The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic
This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with
surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were
evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by
The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The
most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all
cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders
that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in
the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were
located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10
cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of
the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas,
radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was
observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used.
Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and
pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%).
It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas
in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain
and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting
the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication.
Foreign-body reaction; Tomography; spiral computed; Thoracic surgery
To describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus.
We retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus.
The most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified.
The most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or craniocaudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms.
Pneumonia, viral; Tomography, X-ray computed; Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype
Silicosis is the most common occupational lung disease worldwide. It leads to respiratory impairment and may have associated infections that decrease pulmonary function. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with chronic silicosis who presented with hemoptysis and a cavitated conglomerate mass. The final diagnosis was silicotuberculosis.
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of small calculi in the alveolar space. The authors report a case of a 21-year-old man with a 2-year history of shortness of breath on exertion and dry cough. Physical examination was altered only for crackles at auscultation. Pulmonary function revealed a mild restrictive ventilatory defect and the chest radiograph demonstrated paracardiac confluence of dense micronodular infiltrate. High-resolution CT scan revealed diffuse ground glass attenuation and septal thickening, more pronounced in lower pulmonary regions, with calcifications along the interlobar septa and subpleural regions. A transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM.
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma remains one of the most enigmatic lung cancers, demonstrating varied growth patterns, mixed histological features, and confusing clinical manifestations. This paper reports a case of an unusual form of presentation: a sclerosing type associated with desmoplastic reaction and cicatrization. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with persistent dry cough and progressive dyspnea. Physical examination showed bilateral inspiratory crackles. A chest radiograph and high-resolution computed tomography demonstrated confluent airspace nodules, forming areas of consolidation in both lungs, with signs of architectural distortion. The lung biopsy revealed a nonmucinous sclerosing bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
We describe the case of a 45-year-old male with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and spontaneous pneumothorax. The patient presented to the hospital with sudden and intense chest pain accompanied by dyspnea and had a six-month history of dry cough, weight loss, and progressive dyspnea on exertion. Chest X-ray showed a small right pneumothorax, bilateral nonhomogeneous opacities, and emphysematous areas in the lung base. Chest computed tomography showed consolidation in both lungs, with architectural distortion, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, and emphysema, in addition to the right pneumothorax. A lung biopsy revealed yeast consistent with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. No drainage was needed, and the lung was re-expanded. The patient was treated with antifungal drugs, showed mild improvement, and was referred to outpatient care.
We describe the case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in a 34-year-old asymptomatic man who presented with a pulmonary nodule apparent by chest radiography and computed tomography (CT). He had a history of previous treatment for tuberculosis. His laboratory data were normal. Bronchoscopy and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology were inconclusive. The diagnosis was revealed after the histopathological examination of an open lung biopsy.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy that arises from calcitonin-producing C-cells and frequently metastasizes to lymph nodes in the neck. Distant metastases may involve bone, lung, and liver. The infrequent number of cases limits the clinical nature and ability to optimize diagnostic tools. Here, we present a case of a micronodular radiographic pattern in metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in order to enhance awareness of the disease process. A case discussion and relevant review of the literature are provided.
Colorectal cancer is extremely rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a five-month history of weight loss and anorexia, associated with vomiting episodes, dizziness, fatigue, and dyspnea. On physical examination, a palpable abdominal mass was noticed on the right hypochondrium and flank. An imaging study was performed, which showed a solid mass on the right colon. The patient underwent incisional surgical biopsy, and subsequent histopathologic analysis revealed a colon mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Extramedullary hematopoiesis is characterized by the presence of hematopoietic tissue outside of the bone marrow and is typically associated with chronic hemolytic anemias. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis is a rare and usually asymptomatic condition. The authors report a case of a 57-year-old man with intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis and hereditary spherocytosis. Clinical and laboratory evaluation, together with radiological findings, are described. The diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by tissue biopsy.
The authors describe a case of a 31-year-old female with tuberous sclerosis, a genetic, rare, variably expressed disease. Clinical symptoms were chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed bilateral, diffuse, small thin-walled cysts scattered throughout the lungs characteristic for pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed enlarged, heterogeneous kidneys, with low density tumors corresponding to angiomyolipomas. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and bilateral renal angiomyolipomas are some presentations of tuberous sclerosis and the coexistence of both conditions may cause devastating morbidity and mortality.