Wrinkling has become a well developed bottom-up technique to make artificial surface textures in about the last decade. However, application of the optical properties of long range ordered wrinkles has been limited to one dimensional gratings to date. We report the demonstration of macroscopic optical focusing using wrinkled membranes, in which concentric wrinkle rings on a gold-PDMS bilayer membrane convert collimated illuminations to diffraction-free focused beams. Beam diameters of 300–400 μm have been observed in the visible range, which are dominantly limited by the eccentricity of the current devices. Based upon agreement between theoretical and experimental results on eccentricity effects, we predict a decrease of the beam diameter to no more than around 50 μm, if eccentricity is eliminated.
The tetrazolium salts (MTT, XTT, MTS, WST) based colorimetric assay or resazurin based fluorimetric assay are currently typical methods for cell sensitivity determination to anticancer compounds. We presented here a new rapid method for this purpose. This method uses a fluorescent dye named DCFH-DA which is previously taken as a intracellular probe for measurement of H2O2 levels within a cell. The application basis for this method lies in two facts: the membrane permeable feature of the final metabolite of DCFH-DA inside a cell, and the linearity relationship between cell number and H2O2 level. The results showed that there was a perfect association between cell number and fluorescent intensity determined by the DCFH-DA method, no matter whether using resuspended or adherent cells, and further 50% concentration of inhibition (IC50) comparison between data obtained by DCFH-DA method or MTT method using a positive known anticancer compound Baicalin showed that there were no significant differences in cellular sensitivity determination to compound Baicalin though there existed a relatively higher coefficient of variation of IC50 by the DCFH-DA method than that by the MTT method. Thus our data indicate that DCFH-DA might not only be a fine reagent for determination of H2O2 levels in cells but also an ideal fluorescent dye for cellular sensitivity test of anti-cancer compounds, and may be suitable for primary high-throughput drugs screening.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10616-011-9423-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
DCFH-DA; MTT; Anti-cancer compound; Cell sensitivity; Baicalin
Some syphilis patients remain in a serologically active state after the recommended therapy. We currently know too little about the characteristics of this serological response.
We conducted a cohort study using the clinical database from Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College of Xiamen. In total, 1,327 HIV-negative patients with primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis were enrolled. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to identify factors associated with a serological cure and serofast state in syphilis patients one year after therapy. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences in the serological cure rate across different therapy time points.
One year after the recommended therapy, 870 patients achieved a serological cure, and 457 patients (34.4%) remained in the serofast state. The serological cure rate increased only within the first 6 months. The bivariate analysis indicated that male or younger patients had a higher likelihood of a serological cure than female or older patients. Having a baseline titre ≤1∶2 or ≥1∶64 was associated with an increased likelihood of a serological cure. The serological cure rate decreased for the different disease stages in the order of primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis. A distinction should be drawn between early and late syphilis. The multivariate analysis indicated that a serological cure was significantly associated with the disease phase, gender, age, and baseline rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre.
The serofast state is common in clinical work. After one year of the recommended therapy, quite a few syphilis patients remained RPR positive. The primary endpoint of the study indicated that disease phase, gender, age and baseline RPR titre were crucial factors associated with a serological cure.
Sp100 isoforms differentially regulate a CMV-promoter–regulated transcription site, which can be visualized in single cells. Sp100A promotes decondensation and increases lysine acetylation. However, it cannot overcome Daxx- and ATRX-mediated repression, indicating that PML-NB/ND10 factors function within a regulatory hierarchy.
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs)/nuclear domain 10s (ND10s) are nuclear structures that contain many transcriptional and chromatin regulatory factors. One of these, Sp100, is expressed from a single-copy gene and spliced into four isoforms (A, B, C, and HMG), which differentially regulate transcription. Here we evaluate Sp100 function in single cells using an inducible cytomegalovirus-promoter–regulated transgene, visualized as a chromatinized transcription site. Sp100A is the isoform most strongly recruited to the transgene array, and it significantly increases chromatin decondensation. However, Sp100A cannot overcome Daxx- and α-thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked (ATRX)–mediated transcriptional repression, which indicates that PML-NB/ND10 factors function within a regulatory hierarchy. Sp100A increases and Sp100B, which contains a SAND domain, decreases acetyl-lysine regulatory factor levels at activated sites, suggesting that Sp100 isoforms differentially regulate transcription by modulating lysine acetylation. In contrast to Daxx, ATRX, and PML, Sp100 is recruited to activated arrays in cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0, which degrades all Sp100 isoforms except unsumoylated Sp100A. The recruitment Sp100A(K297R), which cannot be sumoylated, further suggests that sumoylation plays an important role in regulating Sp100 isoform levels at transcription sites. This study provides insight into the ways in which viruses may modulate Sp100 to promote their replication cycles.
