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1.  Micrometastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer: Detection and staging 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):149-152.
BACKGROUND:
The clinical relevance of bone marrow micrometastasis (BMM) in non–small-cell lung cancer is undetermined, and the value of such analyses in advanced stage patients has not been clearly assessed previously. This study was conducted to estimate the accuracy of both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in micrometastases detection and determine the best site for bone marrow biopsy in order to find micrometastasis.
METHODS:
This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Alzahra University Hospital from September 2008 to June 2009. To evaluate the bone marrow, a 3-cm rib segment and an aspirated specimen from the iliac bone prior to tumor resection were taken. PCR and IHC were performed for each specimen to find micrometastasis.
RESULTS:
Of 41 patients, 14 (34%) were positive for BMM by PCR compared with two positive IHC (4.8%). All BMMs were diagnosed in rib segments, and iliac specimens were all free from metastatic lesion. Our data showed no significant association between variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, side of tumor, involved lobe, smoking, or weight loss and presence of BMM.
CONCLUSION:
PCR could use as a promising method for BMM detection. BMM in a sanctuary site (rib) is not associated with advanced stages of lung cancer. In addition, when predictor variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, smoking, or weight loss are analyzed, no correlation can be found between micrometastasis prevalence and any of those variables.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98848
PMCID: PMC3425047  PMID: 22924073
IHC; lung cancer; micrometastasis; PCR
2.  Titanium elastic nailing versus hip spica cast in treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children 
Background
There is no consensus on treatment of closed femoral-shaft fractures in children. We compared hip spica cast with titanium elastic nailing (TEN) in the treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children.
Materials and methods
Forty-six children, 6–12 years old, with simple femoral-shaft fractures were randomized to receive skeletal traction followed by hip spica cast (n = 23) or TEN (n = 23). Length of hospital stay, time to start walking with aids, time to start independent walking, time absent from school, parent satisfaction, and range of knee motion were compared between the two groups 6 months after injury.
Results
The two groups were similar in background characteristics. Compared with the children treated with spica cast, those treated with TEN had shorter hospital stay (P < 0.001) and took a shorter time to start walking with support or independently (P < 0.001), returned to school sooner (P < 0.001), and had higher parent satisfaction (P = 0.003). Range of knee motion was 138.7 ± 3.4° in the spica cast group and 133.5 ± 13.4° in the TEN group (P = 0.078). Three patients (13.0%) in the spica cast group compared with none in the TEN group had malunion (P = 0.117). Postoperative infection was observed in three patients (13.0%) in the TEN group.
Conclusions
The results showed significant benefits of TEN compared with traction and hip spica cast in the treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children. Further trials with longer follow-ups and comparison of TEN with other methods, such as external fixation, in children’s femoral fractures are warranted.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0128-0
PMCID: PMC3052430  PMID: 21340544
Spica cast; Titanium elastic nailing; Femoral-shaft fracture; Pediatrics
3.  Titanium elastic nailing versus hip spica cast in treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children 
Background
There is no consensus on treatment of closed femoral-shaft fractures in children. We compared hip spica cast with titanium elastic nailing (TEN) in the treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children.
Materials and methods
Forty-six children, 6–12 years old, with simple femoral-shaft fractures were randomized to receive skeletal traction followed by hip spica cast (n = 23) or TEN (n = 23). Length of hospital stay, time to start walking with aids, time to start independent walking, time absent from school, parent satisfaction, and range of knee motion were compared between the two groups 6 months after injury.
Results
The two groups were similar in background characteristics. Compared with the children treated with spica cast, those treated with TEN had shorter hospital stay (P < 0.001) and took a shorter time to start walking with support or independently (P < 0.001), returned to school sooner (P < 0.001), and had higher parent satisfaction (P = 0.003). Range of knee motion was 138.7 ± 3.4° in the spica cast group and 133.5 ± 13.4° in the TEN group (P = 0.078). Three patients (13.0%) in the spica cast group compared with none in the TEN group had malunion (P = 0.117). Postoperative infection was observed in three patients (13.0%) in the TEN group.
Conclusions
The results showed significant benefits of TEN compared with traction and hip spica cast in the treatment of femoral-shaft fractures in children. Further trials with longer follow-ups and comparison of TEN with other methods, such as external fixation, in children’s femoral fractures are warranted.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0128-0
PMCID: PMC3052430  PMID: 21340544
Spica cast; Titanium elastic nailing; Femoral-shaft fracture; Pediatrics

Results 1-3 (3)