parameters to the fracture mechanisms that are successively dominating the failure of this laminated material. At relatively low load, fracture is initiated by matrix cracking while, at the moment of peak load and thereafter, the fiber pull-out stage is reached. Stress modeling of the material under bending reveals that initiation of shear phenomena can also be activated depending on the shape (curvature) of the plate specimens. Preliminary results show that AE waveform parameters like frequency and energy are changing during loading, following the shift of fracturing mechanisms. Additionally, the AE behavior of specimens with different curvature is very indicative of the stress mode confirming the results of modeling. Moreover, AE source location shows the extent of the fracture process zone and its development in relation to the load. It is seen that AE monitoring yields valuable real time information on the fracture of the material and at the same time supplies valuable feedback to the stress modeling.
PMCID: PMC3925552  PMID: 24605050
7.  Changing prediction of mortality by systolic blood pressure with increasing age: the Rotterdam study 
Age  2011;35(2):431-438.
There are indications that in persons of older age, systolic blood pressure (SBP) is no longer associated with mortality. This raises the question whether the predictive value of SBP changes from younger to older age groups. Analysis in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study among 4,612 participants aged ≥55 years without previous cardiovascular disease and with a median follow-up of 14.9 (interquartile range, 11.1–15.8) years. Within four age groups (55–64, 65–74, 75–84, ≥85 years), the predictive value of baseline SBP for mortality was studied. From age 55 to ≥85 years, risk of all-cause mortality associated with SBP ≥160 mmHg decreased from HR 1.7 (95%CI 1.2–2.2) to HR 0.7 (95%CI 0.4–1.1), p for trend <0.001. For participants with SBP 140–159 mmHg, the risk decreased from HR 1.2 (95%CI 0.9–1.5) to HR 0.7 (95%CI 0.5–1.1), p for trend <0.001. Analyses in the 5-year age groups showed an increased risk with higher SBPs up to age 75 years. After 75 years, a trend towards SBP no longer being associated with an increased mortality risk was seen in our study. These findings need to be considered with recently reported beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in this age group.
PMCID: PMC3592964  PMID: 22170281
Systolic blood pressure; Mortality; Aging; Relative risk
8.  Tumour characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer patients carrying the germline CHEK2*1100delC variant 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2004;41(10):731-735.
Background: The germline CHEK2*1100delC variant has been associated with breast cancer in multiple case families where involvement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 has been excluded.
Methods: We have investigated the tumour characteristics and prognosis of carriers of this germline variant by means of a prospective cohort study in an unselected cohort of 1084 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer. Data were collected for 34 patients with a germline CHEK2*1100delC mutation and for 102 patients without this mutation, stratified by age and date of diagnosis of the first primary breast cancer (within 1 year).
Results: Carriers developed steroid receptor positive tumours (oestrogen receptor (ER): 91%; progesterone receptor (PR): 81%) more frequently than non-carriers (ER: 69%; PR: 53%; p = 0.04). Mutation carriers more frequently had a female first or second degree relative with breast cancer (p = 0.03), or had any first or second degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer (p = 0.04). Patients with the CHEK2 variant had a more unfavourable prognosis regarding the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (relative risk (RR) = 5.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67 to 19.65), distant metastasis-free survival (RR = 2.81; 95% CI 1.20 to 6.58), and disease-free survival (RR = 3.86; 95% CI 1.91 to 7.78). As yet, no difference with respect to overall survival has been found at a median follow up of 3.8 years.
Conclusion: We conclude that carrying the CHEK2*1100delC mutation is an adverse prognostic indicator for breast cancer. If independently confirmed by others, intensive surveillance, and possibly preventive measures, should be considered for newly diagnosed breast cancer cases carrying the CHEK2*1100delC variant.
PMCID: PMC1735606  PMID: 15466005
9.  Characterization of a Culturable “Gastrospirillum hominis” (Helicobacter heilmannii) Strain Isolated from Human Gastric Mucosa 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(4):1069-1076.