Cross-presentation is an important mechanism by which exogenous tumor antigens are presented to elicit immunity. Since neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3 (P3) expression is increased in myeloid leukemia, we investigated whether NE and P3 are cross-presented by dendritic cells (DC) and B-cells, and whether the NE and P3 source determines immune outcomes. We show that NE and P3 are elevated in leukemia patient serum and that levels correlate with remission status. We demonstrate cellular uptake of NE and P3 into lysosomes, ubiquitination and proteasome processing for cross-presentation. Using anti-PR1/HLA-A2 monoclonal antibody, we provide direct evidence that B-cells cross-present soluble and leukemia-associated NE and P3, while DCs cross-present only leukemia-associated NE and P3. Cross-presentation occurred at early time points but was not associated with DC or B-cell activation, suggesting that NE and P3 cross-presentation may favor tolerance. Furthermore, we show aberrant subcellular localization of NE and P3 in leukemia blasts to compartments that share common elements of the classical MHC class I antigen-presenting pathway, which may facilitate cross-presentation. Our data demonstrate distinct mechanisms for cross-presentation of soluble and cell-associated NE and P3, which may be valuable in understanding immunity to PR1 in leukemia.
neutrophil elastase; proteinase 3; cross-presentation; leukemia; PR1; myeloid
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme involved in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a newly discovered member of the peroxidase family that is mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and has structural characteristics and biological activity similar to those of MPO. Our specific aims were to explore the effects of VPO1 on endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that ox-LDL induced endothelial cell apoptosis and the expression of VPO1 in endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner concomitant with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generation, and up-regulated protein expression of the NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. All these effects of ox-LDL were inhibited by VPO1 gene silencing and NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit gene silencing or by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or diphenyliodonium. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, but had no effect on intracellular ROS and HOCl generation or the expression of NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit or VPO1. Collectively, these findings suggest for the first time that VPO1 plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and that there is a positive feedback loop between VPO1/HOCl and the now-accepted dogma that the NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK/caspase-3 pathway is involved in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.
VPO1; MPO; NADPH oxidase; Apoptosis; Endothelial cells; Free radicals
Previous research has revealed that Wnt10b activates canonical Wnt signaling, which is integral to melanocyte differentiation in hair follicles (HFs). However, the function of Wnt10b in HF melanocytes remains poorly understood. We determined using Dct-LacZ transgenic mice that Wnt10b is mainly expressed near and within melanocytes of the hair bulbs during the anagen stage of the hair cycle. We also found that Wnt10b promotes an increase in melanocyte maturation and pigmentation in the hair bulbs of the mouse HF. To further explore the potential functions of Wnt10b in mouse HF melanocytes, we infected iMC23 cells with Ad-Wnt10b to overexpress Wnt10b. We demonstrated that Wnt10b promotes the differentiation of melanocytes by activating canonical Wnt signaling in melanocytes.
Wnt10b; Wnt/β-catenin signaling; Hair follicle; Melanocyte; Differentiation.
Wnt5a, which is a noncanonical Wnt molecule, has been shown to be involved in a variety of developmental processes and cellular functions. In this study, we used “melan-a” cells as a cell model to investigate the effects of Wnt5a on melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. We infected melan-a cells with recombinant Wnt5a adenoviruses to express Wnt5a protein and to simulate the Wnt5a processing environment. MTT assay and BrdU incorporation assay revealed that Wnt5a significantly inhibited the proliferation of melan-a cells. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity assays showed that Wnt5a was an inhibitor of melanin synthesis. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot showed that this suppressive effect depended on noncanonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway activation and accessed the inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway. The above results provided a novel insight into the role of Wnt5a and its related signaling in melanocyte homeostasis.
Wnt5a; melanocyte; proliferation; melanogenesis; Wnt/Ror2 pathway.
