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1.  Effect of doxycycline in patients of moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with stable symptoms 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(4):221-226.
BACKGROUND:
The protease-antiprotease hypothesis proposes that inflammatory cells and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) produce increased levels of proteolytic enzymes (neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]) which contribute to destruction of parenchyma resulting in progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in one second. Doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits MMP enzymes.
OBJECTIVES:
To assess the effect of 4 weeks doxycycline in a dose of 100 mg once a day in patients of moderate to severe COPD with stable symptoms.
METHODS:
In an interventional, randomized, observer-masked, parallel study design, the effect of doxycycline (100 mg once a day for 4 weeks) was assessed in patients of COPD having stable symptoms after a run-in period of 4 weeks. The study participants in reference group did not receive doxycycline. The parameters were pulmonary functions, systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), and medical research council (MRC) dyspnea scale. Use of systemic corticosteroids or antimicrobial agents was not allowed during the study period.
RESULTS:
A total of 61 patients completed the study (31 patients in doxycycline group and 30 patients in reference group). At 4 weeks, the pulmonary functions significantly improved in doxycycline group and the mean reduction in baseline serum CRP was significantly greater in doxycycline group as compared with reference group. There was no significant improvement in MRC dyspnea scale in both groups at 4 weeks.
CONCLUSION:
The anti-inflammatory and MMP-inhibiting property of doxycycline might have contributed to the improvement of parameters in this study.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.84777
PMCID: PMC3183640  PMID: 21977068
Anti-inflammatory; C-reactive protein; doxycycline; dyspnea; matrix metalloproteinase; respiratory function tests
2.  Antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacterial pathogens in postoperative wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India 
Objective:
To find out the most common bacterial pathogens responsible for post-operative wound infection and their antibiotic sensitivity profile.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective, observational study was carried out in patients of postoperative wound infection. Samples from wound discharge were collected using a sterile swab and studied for identification of isolates by Gram stains and culture growth followed by in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar.
Results:
Out of 183 organisms, 126 (68.85%) isolated organisms were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (26.23%), was the predominant organism. S. aureus was sensitive to rifampicin (89.58%), levofloxacin (60.42%), and vancomycin (54.17%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.78%), gatifloxacin (51.35%), and meropenem (51.35%). Escherichia coli was sensitive to levofloxacin (72.41%) and ciprofloxacin (62.07%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (63.16%), levofloxacin (63.16%), gatifloxacin (63.16%), and linezolid (56.52%). Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75%) and linezolid (62.50). Proteus vulgaris was sensitive to ampicillin+sulbactam (57.14%) followed by levofloxacin (50%).
Conclusions:
There is an alarming increase of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in the emergence of VRSA/VISA, meropenem, and third generation cephalosporin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linezolid showing sensitivity against Gram negative bacteria.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.83279
PMCID: PMC3157123  PMID: 21897707
Antibiogram; antibiotic sensitivity; bacterial resistance; gram negative bacteria; gram positive bacteria
3.  Impact of proton pump inhibitors on efficacy of clopidogrel: Review of evidence 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(2):183-186.
Clopidogrel is a prodrug which requires cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP 2C19) enzyme for its conversion to an active thiol metabolite. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibits enzyme CYP 2C19 interfering with the conversion of clopidogrel into its active metabolite. Studies document the possible interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs leading to a decrease in the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. A PubMed/MEDLINE database literature search was carried out and the bibliographies of found articles were checked for other relevant literature. Most retrospective cohort studies and studies using platelet markers found a significant association between PPI use especially omeprazole and decreased efficacy of clopidogrel while few comparative trials using clinical outcomes found no association between the same. Pantoprazole was not associated with the decrease in the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. Patients on dual antiplatelet therapy and/or with a history of gastrointestinal bleed will require gastroprotection in the form of PPIs. In such cases, pantoprazole should be the preferred PPI. Rabeprazole can be used as an alternative.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.77360
PMCID: PMC3081459  PMID: 21572655
Clopidogrel; drug interaction; omeprazole; proton pump inhibitors
4.  Adverse drug reaction profile of oseltamivir in children 
Aim:
To monitor and evaluate the pattern of ADRs to oseltamivir in pediatric population suffering from H1N1 influenza at a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Children offered oseltamivir for treatment and chemoprophylaxis were monitored for adverse events by direct questioning for symptoms and clinical examination on day 5 and day 10. Assessment of neurological events was done by asking the parents or guardians regarding development of specific symptoms. Adverse events obtained were analyzed for severity, causality and age-group wise.
Results:
Out of 191 children (median age, 3 years), 69 (36.1%) developed ADRs. Most common symptoms were vomiting (16.2%) followed by diarrhea (12.0%), ear disorders (8.9%), and insomnia (6.8%). The incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms was 12.6% which were mild-to-moderate on severity scale. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between children less than 1 year and other age groups.
Conclusion:
Oseltamivir is well tolerated in Indian children with suspected or confirmed H1N1 influenza. Our study also indicates safety of oseltamivir in infants.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.81901
PMCID: PMC3127335  PMID: 21772769
Adverse drug reactions; antiviral agent; child; infant; oseltamivir
5.  Adverse drug reactions in inpatients of internal medicine wards at a tertiary care hospital: A prospective cohort study 
Objective:
To find out incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) in patients of internal medicine wards and study various aspects of ADR, e.g., causality, mortality, drugs commonly causing ADR in internal medicine wards of Guru Gobind Singh Hospital, Jamnagar, a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
This was prospective, observational study carried out at Department of Medicine, Shri Meghji Pethraj Shah Medical College attached with Guru Gobind Singh Hospital, a tertiary care teaching hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat over a period of 6 months. For statistical analysis, ADR were analyzed by using Chi-square test.
Results:
Out of total 860 patients admitted, 830 were analyzed as they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 45 (5.42%) patients developed 47 ADR. Among them, 27 (3.25 %) (95% CI, 2.03, 4.47%) patients due to ADR required hospital admission in medicine ward (ADR Ad), 18 (2.17%) (95% CI, 1.17%–3.17%) patients developed ADR while already hospitalized in medicine ward (ADR In). Most of the fatal and life-threatening reactions occurred due to chemotherapeutic agents. Majority of patients discontinued suspected drug and recovered from ADR.
Conclusion:
Fatal and life-threatening adverse reactions reported in the present as well as other studies underline the importance of such studies and need for creating awareness among health professionals about looking for and reporting such reactions.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.77102
PMCID: PMC3117564  PMID: 21701642
Adverse drug reaction; adverse drug reactions; cohort study

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