Spiral organisms were isolated from an antral gastric mucosal biopsy specimen from a dyspeptic patient with gastritis. Only corkscrew-shaped organisms resembling “Gastrospirillum hominis” (“Helicobacter heilmannii”) but no Helicobacter pylori-like organisms were seen in histological sections. H. pylori was not cultured from specimens from this patient. On the basis of biochemical reactions, morphology, ultrastructure, and 16S DNA sequencing, the isolated “G. hominis” was shown to be a true Helicobacter sp. very similar to Helicobacter felis and the “Gastrospirillum” but was separate from H. pylori. “G. hominis” is a pleomorphic gram-negative cork-screw-shaped, motile rod with 3 to 8 coils and a wavelength of about 1 μm. In contrast to H. pylori, it has up to 14 sheathed flagellar uni- or bipolar fibrils but no periplasmic fibrils. “G. hominis” grows under microaerobic conditions at 36 and 41°C on 7% lysed, defibrinated horse blood agar plates within 3 to 7 days and can be subcultured under microaerobic but not under anaerobic conditions on media similar to those used for H. pylori and H. felis. The small translucent colonies were, in contrast to those of H. felis, indistinguishable from those of H. pylori. “G. hominis” is, like H. pylori and H. felis, motile, is oxidase, catalase, nitrite, nitrate, and urease positive, and produces alkaline phosphatase and arginine arylamidase. Like H. pylori and H. felis, it is sensitive to cephalothin (30-μg disc), resistant to nalidixic acid (30-μg disc), and sensitive to most other antibiotics. The 16S DNA sequence clusters “G. hominis” together with “Gastrospirillum,” H. felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salmonii, Helicobacter nemestrinae, Helicobacter acinonychis, and H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC88651  PMID: 10074528
10.  The antileishmanial agent licochalcone A interferes with the function of parasite mitochondria. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1995;39(12):2742-2748.
Our previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, has antileishmanial (M. Chen, S.B. Christensen, J. Blom, E. Lemmich, L. Nadelmann, K. Fich, T.G. Theander, and A. Kharazmi, Antimicrob, Agents Chemother. 37:2550-2556, 1993; M. Chen, S.B. Christensen, T.G. Theander, and A. Khrazmi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1339-1344, 1994) and antimalarial (M. Chen, T.G. Theander, S.B. Christensen, L. Hviid, L. Zhai, and A. Kaharazmi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1470-1475, 1994) activities. We have observed that licochalcone A alters the ultrastructure of the mitochondria of Leishmania promastigotes (Chen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:2550-2556, 1993). The present study was designed to examine this observation further and investigate the mechanism of action of antileishmanial activity of licochalcone A. Electron microscopic studies showed that licochalcone A altered the ultrastructure of Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner without damaging the organelles of macrophages or the phagocytic function of these cells. Studies on the function of the parasite mitochondria showed that licochalcone A inhibited the respiration of the parasite by the parasites. Moreover, licochalcone A inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenase. The inhibition of the activity of the parasite mitochondrial enzyme correlated well with the changes in the ultrastructure of the mitochondria shown by electron microscopy. These findings demonstrate that licochalcone A alters the ultrastructure and function of the mitochondria of Leishmania parasites.
PMCID: PMC163022  PMID: 8593012
11.  The essential yeast protein MIM44 (encoded by MPI1) is involved in an early step of preprotein translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1993;13(12):7364-7371.
The essential yeast gene MPI1 encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein that is possibly involved in protein import into the organelle (A. C. Maarse, J. Blom, L. A. Grivell, and M. Meijer, EMBO J. 11:3619-3628, 1992). For this report, we determined the submitochondrial location of the MPI1 gene product and investigated whether it plays a direct role in the translocation of preproteins. By fractionation of mitochondria, the mature protein of 44 kDa was localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane and therefore termed MIM44. Import of the precursor of MIM44 required a membrane potential across the inner membrane and involved proteolytic processing of the precursor. A preprotein in transit across the mitochondrial membranes was cross-linked to MIM44, whereas preproteins arrested on the mitochondrial surface or fully imported proteins were not cross-linked. When preproteins were arrested at two distinct stages of translocation across the inner membrane, only preproteins at an early stage of translocation could be cross-linked to MIM44. Moreover, solubilized MIM44 was found to interact with in vitro-synthesized preproteins. We conclude that MIM44 is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane import machinery and interacts with preproteins in an early step of translocation.
PMCID: PMC364807  PMID: 8246957
12.  Licochalcone A, a novel antiparasitic agent with potent activity against human pathogenic protozoan species of Leishmania. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1993;37(12):2550-2556.
Licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone isolated from the roots of Chinese licorice plant, inhibited the growth of both Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure of the licochalcone A was established by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and by synthesis, and its purity was verified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The 50% inhibition of growth of logarithmic- and stationary-phase promastigotes of L. major, as measured by [3H]thymidine uptake, were 4 and 2.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. The growth of L. major promastigotes was totally inhibited after a 20-h incubation period with licochalcone A at 5 micrograms/ml. At a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml, licochalcone A markedly reduced the infection rate of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages and U937 cells with L. major promastigotes and exhibited a strong intracellular killing of the parasite. These data show that intracellular Leishmania amastigotes are more susceptible than promastigotes to licochalcone A. Results of studies on the site of action of licochalcone A indicate that the target organelle appears to be the parasite mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that licochalcone A in concentrations that are nontoxic to host cells exhibits a strong antileishmanial activity and that appropriate substituted chalcones might be a new class of antileishmanial drugs.