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays an important role in hair cycle induction. Wnt5a is a non-canonical Wnt family member that generally antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling in other systems. In hair follicles, Wnt5a and canonical Wnt are both expressed in cells in the telogen stage. Wnt5a has been shown to be critical for controlling hair cell fate. However, the role that Wnt5a plays in the transition from the telogen to anagen stage is unknown. In this study, using whole-mount in situ hybridization, we show that Wnt5a is produced by several other cell types, excluding dermal papilla cells, throughout the hair cycle. For example, Wnt5a is expressed in bulge and secondary hair germ cells in the telogen stage. Our studies focused on the depilated 8-week-old mouse as a synchronized model of hair growth. Interestingly, overexpression of adenovirus Wnt5a in the dorsal skin of mice led to the elongation of the telogen stage and inhibition of the initiation of the anagen stage. However, following an extended period of time, four pelage hair types grew from hairless skin that was induced by Wnt5a, and the structure of these new hair shafts was normal. Using microarray analysis and quantitative arrays, we showed that the expression of β-catenin and some target genes of canonical Wnt signaling decreased after Wnt5a treatment. These data demonstrate that Wnt5a may inhibit the telogen stage to maintain a quiescent state of the hair follicle.
Wnt5a; Hair growth; Wnt signaling pathway; Hair cycle.
The bipolar spiral ganglion neurons predominantly delaminate from the growing cochlear duct and migrate to Rosenthal’s canal. They project radial fibers to innervate the organ of Corti (type I neurons to inner hair cells, type II neurons to outer hair cells) and also project tonotopically to the cochlear nuclei. The early differentiation of these neurons requires transcription factors to regulate migration, pathfinding and survival. Neurog1 null mice lack formation of neurons. Neurod1 null mice show massive cell death combined with aberrant central and peripheral projections. Prox1 protein is necessary for proper type II neuron process navigation, which is also affected by the neurotrophins Bdnf and Ntf3. Neurotrophin null mutants show specific patterns of neuronal loss along the cochlea but remaining neurons compensate by expanding their target area. All neurotrophin mutants have reduced radial fiber growth proportional to the degree of loss of neurotrophin alleles. This suggests a simple dose response effect of neurotrophin concentration. Keeping overall concentration constant, but misexpressing one neurotrophin under regulatory control of another one results in exuberant fiber growth not only of vestibular fibers to the cochlea but also of spiral ganglion neurons to outer hair cells suggesting different effectiveness of neurotrophins for spiral ganglion neurite growth. Finally, we report here for the first time that losing all neurons in double null mutants affects extension of the cochlear duct and leads to formation of extra rows of outer hair cells in the apex, possibly by disrupting the interaction of the spiral ganglion with the elongating cochlea.
ear; spiral ganglion; development; neuronal survival
Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) plays important role in cell cycle and oncogenic transformation. Here we report the mechanisms by which KLF8 crosstalks with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells proliferation. We show that overexpression of KLF8 and nucleus accumulation of β-catenin in the human HCC samples are positively correlated. More importantly, KLF8 protein levels plus nucleus accumulation of β-catenin levels were significantly elevated in high-grade HCC compared to low-grade HCC. Using HCC HepG2 cells we find that, on the one hand both protein and mRNA of KLF8 are up-regulated under Wnt3a stimulation, on the other hand overexpression of KLF8 increases the cytoplasm and nucleus accumulation of β-catenin, recruits p300 to β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) transcription complex, enhances TOP flash report gene transcription, and induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling target genes c-Myc, cyclin D1 and Axin1 expression. Knockdown of KLF8 using shRNA inhibits Wnt3a induced transcription of TOP flash report gene and expression of c-Myc, cyclin D1 and Axin1. Knockdown of β-catenin by shRNA rescues the enhanced HepG2 and Hep3B cells proliferation ability induced by overexpression of KLF8.
AIM: To investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients presenting with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis.
METHODS: Between 2001 and 2010, we recruited 76 consecutive HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis, without co-existing metastasis from other sites. These patients were divided into three groups: untreated group (n = 22), single treatment group (n = 19), and combined treatment group (n = 35).
RESULTS: Metastasis of bilateral lung lobes was common and noted in 35 patients (46.1%), and most of patients (59/76, 77.6%) presented with multiple lung metastatic nodules. Nineteen patients (25.0%) received single-method treatment, including hepatectomy in 4, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in 6, radiotherapy in 5, and oral sorafenib in 4. Thirty-five patients (46.1%) received combined treatment modalities. The overall median survival of the all patients was 8.7 ± 0.6 mo; 4.1 ± 0.3, 6.3 ± 2.5 and 18.6 ± 3.9 mo, respectively in the untreated group, single treatment group and combined treatment group, respectively, with a significant difference (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh score, the absence or presence of portal vein tumor thrombus, and treatment modality were three independent prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with advanced HCC and concomitant lung metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Combined treatment modalities tend to result in a better survival as compared with the conservative treatment or single treatment modality for HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lung metastasis; Prognosis; Survival; Prognostic factor
Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus.
To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders.
A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test.
One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%). The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%). Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively).
AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders.
Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy; gender; invasive lesion; lung cancer; screening
Activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been proved to reduce damages to the liver in ischemia reperfusion injury. The objective of present study was to determine whether clinic relevant doses of isoflurane treatment could be sufficient to activate HO-1 inducing, which confers protective effect against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.
The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and the median liver lobes of forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were occluded for 60 minutes. Reperfusion was allowed for 4 hours before the animal subjects were sacrificed. Six groups (n = 12) were included in the study. A negative control group received sham operation and positive control group a standard ischemia-reperfusion regimen. The third group was pretreated with isoflurane prior to the ischemia-reperfusion. The fourth group received an HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp) prior to the isoflurane pretreatment and the ischemia-reperfusion. The fifth group received Znpp alone before ischemia-reperfusion procedure, and the sixth group was administrated with a HO-1 inducer hemin prior to IR. HO-1 in the liver was measured using an enzymatic activity assay, a Western blot analysis, as well as immunohistochemical method. Extent of liver damage was estimated by determination of the serum transaminases, liver lipid peroxidation and hepatic histology. Infiltration of the liver by neutrophils was measured using a myeloperoxidase activity assay. TNFα mRNA in the liver was measured using RT-PCR.
Isoflurane pretreatment significantly attenuated the hepatic injuries and inflammatory responses caused by the ischemia reperfusion. Selectively inhibiting HO-1 with ZnPP completed blocked the protective effects of isoflurane. Inducing HO-1 with hemin alone produced protective effects similar in magnitude to that of isoflurane.
Clinic relevant doses of isoflurane attenuate ischemia reperfusion injury in rats by increasing the HO-1 expression and activity.
A prospective study is presented of 87 unstable intertrochanteric fractures treated with the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) with a follow-up of one year. Of the patients 76% were female. The average age was 75.3 years. The fracture was treated by closed reduction and intramedullary fixation. Pre-injury activity level was recovered in 77% of the patients. Fractures united in all patients. Mechanical failure and cut-out were not observed. A technical problem related to the mismatch of the proximal end of the nail was observed in 11 cases. Nine patients presented with thigh pain due to the redundant proximal end of the nail. The results of the PFNA were satisfactory in most elderly Chinese patients. However, the proximal end of the nail was not matched with the specific anatomy of some short elderly patients. Further modifications of the nail are necessary for the elderly Chinese population.
Many microbial pathogens alter expression and/or posttranslational modifications of their surface proteins in response to dynamics within their host microenvironments to retain optimal interactions with their host cells and/or to evade the humoral immune response. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intragranulocytic bacterium that utilizes sialyl Lewis x (sLex)-modified P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 as a receptor for infecting myeloid cells. Bacterial populations that do not rely on this receptor can be obtained through cultivation in sLex-defective cell lines. A. phagocytophilum major surface protein 2 [Msp2(P44)] is encoded by members of a paralogous gene family and is speculated to play roles in host adaptation. We assessed the complement of Msp2(P44) paralogs expressed by A. phagocytophilum during infection of sLex-competent HL-60 cells and two HL-60 cell lines defective for sLex expression. Multiple Msp2(P44) and N-terminally truncated 25- to 27-kDa isoforms having various isoelectric points and electrophoretic mobilities were expressed in each cell line. The complement of expressed msp2(p44) paralogs and the glycosyl residues modifying Msp2(P44) varied considerably among bacterial populations recovered from sLex-competent and -deficient host cells. Thus, loss of host cell sLex expression coincided with both differential expression and glycosylation of A. phagocytophilum Msp2(P44). This reinforces the hypothesis that this bacterium is able to generate a large variety of surface-exposed molecules that could provide great antigenic diversity and result in multiple binding properties.
Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34dim cells. CD34bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34dim cells. Furthermore, CD34bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS.