PMCID: PMC192736  PMID: 8109916
13.  Ultrastructural localization of capsules, cell wall polysaccharide, cell wall proteins, and F antigen in pneumococci. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(8):1890-1896.
The localization of pneumococcal capsular and cell wall antigens was examined by immunoelectron microscopy. C polysaccharide (C-Ps), a common component of all pneumococci, was uniformly distributed on both the inside and outside of the cell walls. The thickness of the C-Ps varied with the strain. Encapsulated strains were covered by varied amounts of capsular polysaccharide concealing the C-Ps of the bacteria so as to render it inaccessible to anti-C-Ps antibodies. In addition to C-Ps, protein antigens were demonstrable on the surface of nonencapsulated pneumococci. The proteins were not masked by the C-Ps layer. An extra layer on the cell walls was conspicuous on electron micrographs of both rough and encapsulated pneumococci. The nature of this extra layer has not been disclosed. F antigen, another common antigen of pneumococci, was uniformly distributed on the surface of the plasma membranes. During the course of the experimental work a reproducible method of gold labeling immunoglobulins was developed.
PMCID: PMC259497  PMID: 3397179
14.  Serological cross-reactions between Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1984;20(6):1036-1043.
The recently discovered mycoplasma species Mycoplasma genitalium was isolated from urethral specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis (Tully et al., Lancet i:1288-1291, 1981). In a previous report (K. Lind, Lancet ii:1158-1159, 1982), prominent serological cross-reactions were demonstrated between this mycoplasma and M. pneumoniae. In the present study, the two mycoplasma species were compared more extensively. In classical mycoplasma medium without thallium acetate, M. genitalium grew more slowly than M. pneumoniae did but finally formed similar amounts of acetic acid and lactic acid from glucose. Although their colonies on solid medium were indistinguishable, transmission electron microscopy showed that the flask-formed cells of M. genitalium (especially their necks) were shorter than those of M. pneumoniae. The two species were distinct since DNA hybridization showed only 1.8% homology in base sequences, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significantly different profiles of the two strains. However, considerable similarities were found in their antigenic reactions in various serological tests. The presence of common or closely related antigens was demonstrated in the two species with rabbit immune sera in complement fixation test with chloroform-methanol-extracted antigens by an indirect immunofluorescence test on microcolonies, and by metabolism inhibition and growth inhibition tests. Cross-reactions were also demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The role of M. genitalium as a human pathogen in the genital tract has not been assessed. If serological tests are to be used in this assessment, caution must be exercised due to the extensive cross-reactions demonstrated. Some of the species-specific antigens which we have demonstrated would be appropriate for use in such tests and would help to circumvent problems caused by cross-reactions.
PMCID: PMC271513  PMID: 6440905
15.  Morphology of cells and hemagglutinogens of Bordetella species: resolution of substructural units in fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;42(1):308-317.
The morphology of cells and the hemagglutinogens isolated from cultures of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella parapertussis were studied by electron microscopy with the negative-staining technique. Cells of all three species had long, thin (3 nm thick), peritrichously arranged fimbriae on the cell surface. Similar structures were found in purified hemagglutinogen preparations together with shorter fimbrial structures 3 nm thick and from 40 to 100 nm long. In one experiment, long, thin fimbriae isolated from B. pertussis were found to be arranged in a crystalline structure on the specimen grid after negative staining. Optical diffraction analysis with a filtering technique performed on micrographs of these structures revealed 12.5-nm-long substructures within individual fimbriae. Further analysis resolved each of these structures into three globules, a central globule 3.5 nm in diameter and two diametrically opposed globules 2.5 nm in diameter. Based on this substructural composition, it is suggested that subunits of the individual fimbriae are connected by fragile regions. The presence of such regions would explain the size heterogeneity of the filamentous structures observed in preparations of hemagglutinogens isolated from cultures of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The concept that the short filamentous structures present in purified preparations of hemagglutinogens originate from the surface fimbriae present on the cells is supported.
PMCID: PMC264559  PMID: 6137457
16.  Tamoxifen retinopathy. 
A 63-year-old female on long-term, high-dose tamoxifen treatment for metastatic breast cancer developed bilateral intraretinal refractile opacities, lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium, and cystoid macular oedema.
PMCID: PMC1039458  PMID: 7225310

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