hair follicle stem cell; stem cell purification; enrichment; surface markers
Objective: To explore clinical and laboratory features and significance of detecting serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in immunoglobulin E (IgE) multiple myeloma. Methods: We reported the clinical findings of a male patient with IgE myeloma and elevated level of serum CA125 and reviewed the literature. Results: Laboratory tests of this patient on admission showed extremely high serum IgE and CA125, a bone marrow aspirate revealed abnormal plasma cells (38.4% of nucleated cells: 16.4% mature and 22% atypical), and in bone marrow biopsy, immunoperoxidase staining showed positive cytoplasmic staining for IgE and κ light chain within the vast majority of plasma cells. Computed tomography (CT) bone scans indicated wedge shape change and compressive fracture of thoracic vertebrae, and emission computed tomography (ECT) discovered multiple punctiform aggregation of radiation in both cervical ribs and spine. The serum IgE and CA125 gradually decreased to normal limits after eight cycles of chemotherapy. This patient is alive well with an 18-month complete remission. Conclusion: We reported the first case of IgE myeloma with elevated level of serum CA125. To further evaluate clinical characteristics and significance of CA125 in IgE myeloma, more cases are needed.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE); Multiple myeloma; Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125)
As an important member of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mainly catalyzes the first two steps in prostanoid synthesis. In mammalian animals, although COX-2 was thought to be rarely expressed in most normal tissues and was usually upregulated in a variety of epithelial tumors and inflammatory reactions, recently it was reported that COX-2 could localize in the epidermis as well as the pilosebaceous unit of the normal human and mouse skin. Until now, the function of COX-2 in normal skin has remained unknown. To investigate the possible roles of COX-2 in normal skin by RT-PCR and immunochemistry, we studied the expression pattern of COX-2 in hair cycle of the normal rat skin. The expression of COX-2 mRNA was detected in normal rat skin sample and was related to the hair follicle cycle. When the hair cycle entered catagen and telogen, COX-2 mRNA transcription in skin increased significantly. Furthermore, the location of COX-2 immunoreactivity showed that COX-2 protein is mainly concentrated in the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit. In the stratified epidermis, the strong COX-2 protein expression was detected in the suprabasal layers of epidermis in anagen and declined in catagen and telogen. In hair follicle, COX-2 protein was obviously expressed in the outer root sheath of the anagen hair follicle, and was barely detectable in catagen as well as telogen. In the sebaceous gland, the COX-2 protein expression became more intense in catagen and telogen, with an increase in sebaceous gland size. Our results suggested that COX-2 was not specific to some abnormal tissues and was indeed involved in the normal physiology of rat skin, such as the differentiation of epidermis, the morphogenesis of the hair follicle, the transformation of hair cycle stages, and the lipid production of the sebaceous gland.
cyclooxygenase-2; pilosebaceous unit; hair cycle; epidermis; sebaceous glands
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiologic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. MSP2(P44), the bacterium's major surface protein, is encoded by a paralogous gene family and has been implicated in a variety of pathobiological processes, including antigenic variation, host adaptation, adhesion, porin activity, and structural integrity. The consensus among several studies performed at the DNA and RNA levels is that a heterogeneous mix of a limited number of msp2(p44) transcripts is expressed by A. phagocytophilum during in vitro cultivation. Such analyses have yet to be extended to the protein level. In this study, we used proteomic and molecular approaches to determine that MSP2(P44)-18 is the predominant if not the only paralog expressed and is modified into multiple 42- to 44-kDa isoforms by A. phagocytophilum strain HGE1 during infection of HL-60 cells. The msp2(p44) expression profile was homogeneous for msp2(p44)-18. Thus, MSP2(P44)-18 may have a fitness advantage in HL-60 cell culture in the absence of selective immune pressure. Several novel 22- to 27-kDa MSP2 isoforms lacking most of the N-terminal conserved region were also identified. A. phagocytophilum MSP2(P44) orthologs expressed by other pathogens in the family Anaplasmataceae are glycosylated. Gas chromatography revealed that recombinant MSP2(P44)-18 is modified by glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, and trace amounts of other glycosyl residues. These data are the first to confirm differential modification of any A. phagocytophilum MSP2(P44) paralog and the first to provide evidence for expression of truncated versions of such proteins.
Metabolism-related liabilities continue to be a major cause of attrition for drug candidates in clinical development. Such problems may arise from the bioactivation of the parent compound to a reactive metabolite capable of modifying biological materials covalently or engaging in redox-cycling reactions leading to the formation of other toxicants. Alternatively, they may result from the formation of a major metabolite with systemic exposure and adverse pharmacological activity. To avert such problems, biotransformation studies are becoming increasingly important in guiding the refinement of a lead series during drug discovery and in characterizing lead candidates prior to clinical evaluation. This article provides an overview of the methods that are used to uncover metabolism-related liabilities in a pre-clinical setting and offers suggestions for reducing such liabilities via the modification of structural features that are used commonly in drug-like molecules.
bioactivation; biotransformation; CYP; drug discovery; glutathione; metabolism
We studied the bioactivity of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the synovial fluid of 12 patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), 8 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 8 normal controls. C57 female mouse T cell proliferation method was used to test the bioactivity of IL-1, and lethality method with L929 cells to test the bioactivity of TNF. The bioactivities of IL-1 and TNF in the synovial fluid from patients with KBD were higher than those in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritis and normal controls, indicating the participation of IL-1 and TNF in the pathogenesis of KBD.